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The two main uses of parquetry are as veneer patterns on furniture and block patterns for flooring. Parquet patterns are entirely geometrical and angular—squares, triangles, lozenges. The most popular parquet flooring pattern is herringbone. (The use of curved and natural shapes constitutes marquetry rather than parquetry.)
The word derives from the Old French parchet (the diminutive of parc), literally meaning "a small enclosed space". Large diagonal squares known as parquet de Versailles were introduced in 1684 as parquet de menuiserie ("woodwork parquet") to replace the marble flooring that required constant washing, which tended to rot the joists beneath the floors. Such parquets en lozange were noted by the Swedish architect Daniel Cronström at Versailles and at the Grand Trianon in 1693.
Timber contrasting in color and grain, such as oak, walnut, cherry, lime, pine, maple etc. are sometimes employed, and in the more expensive kinds the richly coloured mahogany and sometimes other tropical hardwoods are also used. While not technically a wood, bamboo is also a popular material for modern floors.
Parquet floors were formerly usually adhered with hot bitumen. Today modern cold adhesives are usually used.
Wood floors may be brushed clean, and mopped when necessary. Upright vacuum cleaners can scratch and wear the surface, as grit particles become embedded in the spinning brushes.
Parquet floors are usually long lasting and require little or no maintenance.
Unstuck blocks are re-glued. Bitumen-glued blocks require use of either hot bitumen or a cold bitumen emulsion, as other glue types do not adhere to bitumen.
Parquet floors are often found in bedrooms and hallways. They are considered better than regular floor tiles since they feel warmer underfoot. However they do little to absorb sounds such as walking, vacuum cleaning and television, which can cause problems in multi-occupancy dwellings.
One of the most famous parquet floors is the one used by the Boston Celtics of the NBA. The original floor, which was installed at the Celtics' original home of Boston Arena in 1946, was moved intact to Boston Garden in 1952 and used there until the team moved to what was then known as FleetCenter in 1995, now known as TD Garden. The floor remained intact and in use until it was cut up and sold as souvenirs in 1999, after the 1998 demolition of Boston Garden. The Celtics today play on a parquet floor inside TD Garden that combines old and new sections. In 2012, Bona AB became the official hardwood floor care sponsor for the NBA
Similar parquet-designed floors were made for the Orlando Magic, Minnesota Timberwolves, Denver Nuggets, and New Jersey Nets. Of the four, only the Magic continue to use a parquet floor (which was transferred to the Amway Center from the Amway Arena); the Nets were the first of those teams to switch to a regular hardwood court (although their old parquet floor continued to be used by the Seton Hall basketball team until 2007), with the Nuggets using their parquet in the latter years of the "rainbow" era (1990–93)[clarification needed] and the Timberwolves installing a new floor at the Target Center for the 2008–09 season. The herringbone parquet was first used by the Toronto Raptors during their SkyDome years, and was revived by the renamed Brooklyn Nets upon moving to the Barclays Center in 2012.
Engineered construction parquetry is mainly industrially fabricated in the form of straight-edged boards, with milled jointing profiles to provide for the interconnecting of the boards. Such manufacturing is the most cost efficient method but leaves an industrial-looking surface. Recently, producers have begun attempting to extend this process beyond mere straight edges, since straight lines generally do not exist in the natural world, and so patterns built without them have a more natural feel.
For instance, some manufacturers have come up with an idea to instead use un-edged planks with wood trunk curvature. This method, although providing a natural looking design has the disadvantage of requiring a large amount of raw material. Lamellae of the forms are scanned by a computer and fitted together to match the forms of the neighboring lamellae. This method, although providing a natural-looking design and efficiently using the raw material, makes this kind of flooring very expensive and beyond the reach of the average consumer.
A method, developed by engineered flooring producer "ESTA parket", is to mill the raw material in predefined amounts according to predefined forms which are inspired by nature, to form a system. The predefined forms are chosen so as to fit together with adjacent boards and adjacent systems, to provide for an infinitely extendable surface covering. This method provides unique nature-inspired aesthetics while being applicable to large-scale production with only moderate costs to the consumer.
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