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In golf, par is the pre-determined number of strokes that a scratch (or 0 handicap) golfer should require to complete a hole, a round (the sum of the pars of the played holes), or a tournament (the sum of the pars of each round). Pars are the central component of stroke play, the most common kind of play in professional golf tournaments. The term is also used in golf-like sports such as disc golf with the same meaning.
The length of each hole from the tee placement to the pin determines par values for each hole primarily, though not exclusively. Almost invariably, holes are assigned par values between three and five strokes. For a casual player from the middle tees, a par-three hole will range between 100–250 yards (90–230 m) from the tee to the pin. Par-four holes range between 250–450 yards (230–410 m), although tournament players will often encounter par-four holes as long as 500 yards (460 m) or more, as it is not uncommon for short par-five holes for normal play to be turned into par-four holes in championship play. Par-five holes are typically between 450–600 yards (410–550 m), but in the modern game, holes of over 600 yards are becoming more common in championship play. Other relevant factors in setting the par for the hole include the terrain and obstacles (such as trees, water hazards, hills, or buildings) that may require a golfer to take more (or fewer) shots. Some golf courses feature par-sixes and, albeit very rarely, par-sevens, although the latter are not recognised by the United States Golf Association.
Typical championship golf courses have par values of 72, comprising four par-threes, ten par-fours, and four par-fives. While 72 is typical, championship course par can be as high as 73 to as low as 69. Most 18-hole courses not designed for championships still have a par close to 72, though some will be lower. Courses with par above 73 are rare. Courses built on relatively small parcels of land will often be designed as Par-3 Courses, in which every hole (or almost every hole) is a par-three (for a total par of 54 or slightly higher over 18 holes).
A golfer's score is compared with the par score. If a course has a par of 72 and a golfer takes 75 strokes to complete the course, the golfer's reported score is +3, or "three-over-par". This means that the golfer has taken three shots more than par to complete the course. If a golfer takes 70 strokes, their reported score is –2, or "two-under-par".
Tournament scores are reported by totalling the golfer's score relative to par in each round (there are usually four rounds in professional tournaments). If each of the four rounds of a tournament has a par of 72, the tournament par would be 288 and the golfer's score would be recorded relative to the tournament par. For example, a golfer could record a 70 in the first round, a 72 in the second round, a 73 in the third round, and a 69 in the fourth round. This would give the golfer a tournament score of 284, or "four-under-par".
Scores on each hole are reported in the same way that course scores are given. Names are commonly given to scores on holes relative to par.
The term "bogey" means scoring one-over-par (+1). "Going round in bogey" originally meant an overall par score, starting at the Great Yarmouth Golf Club in 1890, and based on the phrase "bogey man" and a popular music hall song Here Comes the Bogey Man. Nationally, players competed against Colonel Bogey, and this in turn gave the title to a 1914 marching tune, Colonel Bogey March.
As golf became more standardised in the United States, par scores were tightened and recreational golfers found themselves scoring over par, with bogey changing meaning to one-over-par. Bogeys are relatively common, even in professional play—so much so that it is considered somewhat noteworthy if a player manages to complete a bogey-free round—and they are very common for many casual and club players.
More than one shot over par is known as a double-bogey (+2), triple-bogey (+3), and so on. However, it is more common to hear higher scores referred to simply by the number of strokes rather than by name. For example, a player, having taken eight shots to negotiate a par-three, would be far more likely to refer to it simply as an "eight" or being "five-over-par", than a "quintuple-bogey". Double-bogeys and worse scores are uncommon for top performers in professional play.
The term "par" means scoring even (E). The golfer has taken as many strokes as the hole's par number. In theory, pars are achieved by two putts, with the remaining shots being used to reach the green. For example, on a par-five hole, a player would be expected to take three shots to reach the green and two shots to putt the ball into the hole. Par derives its name from Latin, in which "par" means equal.
The term "birdie" means scoring one-under-par (−1). This expression was coined in 1899, at the Atlantic City Country Club in Northfield, New Jersey. It seems that one day in 1899, three golfers – George Crump (who later built Pine Valley, about 45 miles away), William Poultney Smith (founding member of Pine Valley), and his brother Ab Smith – were playing together when Crump hit his second shot only inches from the cup on a par-four hole after his first shot had struck a bird in flight. Simultaneously, the Smith brothers exclaimed that Crump's shot was "a bird." Crump's short putt left him one-under-par for the hole, and from that day the three of them referred to such a score as a "birdie." In short order, the entire membership of the club began using the term. As the Atlantic City Country Club, being a resort, had many out-of-town visitors, the expression spread and caught the fancy of all American golfers. The perfect round (score of 54 on a par-72 course) is most commonly described as scoring a birdie on all 18 holes, although no player has ever recorded a perfect round in a professional tournament.
The term "eagle" means scoring two-under-par (−2). Eagles usually occur when golfers hit the ball far enough to reach the green with fewer strokes than expected. This most commonly happens on par-fives, though it occasionally occurs on short par-fours. A hole in one on a par-three hole also results in an eagle. The name "eagle" was used as a large bird representing a better score than a birdie.
The term "albatross" means scoring three-under-par (−3) (the albatross being one of the largest birds); also called a double eagle in the U.S. This is an extremely rare score, and occurs most commonly on par-fives with a strong drive and a holed approach shot. Holes-in-one on par-four holes (generally short ones) are also albatrosses. The first famous albatross was made by Gene Sarazen in 1935 on the 15th hole at Augusta National Golf Club during the final round of the Masters Tournament. The double eagle vaulted him into a tie for first place and forced a playoff, which he won the next day. The sportswriters of the day termed it "the shot heard round the world." Albatrosses are much rarer than par-3 holes-in-one; the odds are estimated at one in 1,000,000 while the odds of a hole-in-one are around one in 3,700 to one in 12,500, depending on the hole and on skill.
Recent well-publicised albatrosses include those scored by Joey Sindelar at the 2006 PGA Championship – only the third in that competition's history, Miguel Ángel Jiménez while defending his BMW PGA Championship title in 2009, Paul Lawrie in the final round of the 2009 Open Championship, Shaun Micheel on the final day of the 2010 U.S. Open – only the second ever in that competition, Pádraig Harrington in the 2010 WGC-HSBC Champions, and Louis Oosthuizen on the final day of the 2012 Masters Tournament – the fourth in that competition's history and the first to be televised, and the first on Augusta's par-five second hole.
A condor is a score of four-under-par (−4). This is the lowest individual hole score ever made. A condor would be a hole-in-one on a par-five (typically by cutting over a dogleg corner) or a two on a par-six. Par-sixes do exist, but are exceptionally rare and a two has never been recorded on one. A condor has been recorded only four times, only once on a straight drive (for a record 517 yards or 473 metres) rather than cutting a dogleg, and never during a professional tournament.