Parkinsonism

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Parkinsonism
Classification and external resources
ICD-10G20-G21
ICD-9332
DiseasesDB24212
MedlinePlus000759
MeSHD020734
 
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Parkinsonism
Classification and external resources
ICD-10G20-G21
ICD-9332
DiseasesDB24212
MedlinePlus000759
MeSHD020734

Parkinsonism (also known as Parkinson's syndrome, atypical Parkinson's, or secondary Parkinson's) is a neurological syndrome characterized by tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, and postural instability.[1] Parkinsonism shares symptoms found in Parkinson's Disease, from which it is named; but parkinsonism is a symptom complex, and differs from Parkinson disease which is a progressive neurodegenerative illness. The underlying causes of parkinsonism are numerous, and diagnosis can be complex.[2][3] The neurodegenerative condition Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common cause of parkinsonism. However, a wide range of other etiologies may lead to a similar set of symptoms, including some toxins, a few metabolic diseases, and a handful of neurological conditions other than Parkinson's.[4]

About 7% of people with parkinsonism have developed their symptoms following treatment with particular medications. Side effect of medications, mainly neuroleptic antipsychotics especially the phenothiazines (such as perphenazine and chlorpromazine), thioxanthenes (such as flupenthixol and zuclopenthixol) and butyrophenones (such as haloperidol (Haldol)), piperazines (such as ziprasidone), and, rarely, antidepressants. The incidence of drug-induced parkinsonism increases with age. Drug induced parkinsonism tends to remain at its presenting level, i.e. does not progress like the parkinson disease.[5]

Differential diagnoses[edit]

Before Parkinson's disease is diagnosed the differential diagnoses include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Aminoff MJ, Greenberg DA, Simon RP (2005). Clinical Neurology (6th ed.). Lange: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 241–5. ISBN 0-07-142360-5. 
  2. ^ Rao G, Fisch L, Srinivasan S, et al. Does this patient have Parkinson disease? JAMA. 2003;289(3):347-353. PMID 12525236
  3. ^ Tuite PJ, Krawczewski K (2007). "Parkinsonism: a review-of-systems approach to diagnosis". Seminars in neurology 27 (2): 113–22. doi:10.1055/s-2007-971174. PMID 17390256. 
  4. ^ Christine CW, Aminoff MJ (2004). "Clinical differentiation of parkinsonian syndromes: prognostic and therapeutic relevance". Am. J. Med. 117 (6): 412–9. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2004.03.032. PMID 15380498. 
  5. ^ http://www.parkinsons.org.uk/PDF/FS38_druginducedparkinsonism.pdf
  6. ^ Tse W, Cersosimo MG, Gracies JM et al. (2004). "Movement disorders and AIDS: a review". Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 10 (6): 323–34. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2004.03.001. PMID 15261874. 
  7. ^ Maltête D, Guyant-Maréchal L, Mihout B, Hannequin D (2006). "Movement disorders and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a review". Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 12 (2): 65–71. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2005.10.004. PMID 16364674. 
  8. ^ Watanabe Y, Himeda T, Araki T (2005). "Mechanisms of MPTP toxicity and their implications for therapy of Parkinson's disease" (PDF). Med. Sci. Monit. 11 (1): RA17–23. PMID 15614202. 
  9. ^ http://www.news-medical.net/news/20090902/LINGO1-variant-responsible-for-essential-tremors-and-Parkinsons-disease.aspx
  10. ^ Wenning GK, Geser F (2003). "Multiple system atrophy". Rev. Neurol. (Paris) 159 (5 Pt 2): 3S31–8. PMID 12773886. 
  11. ^ Uc EY, Rodnitzky RL (2003). "Childhood dystonia". Seminars in pediatric neurology 10 (1): 52–61. doi:10.1016/S1071-9091(02)00010-4. PMID 12785748. 
  12. ^ Online 'Mendelian Inheritance in Man' (OMIM) NEURODEGENERATION WITH BRAIN IRON ACCUMULATION 1; NBIA1 -234200
  13. ^ a b c DeLong MR, Juncos JL (2004). Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (16th ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 2414. ISBN 0-07-140235-7. 
  14. ^ Dinis-Oliveira RJ, Remião F, Carmo H et al. (2006). "Paraquat exposure as an etiological factor of Parkinson's disease". Neurotoxicology 27 (6): 1110–22. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2006.05.012. PMID 16815551. 
  15. ^ Tremor/InvoluntaryMovements: Excerpt from Field Guide to Bedside Diagnosis
  16. ^ Weiss J. Chapter 151. Toluene and Xylene. In: Olson KR, ed. Poisoning & Drug Overdose. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=55982958. Accessed April 21, 2013.
  17. ^ http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ana.410350516/abstract
  18. ^ Thanvi B, Lo N, Robinson T (2005). "Vascular Parkinsonism--an important cause of parkinsonism in older people" (PDF). Age and ageing 34 (2): 114–9. doi:10.1093/ageing/afi025. PMID 15713855. 
  19. ^ http://parkinsonsdiseasefoundation.blogspot.com/2012/08/vascular-parkinsonism.html
  20. ^ Członkowska A, Tarnacka B, Möller JC et al. (2007). "Unified Wilson's Disease Rating Scale — a proposal for the neurological scoring of Wilson's disease patients". Neurol. Neurochir. Pol. 41 (1): 1–12. PMID 17330175. 
  21. ^ Ropper AH, Samuels MA. Chapter 4. Abnormalities of Movement and Posture Caused by Disease of the Basal Ganglia. In: Ropper AH, Samuels MA, eds. Adams and Victor's Principles of Neurology. 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2009. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=3630437. Accessed April 21, 2013.
  22. ^ Lorincz MT (January 2010). "Neurologic Wilson's disease". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1184: 173–87. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05109.x. PMID 20146697. 

External links[edit]