Paprika

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Red peppers in Cachi (Argentina) are air dried before being processed into powder.
A small bowl of Spanish pimentón
Packaged ground and whole dried paprika for sale at a Belgrade marketplace.
The various shapes and colors of the capsicum fruit used to prepare paprika.

Paprika is a spice made from ground, dried fruits of Capsicum annuum, either bell pepper or chili pepper varieties or mixtures thereof. Paprika is often associated with Hungary, as it is commonplace in Hungarian cuisine. Spain and Portugal introduced Capsicum annuum to the Old World from the Americas.[1] Spanish pimentón, as it is known there, often has a smoky flavor because of how the Spanish dry it. The seasoning is used in many cuisines to add color and flavor to dishes, but it is usually associated with Turkey, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Hungary, Romania, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Morocco, and South Africa.

The use of paprika expanded from Iberia throughout Africa and Asia,[2] and ultimately reached Central Europe through the Balkans, which were under Ottoman rule, explaining the Hungarian origin of the modern English term. In Spanish, paprika has been known as pimentón since the 1500s, when it became a typical ingredient of the western region of Extremadura.[3] Despite its presence in Central Europe since the beginning of Ottoman conquests, it did not become popular in Hungary until the late 19th century.[4]

Central European paprika was hot until the 1920s, when a Szeged breeder found one plant that produced sweet fruit. This was grafted onto other plants.[5] Nowadays, paprika can range from mild to hot, and flavors also vary from country to country, but almost all the plants grown produce the sweet variety.[5] The sweet paprika is mostly pericarp with more than half of the seeds removed, whereas hot paprika contains some seeds, placentas, calyxes, and stalks.[3]

In many European languages, but not in English, the word paprika also or only refers to the Capsicum fruit itself.

Etymology and history[edit]

The plant that makes the Hungarian version of the spice was grown from 1529 by the Turks at Buda[6] (now part of the capital of Hungary, Budapest). The first recorded use of the word "paprika" in English is from 1896.[6] It came from the Hungarian word "paprika", which was a diminutive of the Serbo-Croatian language word "papar" (meaning "pepper"),[6] which in turn came from the Latin "piper" or Modern Greek "piperi".[6] Similar words, "peperke", "piperke", and "paparka", are used in various other Slavic languages in the Balkans for bell peppers.[3]

The two Spanish varieties of paprika, known in Spain as "pimentón" come from the Comarca de la Vera in Cáceres province and a variety from Murcia region, both of which were introduced from the Americas, where they originate, by local monks some time in the 1500s.

The word "paprika" entered a large number of languages, in many cases probably via German.[7] Many European languages use a similar word whilst examples from other languages include the Hebrew paprika [פפריקה] and the Japanese papurika [パプリカ].[7]

Usage[edit]

Paprika pepper farmer in Tanzania

Paprika is produced in a number of places including Hungary, Serbia, Spain and some regions of the United States.[8] It is used as an ingredient in a broad variety of dishes throughout the world. Paprika is principally used to season and color rices, stews, and soups, such as goulash, and in the preparation of sausages as an ingredient that is mixed with meats and other spices. In the United States, paprika is frequently sprinkled on foods as a garnish, but the flavor is more effectively produced by heating it gently in oil.[9]

Spanish Paprika (pimentón) is available in three versions, mild (pimentón dulce), moderately spicy (pimentón agridulce), and very spicy (pimentón picante.) Some Spanish paprika, including pimentón de la Vera has a distinct smoky flavor and aroma as it is dried by smoking, typically using oak wood.[10]

Hungary is a major source of paprika and is thus more commonly used. It is available in grades ranging as follows:

Hungarian Paprika is often specified in recipes because it is unique. It is bright red and said to be sweeter than the same paprika grown in other soils and climates. Other paprika types have their unique niche, so it is important to use the type of paprika specified in recipes (if specified), unless it is used in small quantities. In "paprikash" (paprika gravy, a combination of broth, paprika, and sour cream), paprika is used by the tablespoonful. In such instances, Hungarian Paprika is preferred.

"The Hungarian varieties are more robust and considered superior. The Spanish varieties are sweeter and milder. Most tables in Hungary are set with salt and hot paprika (not black pepper) shakers. One particular variety, the 'rose', known for its sweet aroma and brilliant color is prized above all others. Hungarian agricultural authorities fiercely guard their plants and seeds and twice as much acreage is devoted to peppers as any other crop."[12]

"Due to the favourable climate and geographical conditions Hungarian paprika has a bright red colour and a distinctive rich flavour that allowed Hungary to became one of the leading paprika producers in the world...Kalocsa and Szeged in the southern part of Hungary are the heart of paprika production in Hungary. These regions have the highest amount of sunny hours a year and paprika plants need lots of sunshine to get ripe and sweet."[13]

The Netherlands is a major production and distribution source of paprika as well, especially grown in greenhouses.

In Moroccan cuisine, paprika (tahmira) is usually found slightly moistened by the addition of a small amount of olive oil blended into it.

Paprika can also be used with henna to bring a reddish tint to hair when coloring it. Paprika powder can be added to henna powder when prepared at home.

The color of paprika is primarily due to the xanthophyll carotenoid zeaxanthin.

Nutrition[edit]

According to the USDA, 1tbsp (6.8g) of paprika has the following nutritional content:[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Emmons, Didi, Vegetarian Planet: 350 Big-Flavor Recipes for Out-Of-This-World Food Every Day, p. 437 
  2. ^ Peppers: The Domesticated Capsicums - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved on 2013-09-20.
  3. ^ a b c Peppers: The Domesticated Capsicums, pp. 5 and 73
  4. ^ The Glutton's Glossary: A Dictionary of Food and Drink Terms, p. 205
  5. ^ a b Paprika: A Spicy Memoir from Hungary, p. 202
  6. ^ a b c d "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2011-11-04. 
  7. ^ a b Katzer, Gernot (May 27, 2008). "Paprika (Capsicum annuum L.)". Retrieved December 1, 2012. 
  8. ^ "Paprika — Food Facts". Food Reference. Retrieved 2011-11-04. 
  9. ^ Hyde, Brenda. "Classic Spice Blends: Paprika". Oldfashionedliving.com. Retrieved 2011-11-04. 
  10. ^ "Spanish Paprika — Pimentón". Spanishfood.about.com. 2011-03-02. Retrieved 2011-11-04. 
  11. ^ by Tom (2008-10-31). "Grades of Paprika | The Spice House Blog". Retrieved 2011-11-04. 
  12. ^ Chefs Corner | Red Cat Restaurants | New York City. Red Cat Restaurants. Retrieved on 2013-09-20.
  13. ^ Hungarian Paprika-Facts, History & Recipes. Budapest-tourist-guide.com. Retrieved on 2013-09-20.
  14. ^ NDL/FNIC Food Composition Database Home Page. Nal.usda.gov. Retrieved on 2013-09-20.

External links[edit]