Panniculitis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Panniculitis
Classification and external resources
An introduction to dermatology (1905) erythema induratum 2.jpg
Erythema induratum, a form of lobular panniculitis
ICD-10M79.3
ICD-9729.3
DiseasesDB29081
MeSHD015434
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Panniculitis
Classification and external resources
An introduction to dermatology (1905) erythema induratum 2.jpg
Erythema induratum, a form of lobular panniculitis
ICD-10M79.3
ICD-9729.3
DiseasesDB29081
MeSHD015434

Panniculitis is a group of diseases whose hallmark is inflammation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (the fatty layer under the skin - panniculus adiposus).[1] Symptoms include tender skin nodules, and systemic signs such as weight loss and fatigue.

Restated, an inflammatory disorder primarily localized in the subcutaneous fat is termed a "panniculitis," a group of disorders that may be challenging both for the clinician and the dermatopathologist.[2]:487

Classification[edit]

It can occur in any fatty tissue (cutaneous or visceral) and is often diagnosed on the basis of a deep skin biopsy, and can be further classified by histological characteristics based on the location of the inflammatory cells (within fatty lobules or in the septa which separate them) and on the presence or absence of vasculitis.

There are thus four main histological subtypes:[3]

  1. lobular panniculitis without vasculitis (acute panniculitis, previously termed Weber-Christian disease,[4] systemic nodular panniculitis)
  2. lobular panniculitis with vasculitis
  3. septal panniculitis without vasculitis
  4. septal panniculitis with vasculitis

Lobular[edit]

With vasculitis[edit]

Erythema induratum, or "Bazin disease", is a panniculitis on the back of the calves.[5] It was formerly thought to be a reaction to the tuberculum bacillus. It is now considered a panniculitis that is not associated with a single defined pathogen.[6]

Nodular vasculitis is a skin condition characterized by small, tender, reddened nodules on the legs, mostly on the calves and shins. Microscopically there are epithelioid granulomas and vasculitis in the subcutaneous tissue, making it a form of panicullitis. Most of these cases are now thought to be manifestation of tuberculosis and indeed they respond well to anti-tuberculous treatment.[citation needed]

Without vasculitis[edit]

Non-vasculitis forms of panniculitis that may occur include:

With needle-shaped clefts[edit]

Lipodermatosclerosis is a form of panniculitis associated with chronic venous insufficiency that presents with brown indurations on the front of the shins. It may be associated with pain and other signs of chronic venous insufficiency. The exact cause is unknown.[11]

Other forms include:

Septal[edit]

Erythema nodosum[edit]

Erythema nodosum is a form of panniculitis characterised by tender red nodules, 1–10 cm, associated with systemic symptoms including fever, malaise, and joint pain. Nodules may become bluish-purple, yellowing, and green, and subside over a period of 2–6 weeks without ulcerating or scarring. Erythema nodosum is associated with infections, including Hepatitis C, EBV and tuberculosis, Chron's disease and sarcoidosis, pregnancy, medications including sulfonamides, and some cancers, including NHL and pancreatic cancer.[13]

A1AT-deficiency-associated[edit]

Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency panniculitis [12] is a panniculitis associated with a deficiency of the α1-antitrypsin enzyme.[2]:494

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Panniculitis can also be classified based on the presence or absence of systemic symptoms. Panniculitis without systemic disease can be a result of trauma or cold;[14] Panniculitis with systemic disease can be caused:

Associated conditions[edit]

Lipoatrophy or lipodystrophy (the loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue) can occur in any of these conditions.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "panniculitis" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. 
  3. ^ "Panniculitis. DermNet NZ". Retrieved 2010-05-17. 
  4. ^ "eMedicine - Weber-Christian Disease : Article by Moise L Levy". Retrieved 2008-03-25. 
  5. ^ "erythema induratum" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary[dead link]
  6. ^ Cotran, Ramzi S.; Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelson; Nelso Fausto; Robbins, Stanley L.; Abbas, Abul K. (2005). Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease (7th ed.). St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier Saunders. p. 1265. ISBN 0-7216-0187-1. 
  7. ^ Winkelmann RK, Bowie EJ. Hemorrhagic diathesis associated with benign histiocytic cytophagic panniculitis and systemic histiocytosis. Arch Intern Med.1980; 140: 1460-3
  8. ^ Smith K J, Skeleton H J, Yeagre J, Angritt P, Wagner K, James W. D., Giblin W. J., Lupton G. P. Cutaneous histopathological, immunohistochemical, and clinical manifestations inpatients with hemophagocytic syndrome. Military Medical Consortium for Applied Retroviral Research (MMCARR). Arch Dermatol 1992; 128: 193-200
  9. ^ a b c Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. p. 1515. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. 
  10. ^ Epstein, Ervin and Oren, Mark, "Popsicle Panniculitis" "The New England Journal of Medicine", 282 (17) : 966-67, 1970
  11. ^ Bruce AJ. et al. , Lipodermatosclerosis: Review of cases evaluated at Mayo Clinic. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002.
  12. ^ a b Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. 
  13. ^ Gilchrist, H; Patterson, JW (2010 Jul-Aug). "Erythema nodosum and erythema induratum (nodular vasculitis): diagnosis and management.". Dermatologic therapy 23 (4): 320–7. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8019.2010.01332.x. PMID 20666819. 
  14. ^ "eMedicine - Cold Panniculitis : Article by Geromanta Baleviciene". Retrieved 2008-03-25. 

External links[edit]