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A pangram (Greek: παν γράμμα, pan gramma, "every letter") or holoalphabetic sentence for a given alphabet is a sentence using every letter of the alphabet at least once. Pangrams have been used to display typefaces, test equipment, and develop skills in handwriting, calligraphy, and keyboarding.
The quick-brown-fox pangram, which has been used since at least the late 19th century, was utilized by Western Union to test Telex / TWX data communication equipment for accuracy and reliability, and is now used by a number of computer programs (most notably the font viewer built into Microsoft Windows) to display computer fonts. The German Victor-jagt pangram, used since before 1800, contains all the letters, including the 3 umlaut letters: ä, ö, ü.
Short pangrams in English are more difficult to come up with and tend to use uncommon words, because the English language uses some letters (especially vowels) much more frequently than others. Longer pangrams may afford more opportunity for humor, cleverness, or thoughtfulness. In a sense, the pangram is the opposite of the lipogram, in which the aim is to omit one or more letters. A perfect pangram contains every letter of the alphabet only once and can be considered an anagram of the alphabet; it is the shortest possible pangram. An example is the phrase "Cwm fjord bank glyphs vext quiz" (cwm, a loan word from Welsh, means a steep-sided valley, particularly in Wales).
Ideographic scripts, that is, writing systems composed principally of logograms, cannot be used to produce pangrams in the literal sense, since they are radically different from alphabets or other phonetic writing systems. In such scripts, the total number of signs is large and imprecisely defined, so producing a text with every possible sign is impossible. However, various analogies to pangrams are feasible, including traditional pangrams in a romanization. In addition, it is possible to create pangrams that demonstrate certain aspects of ideographic characters.
A self-enumerating pangram, or a pangrammic autogram, is a pangram which describes the number of letters it itself contains. This kind of pangram arose from some verbal horseplay between Douglas Hofstadter, Rudy Kousbroek (a Dutch linguist and essayist), and Lee Sallows (a British electronics engineer). The first English example was discovered by Sallows and is:
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