Passiflora edulis

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Passion fruit, Maracujá
Passiflora edulis forma flavicarpa.jpg
Flowers
Passionfruit and cross section.jpg
Fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Malpighiales
Family:Passifloraceae
Genus:Passiflora
Species:P. edulis
Binomial name
Passiflora edulis
Sims, 1818
 
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"Passionfruit" and "Passion fruit" redirect here. For other uses, see Passion fruit (disambiguation)
Passion fruit, Maracujá
Passiflora edulis forma flavicarpa.jpg
Flowers
Passionfruit and cross section.jpg
Fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Malpighiales
Family:Passifloraceae
Genus:Passiflora
Species:P. edulis
Binomial name
Passiflora edulis
Sims, 1818

Passiflora edulis is a vine species of passion flower that is native to Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina. Its common names include passion fruit (US), passionfruit (UK and Commonwealth), and purple granadilla (South Africa).

It is cultivated commercially in tropical and subtropical areas for its sweet, seedy fruit and is widely grown in several countries of South America, Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, Southern Asia, Australia, Hawaii and United States.

The passion fruit is round to oval, either yellow or dark purple at maturity, with a soft to firm, juicy interior filled with numerous seeds.[1][2] The fruit is both eaten and juiced; passion fruit juice is often added to other fruit juices to enhance aroma.[3]

Varieties[edit]

Several distinct varieties of passion fruit with clearly differing exterior appearances exist.[1] The bright yellow flavicarpa variety, also known as the Golden Passion Fruit, can grow up to the size of a grapefruit, has a smooth, glossy, light and airy rind, and has been used as a rootstock for the Purple Passion Fruit in Australia.[1] The dark purple edulis variety is smaller than a lemon, though it is less acidic than the yellow passion fruit, and has a richer aroma and flavour.

Several varieties of passion fruit are rich in polyphenol content,[4][5] and yellow [Note 1] varieties of the fruit were found to contain prunasin and other cyanogenic glycosides in the peel and juice.[7]

Uses[edit]

Passion-fruit, (granadilla), purple, raw per 100 g
Purple passionfruit.jpg
A purple passion fruit
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy406 kJ (97 kcal)
23.38 g
Sugars11.2 g
Dietary fiber10.4 g
0.7 g
2.2 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(8%)
64 μg
(7%)
743 μg
Riboflavin (B2)
(11%)
0.13 mg
Niacin (B3)
(10%)
1.5 mg
Vitamin B6
(8%)
0.1 mg
Folate (B9)
(4%)
14 μg
Choline
(2%)
7.6 mg
Vitamin C
(36%)
30 mg
Vitamin K
(1%)
0.7 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(1%)
12 mg
Iron
(12%)
1.6 mg
Magnesium
(8%)
29 mg
Phosphorus
(10%)
68 mg
Potassium
(7%)
348 mg
Sodium
(2%)
28 mg
Zinc
(1%)
0.1 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Across the world, passion fruit has a variety of uses related to its appealing taste as a whole fruit and juice.[1]

Nutrition[edit]

Fresh passion fruit contains provitamin A beta carotene, vitamin C (36%), dietary fiber (42%) and iron (12%) in significant quantities as percent of the Daily Value; the vitamin A content converted from provitamin A sources is 25%.[13] Passion fruit juice is a good source of potassium, possibly making the fruit relevant as a nutrient source for lowering risk of high blood pressure.[14] Preliminary research indicated that consuming passion fruit peel may relieve asthma symptoms.[15] One report showed that the fruit pericarp contains lycopene.[16]

Culture[edit]

Passion fruit flower - the national flower of Paraguay

The passion fruit is so called because it is one of the many species of passion flower, leading to the English translation of the Latin genus name, Passiflora.[1] The name was given by Spanish missionaries to South America as an expository aid while trying to convert the indigenous inhabitants to Christianity.

The flower of the passion fruit is the national flower of Paraguay.[17]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Specific mention of P. edulis f. flavicarpa juice and peel[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Morton JF (1987). "Passionfruit, p. 320–328; In: Fruits of warm climates". NewCrop, Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture at Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN, USA. Retrieved 1 July 2014. 
  2. ^ Boning, Charles R. (2006). Florida's Best Fruiting Plants: Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. p. 168–171. 
  3. ^ "Passiflora edulis Sims". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-06-25. Retrieved 2010-01-07. 
  4. ^ Talcott ST, Percival SS, Pittet-Moore J, Celoria C (2003). "Phytochemical composition and antioxidant stability of fortified yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis)". J Agric Food Chem 51 (4): 935–41. PMID 12568552. 
  5. ^ Devi Ramaiya S, Bujang JS, Zakaria MH, King WS, Shaffiq Sahrir MA (2013). "Sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in passion fruit (Passiflora) cultivars". J Sci Food Agric 93 (5): 1198–1205. doi:10.1002/jsfa.587. PMID 23027609. 
  6. ^ Chassagne D, Crouzet JC, Bayonove CL, Baumes RL (1996). "Identification and Quantification of Passion Fruit Cyanogenic Glycosides". J Agric Food Chem 44 (12): 3817–3820. doi:10.1021/jf960381t. 
  7. ^ Chassagne D, Crouzet JC, Bayonove CL, Baumes RL (1996). "Identification and Quantification of Passion Fruit Cyanogenic Glycosides". J Agric Food Chem 44 (12): 3817–3820. doi:10.1021/jf960381t. 
  8. ^ Ngotho A (October 30, 2012). "Passion fruit farming the next frontier in agribusiness". The Star, Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved July 16, 2014. 
  9. ^ Passion fruit cordial Faluda and Sri Lankan food - TasteSpotting
  10. ^ http://instagram.com/p/njkOCei_7y/
  11. ^ http://instagram.com/p/njeNfbhMO_/
  12. ^ The Lilikoilicious Cookbook
  13. ^ "Nutrition facts for Passion-fruit, (granadilla), purple, raw, 100 g". USDA Nutrient Data, SR-21. Conde Nast. Retrieved April 2, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Oral administration of purple passion fruit peel extract attenuates blood pressure in female spontaneously hypertensive rats and humans | Industrial Research Ltd". Irl.cri.nz. 2012-07-23. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2007.05.004. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  15. ^ "Passion fruit peel ‘relief’ for asthmatics - Health news - NHS Choices". Nhs.uk. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  16. ^ Mourvaki E, Gizzi E, Rossi R, Rufini S (2005). "Passionflower fruit — a "new" source of lycopene?". J Med Food 8 (1): 104–106. doi:10.1089/jmf.2005.8.104. PMID 15857218. 
  17. ^ "Paraguay: national flower". Paraguay.com. 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2014. 

External links[edit]