Physical presence, arrival – The main use is the physical presence of a person, which where that person is not already present refers to the prospect of the physical arrival of that person, especially the visit of a royal or official personage and sometimes as an extension of this usage, a formal "occasion". In astrological usage it refers to the presence of a planet at a point on the zodiac.
Property – A less common and distinct secondary meaning is to refer to a person's material substance, property, or inheritance, including contribution in money.
The term occurs only twice in the Septuagint (2 Maccabees 8:12 and 15:21) in its ordinary meaning of arrival.
The word is used 24 times in the New Testament. Of these, six uses refer to the coming of individuals: Stephanas, Fortunatus, and Achaicus (1Co.16:17), Titus (2Co.7:6 & 7) the physical "presence" of Paul himself (2Co.10:10, Php.1:26, 2:12), and a 7th use to the "coming of the lawless one" (2Thess.2:9). The other seventeen uses refer to the Second Coming of Christ, except the one case in which it refers to the coming of the "Day of God" (2Pe.3:12, see also The Day of the Lord).
The word parousia is found in the following verses: Matthew 24:3, 27, 37, 39; 1 Corinthians 15:23; Hebrews 10:24; 1 Thessalonians 2:19; 3:13; 4:15; 5:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:1, 8, 9; James 5:7, 8; 2 Peter 1:16; 3:4, 12; 1 John 2:28.
The main use in theology is to refer to the second coming of Christ. However Karl Barth considered that category of parousia includes Resurrection Sunday and the Acts 2 Pentecost as well, and therefore that the New Testament parousia is not limited to his final return.
The following Greek-English words may be related to, and can be distinguished from, parousia:
epiphany "appearing": The Greek word epiphaneia was often used by Greeks to describe the glorious manifestation of the gods, and by the Romans as a title for the Emperor.
apocalypse, "revealing", "revelation": To disclose what is invisible.
^James D. G. Dunn The Theology of Paul the Apostle 2006 p. 299. "They themselves are his "hope, joy, and crown of boasting before our Lord Jesus at his coming (parousia)" (2.19). ... The parousia imagery here and in the subsequent passages is probably that of the visit of a high-ranking official or ruler to a "
^LSJ A. presence, of persons, δεσπότου, etc., A.Pers. 169, etc. ; ἀνδρῶν π., = ἄνδρες οἱ παρόντες, E.Alc.606 ; πόλις μείζων τῆς ἡμετέρας π., = ἡμῶν τῶν παρόντων, Th.6.86 ; παρουσίαν μὲν οἶσθα . . φίλων, ὡς οὔτις ἡμῖν ἐστιν, i.e. that we have no friends present to assist us, S.El.948 ; of things, “κακῶν” E.Hec.227, Ar.Th.1049 ; “ἀγαθῶν” Pl.Grg.497e : abs., παρουσίαν ἔχειν, = παρεῖναι, S.Aj.540 ; “τὰ τῆς τύχης . . κοινὰς [ἔχει] τὰς παρουσίας” D.Prooem.39 ; “αὐτὸ τὸ ἀγαθὸν [αἴτιον] τῇ π. τοῖς ἄλλοις τοῦ ἀγαθὰ εἶναι” Arist.EE1217b5, cf. Pl.Phd. 100d, etc.
^Mangina, Joseph L. (2004). "Reconciliation has eschatological force". Karl Barth: theologian of Christian witness. Aldershot: Ashgate. p. 118. ISBN978-0-7546-0458-7. This will occur at Christ's final coming or parousia. Yet Barth expands the category of parousia to include Easter and Pentecost as well; the parousia is not limited to his final return (IV/3, 293 ff.)"
So that you are not lacking in any spiritual gift, as you wait for the revealing of our Lord Jesus Christ, who will sustain you to the end, guiltless in the Day of our Lord Jesus Christ.
—I Corinthians 1:7–8
And to grant rest with us to you who are afflicted, when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with his mighty angels in flaming fire, inflicting vengeance upon those who do not know God and upon those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus. They shall suffer the punishment of eternal destruction from the face of the Lord and from the glory of his might, when he comes on that Day to be glorified in his saints, and to be marvelled at in all who have believed.
—II Thessalonians 1: 7 ff.
You have to suffer various trials so that the genuineness of your faith, more precious than gold that perishes yet refined with fire, may be found to the praise and glory and honour at the revelation of Jesus Christ, whom having not seen you love.