Patty Hearst

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Patty Hearst
BornPatricia Campbell Hearst
(1954-02-20) February 20, 1954 (age 59)
San Francisco, California, U.S.
NationalityAmerican
Other namesPatty Hearst
Patricia Hearst Shaw
OccupationHeiress, socialite, actress
Known forBeing taken hostage by the Symbionese Liberation Army and later recruited as a member
Spouse(s)Bernard Shaw
ChildrenLydia Hearst-Shaw
Gillian Hearst-Shaw
ParentsRandolph Apperson Hearst
Catherine Wood Campbell
RelativesWilliam Randolph Hearst (grandfather)
George Hearst (great-grandfather)
Anne Hearst (sister)
Amanda Hearst (niece)
 
  (Redirected from Patty hearst)
Jump to: navigation, search
Patty Hearst
BornPatricia Campbell Hearst
(1954-02-20) February 20, 1954 (age 59)
San Francisco, California, U.S.
NationalityAmerican
Other namesPatty Hearst
Patricia Hearst Shaw
OccupationHeiress, socialite, actress
Known forBeing taken hostage by the Symbionese Liberation Army and later recruited as a member
Spouse(s)Bernard Shaw
ChildrenLydia Hearst-Shaw
Gillian Hearst-Shaw
ParentsRandolph Apperson Hearst
Catherine Wood Campbell
RelativesWilliam Randolph Hearst (grandfather)
George Hearst (great-grandfather)
Anne Hearst (sister)
Amanda Hearst (niece)

Patricia Campbell "Patty" Hearst (born February 20, 1954), now known as Patricia Campbell Hearst Shaw, is an American newspaper heiress, socialite, actress, kidnap victim, and convicted bank robber. Her kidnapping case is held by many as an example of Stockholm syndrome.

The granddaughter of publishing magnate William Randolph Hearst, she gained notoriety in 1974 when she joined the Symbionese Liberation Army after they had kidnapped her. Apprehended after having taken part in a bank heist with other SLA members, Hearst was imprisoned for almost two years before her sentence was commuted by President Jimmy Carter.[1] She was later granted a presidential pardon by President Bill Clinton in his last official act before leaving office.[1][2]

Early life[edit]

Hearst was born in San Francisco, California, the third of five daughters of Randolph Apperson Hearst and Catherine Wood Campbell. She grew up primarily in Hillsborough. She attended Crystal Springs School for Girls in Hillsborough and the Santa Catalina School in Monterey. Among her few close friends she counted Patricia Tobin, whose family founded the Hibernia Bank, a branch of which Hearst would later aid in robbing.

Kidnapping and the SLA[edit]

Patty Hearst yelling commands at bank customers[3]

On February 4, 1974, the 19-year-old Hearst was kidnapped from her Berkeley, California apartment, which she shared with her fiancé Steven Weed, by a left-wing urban guerrilla group called the Symbionese Liberation Army. When the attempt to swap Hearst for jailed SLA members failed, the SLA demanded that the captive's family distribute $70 worth of food to every needy Californian – an operation that would cost an estimated $400 million. In response, Hearst's father arranged the immediate donation of $6 million worth of food to the poor of the Bay Area. After the distribution of food, the SLA refused to release Hearst because they deemed the food to have been of poor quality. (In a subsequent tape recording released to the press, Hearst commented that her father could have done better.) On April 3, 1974, Hearst announced on an audiotape that she had joined the SLA and assumed the name "Tania"[4] (inspired by the nom de guerre of Haydée Tamara Bunke Bider, Che Guevara's comrade).[5] For this reason, she is often referred to as a victim of Stockholm Syndrome.[citation needed]

On April 15, 1974, she was photographed wielding an M1 carbine while robbing the Sunset District branch of the Hibernia Bank at 1450 Noriega Street in San Francisco.[6] Later communications from her were issued under the pseudonym Tania and asserted that she was committed to the goals of the SLA.[7] A warrant was issued for her arrest and in September 1975, she was arrested by the FBI and SFPD in a San Francisco apartment with another SLA member, Wendy Yoshimura. FBI Agent Thomas Padden is credited with their actual arrests.[citation needed]

Trial and imprisonment[edit]

Arrest photo

While being booked into jail, she listed her occupation as "Urban Guerilla" and asked her attorney to relay the following message: "Tell everybody that I'm smiling, that I feel free and strong and I send my greetings and love to all the sisters and brothers out there."[8] However, according to Hearst interviewer Margaret Singer, a noted authority on prisoners of war and other victims, including Maryknoll priests[9] released from the People's Republic of China in the 1950s, this is not unusual in such cases. Singer strongly pleaded for understanding on Hearst's behalf before, during and after the trial. Court-appointed doctor Louis Jolyon West as well as interviewers Drs. Robert Jay Lifton and Martin Theodore Orne agreed. Lifton went so far as to state after a 15-hour interview with Hearst that she was a "classic case," about two weeks being needed for almost all persons undergoing that level of mind control to shuck off a good deal of the "gunk" that has filled the mind, as happened in his opinion with Hearst's case. "If (she) had reacted differently, that would have been suspect" and Hearst was "a rare phenomenon (in a first-world nation)… the first and as far as I know the only victim of a political kidnapping in the United States" were direct quotes from Hearst's autobiography attributed to the doctor. Dr. West firmly asserted that while Donald "Cinque" DeFreeze and other movement members had used a rather coarse version, they did employ the classic Maoist formula for thought control; Hearst was young and apolitical enough to be at extreme risk and, in his professional experience, it would have even broken many experienced soldiers.[10]

