Passiflora edulis

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Passion fruit, Maracujá
Flowers
Ripe purple type from Australia and its cross section
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Malpighiales
Family:Passifloraceae
Genus:Passiflora
Species:P. edulis
Binomial name
Passiflora edulis
Sims, 1818
 
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Passion fruit, Maracujá
Flowers
Ripe purple type from Australia and its cross section
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Malpighiales
Family:Passifloraceae
Genus:Passiflora
Species:P. edulis
Binomial name
Passiflora edulis
Sims, 1818

Passiflora edulis is a vine species of passion flower that is native to Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and northern Argentina (Corrientes and Misiones provinces, among others). Its common names include passion fruit (US), passionfruit (UK and Commonwealth), and purple granadilla (South Africa).

It is cultivated commercially in warmer, frost-free areas for its fruit and is widely grown in Antigua, Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, the Caribbean, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, East Africa, Ecuador, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Panama, Peru, Portugal (Madeira), Puerto Rico, Sri Lanka, South Africa, United States (California, Florida, and Hawaii), Venezuela and Philippines.

The passion fruit is round to oval, either yellow or dark purple at maturity, with a soft to firm, juicy interior filled with numerous seeds.[1] The fruit is both eaten and juiced; passion fruit juice is often added to other fruit juices to enhance the aroma.[2]

Varieties[edit]

Several distinct varieties of passion fruit with clearly differing exterior appearances exist. The bright yellow flavicarpa variety, also known as the Golden Passion Fruit, can grow up to the size of a grapefruit, has a smooth, glossy, light and airy rind, and has been used as a rootstock for the Purple Passion Fruit in Australia.[3] The dark purple edulis variety is smaller than a lemon, though it is less acidic than the yellow passion fruit, and has a richer aroma and flavour.

The purple varieties of the fruit have been found to contain traces of cyanogenic glycosides in the skin.[4]

Uses[edit]

Passion-fruit, (granadilla), purple, raw per 100 g
Purple passionfruit.jpg
A purple passion fruit
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy406 kJ (97 kcal)
Carbohydrates23.38 g
- Sugars11.2 g
- Dietary fiber10.4 g
Fat0.7 g
Protein2.2 g
Vitamin A equiv.64 μg (8%)
- beta-carotene743 μg (7%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.13 mg (11%)
Niacin (vit. B3)1.5 mg (10%)
Vitamin B60.1 mg (8%)
Folate (vit. B9)14 μg (4%)
Choline7.6 mg (2%)
Vitamin C30 mg (36%)
Vitamin K0.7 μg (1%)
Calcium12 mg (1%)
Iron1.6 mg (12%)
Magnesium29 mg (8%)
Phosphorus68 mg (10%)
Potassium348 mg (7%)
Sodium28 mg (2%)
Zinc0.1 mg (1%)
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Passion fruit can be cut in half and the seeds scooped out with a spoon. Lilikoi-flavoured syrup is a popular topping for shave ice. It is used as a desert flavouring for malasadas, cheesecakes, cookies, ice cream and mochi. Passion fruit is also favoured as a jam or jelly, as well as a butter. Lilikoi syrup can also be used to glaze or marinade meat and vegetables.[5] Most passion fruit comes from backyard gardens or is collected from the wild. While it may be found at farmers' markets throughout the islands, fruits are seldom sold in grocery stores.

Nutrition[edit]

Fresh passion fruit contains provitamin A beta carotene, vitamin C (36%), dietary fiber (42%) and iron (12%) in significant quantities as percent of the Daily Value; the vitamin A content converted from provitamin A sources is 25%.[8] Passion fruit juice is a good source of potassium, possibly making the fruit relevant as a nutrient source for lowering risk of high blood pressure.[9] Preliminary research indicated that consuming passion fruit peel may relieve asthma symptoms.[10] One report showed that the fruit pericarp contains lycopene.[11]

Culture[edit]

Passion fruit Flower - the national flower of Paraguay

The Passion fruit is so called because it is one of the many species of Passion Flower. ("Passion Flower" being the literal English translation of the Latin genus name, Passiflora). The name was given by Spanish missionaries to South America as an expository aid while trying to convert the indigenous inhabitants to Christianity.

The flower of the passion fruit is the national flower of Paraguay.

See also[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Boning, Charles R. (2006). Florida's Best Fruiting Plants: Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. p. 168-171. 
  2. ^ "Passiflora edulis Sims". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-06-25. Retrieved 2010-01-07. 
  3. ^ Reynhardt, Debbie (8 February 2003). "Gardening with Debbie Reynhardt". Dispatch Online (Dispatch Media (Pty) Ltd). Retrieved 2006-11-20. 
  4. ^ Chassagne, David; Crouzet, Jean C.; Bayonove, Claude L.; Baumes, Raymond L. (18 December 1996). "Identification and Quantification of Passion Fruit Cyanogenic Glycosides". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 44 (12): 3817. doi:10.1021/jf960381t. 
  5. ^ The Lilikoilicious Cookbook [1]
  6. ^ "Make Choosing Good Food for High Blood Pressure an Easy and Exciting Experience". highbloodpressureinfo.org (Site Build It!). Retrieved 2010-08-13. 
  7. ^ Passion fruit cordial Faluda and Sri Lankan food - TasteSpotting
  8. ^ "Nutrition facts for Passion-fruit, (granadilla), purple, raw, 100 g". USDA Nutrient Data, SR-21. Conde Nast. Retrieved April 2, 2013. 
  9. ^ "Oral administration of purple passion fruit peel extract attenuates blood pressure in female spontaneously hypertensive rats and humans | Industrial Research Ltd". Irl.cri.nz. 2012-07-23. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2007.05.004. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  10. ^ "Passion fruit peel ‘relief’ for asthmatics - Health news - NHS Choices". Nhs.uk. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  11. ^ Mourvaki E, Gizzi E, Rossi R, Rufini S (2005). "Passionflower fruit — a "new" source of lycopene?". J Med Food 8 (1): 104–106. doi:10.1089/jmf.2005.8.104. PMID 15857218. 

External links[edit]