In her trial, which commenced on January 15, 1976 (and in her dozens of previous interviews by FBI agents Charles Bates and Lawrence Lawler—any reference to which was not allowed by the presiding judge to be included in the trial), Hearst's attorney F. Lee Bailey claimed that Hearst had been blindfolded, imprisoned in a narrow closet and physically and sexually abused. Hearst's defense claimed that her actions were the result of a concerted brainwashing program.

The prosecution countered with two experts: Dr. Joel Fort, who, unsolicited, had previously offered favorable testimony in paid service to the defense team, which was refused; and Dr. Harry L. Kozol, noted expert on neurological disorders, sex offenders and high-profile mentally ill criminals. He formerly had been the long term doctor for Eugene O'Neill and evaluated the confessed Boston Strangler, Albert DeSalvo, a case defended in 1967 by Bailey. Kozol claimed Hearst was "a rebel in search of a cause" and that the robbery had been "an act of free will."[11] During a pre-trial interview, Hearst accurately described the apartment where the SLA was captured, but neglected to mention the narrow closet where she was allegedly confined. In Kozol’s view, Hearst’s omission confirmed the prosecution’s thesis: returning the embrace of the SLA, she had ceased to be a victim. The rebel had come out of the closet.[12] When Kozol testified, Hearst turned “the dead white color of a fish’s belly,” according to journalist Shana Alexander. "Harry never lost the spirit of the law," Dr. Harold W. Williams, then a psychiatrist at McLean Hospital in Belmont, told The New York Times in 1976, when prosecutors asked Dr. Kozol to examine Hearst. "Harry is very much in personality a lawyer."[13]

Bailey argued that she had been coerced or intimidated into taking part in the bank robbery. However, she refused to give evidence against the other captured SLA members. This was seen as complicity by the prosecution team.

Hearst was convicted of bank robbery on March 20, 1976. She was sentenced to 35 years' imprisonment, but her prison sentence was later commuted to two years by President Jimmy Carter,[1] and Hearst was released from prison on February 1, 1979, having served 22 months. She was granted a full pardon by President Bill Clinton on January 20, 2001.[1][2]

Personal life[edit]

After her release from prison, she married her former bodyguard, Bernard Shaw. She and Shaw have two children, Gillian and Lydia Hearst-Shaw, and reside in Garrison, New York. Hearst has occasionally granted interviews to national media regarding the SLA incidents and taken minor acting parts.

Documentaries about Hearst[edit]

Material produced by Hearst[edit]

Acting roles[edit]

Hearst has dabbled in a career as an actress.

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Dell, Kristina and Myers, Rebecca (n.d.). "The 10 Most Notorious Presidential Pardons – Patty Hearst". Time.com. Retrieved 2011-09-16. 
  2. ^ a b Office of Public Affairs (2001-01-20). "President Clinton's Pardons, January 2001". United States Department of Justice. Retrieved 2008-11-24. 
  3. ^ Lucas, Dean (2007). "Patty Hearst". Famous Pictures Magazine. Retrieved 2007-07-15. 
  4. ^ "Timeline: Guerrilla: The Taking of Patty Hearst". American Experience. 2006-08-08. 
  5. ^ "Cuba honors the remains of 10 Guevara comrades" JOSE LUIS MAGANA. Houston Chronicle. Houston, Tex.: Dec 31, 1998. pg. 24
  6. ^ "The Patty Hearst Kidnapping," The FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation: Famous Cases and Criminals. (Includes photo of Hearst holding weapon.) http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/history/famous-cases/patty-hearst-kidnapping. Accessed August 21. 2013.
  7. ^ 1975 Year in Review: Patty Hearst Jailed-http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1975/Patty-Hearst-Jailed/12305821478075-9/
  8. ^ "Patty's Twisted Journey". Time. 29 September 1975. 
  9. ^ West, Louis Jolyon (29 December 1978). "Psychiatrist pleads for Patty Hearst's release". Eugene Register-Guard. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  10. ^ "[CTRL] Fwd: [MC] Patty Hearst on Joly West & his friends". Mail-archive.com. 1999-01-10. Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  11. ^ Carey, Benedict (2008-09-01). "Harry L. Kozol, Expert in Patty Hearst Trial, Is Dead at 102". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  12. ^ Wilkinson, Francis (2008-12-24). "Harry L. Kozol, born 1908". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  13. ^ Marquard, Brian (2008-08-31). "Harry Kozol, exposed dark side of human character 102". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  14. ^ Guerrilla: The Taking of Patty Hearst on PBS
  15. ^ "Hearst: U.S. needs defense against panic attacks, too". NY Daily News. 2005-10-10. Archived from the original on 2005-10-13. 

External links[edit]