Archaeological research has shown that the Cahuilla people have lived in the area for the past 350–500 years. The Cahuilla name for the area was "Se-Khi" (boiling water). When the Agua Caliente Reservation was established by the United States government in 1896, the reservation land was composed of alternating sections (640 acres) of land laid out across the desert in a checkerboard pattern. The alternating, non-reservation sections, were granted to the Southern Pacific Railroad as an incentive to bring rail lines through the open desert.
Presently the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians is composed of several smaller bands who live in the modern day Coachella Valley and San Gorgonio Pass areas. The Agua Caliente Reservation occupies 32,000 acres (13,000 ha), of which 6,700 acres (2,700 ha) lie within the city limits, making the Agua Caliente band the city's largest landowner. (Tribal enrollment is currently estimated at between 296 and 365 people.)
One possible origin of palm in the place name comes from early Spanish explorers who referred to the area as La Palma de la Mano de Dios or "The Palm of God's hand". The earliest use of the name "Palm Springs" is from United States Topographical Engineers who used the term in 1853 maps. According to William Bright, when the word "palm" appears in Californian place names, it usually refers to the native California fan palm, Washingtonia filifera, which is abundant in the Palm Springs area. Other early names were "Palmetto Spring" and "Big Palm Springs".
The first European resident in Palm Springs itself was Jack Summers, who ran the stagecoach station in 1862.:44, 149 Fourteen years later (1876), the Southern Pacific railroad was laid 6 miles to the north, isolating the station.:17 In 1880, local Indian Pedro Chino was selling parcels near the springs to William Van Slyke and Mathew Bryne in a series of questionable transactions; they in turn brought in W. R. Porter to help market their property through the "Palm City Land and Water Company".:275 By 1885, when San Francisco attorney (later known as "Judge") John Guthrie McCallum began buying property in Palm Springs, the name was already in wide acceptance. The area was named "Palm Valley" when McCallum incorporated the "Palm Valley Land and Water Company" with partners O.C. Miller, H.C. Campbell, and James Adams, M.D.:280
Land development and drought
McCallum, who had brought his ill son to the dry climate for health, brought in irrigation advocate Dr. Oliver Wozencroft and engineer J. P. Lippincott to help construct a canal from the Whitewater River to fruit orchards on his property.:276–9 He also asked Dr. Welwood Murray to establish a hotel across the street from his residence. Murray did so in 1886 (he later became a famous horticulturalist).:280 The crops and irrigation systems suffered flooding in 1893 from record rainfall, and then an 11-year drought (1894–1905) caused further damage.:40
A 1950s postcard publicizing one of the many hotels sprouting in Palm Springs during the early-to-mid-20th century
The city became a fashionable resort in the 1900s when health tourists arrived with conditions that required dry heat. In 1906 naturalist and travel writer George Wharton James' two volume The Wonders of the Colorado Desert described Palm Springs as having "great charms and attractiveness":278–81 and included an account of his stay at Murray's hotel. As James also described, Palm Springs was more comfortable in its microclimate because the area was covered in the shadow of Mount San Jacinto to the west and in the winter the mountains block cold winds from the San Gorgonio pass. Early illustrious visitors included John Muir and his daughters, U.S. Vice President Charles Fairbanks, and Fanny Stevenson, widow of Robert Louis Stevenson; still, Murray's hotel was closed in 1909 and torn down in 1954.:45 Nellie N. Coffman and her physician husband Harry established The Desert Inn as a hotel and sanitarium in 1909; it was expanded as a modern hotel in 1927 and continued on until 1967.:Ch. 13
James' Wonders of the Colorado Desert was followed in 1920 by J. Smeaton Chase's Our Araby: Palm Springs and the Garden of the Sun, which also served to promote the area. In 1924 Pearl McCallum (daughter of Judge McCallum) returned to Palm Springs and built the Oasis Hotel with her husband Austin G. McManus; the Modern/Art Deco resort was designed by Lloyd Wright and featured a 40-foot tower.:68–9 The next major hotel was the El Mirador, a large and luxurious resort that attracted the biggest movie stars; opening in 1927, its prominent feature was a 68-foot tall Renaissance style tower.:Ch. 23 Silent film star Fritzi Ridgeway's 100-room Hotel del Tahquitz was built in 1929, next to the "Fool's Folly" mansion built by Chicago heiress Lois Kellogg. Golfing was available at the O'Donnell 9 hole course (1926) and the El Mirador (1929) course (see Golf below). Hollywood movie stars were attracted by the hot dry, sunny weather and seclusion – they built homes and estates in the Warm Sands, The Mesa, and Historic Tennis Club neighborhoods (see Neighborhoods below). About 20,000 visitors came to the area in 1922.
In the 1930s estate building expanded into the Movie Colony neighborhoods, Tahquitz River Estates, and Las Palmas neighborhoods. Actors Charles Farrell and Ralph Bellamy opened the Racquet Club in 1934:Ch. 25 and Pearl McCallum opened the Tennis Club in 1937. Nightclubs were set up as well, with Al Wertheimer opening The Dunes outside of Palm Springs in 1934:254 and the Chi Chi opening in 1936. Southern California's first self-contained shopping center was established in Palm Springs as the Plaza Shopping Center in 1936.
Pre-World War II Coachella Valley Resorts and Hotels
Operated as a hotel by John and Freda Miller, and then their sons, Frank and John.
El Mirador Hotel
Had 200+ rooms; went bankrupt in 1930, bought by new owners; taken over as US Army Torney General Hospital in 1942; reopened as hotel in 1952; became the Desert Regional Medical Center in 1972
The Desert Inn
Built by Nellie Coffman; originally a tent-house resort and sanitarium, developed into 35 buildings and bungalows; owned by actress Marion Davies from 1955 to 1960; original building demolished in 1960; officially closed in 1953
When the United States entered World War II, Palm Springs and the Coachella Valley were important in the war effort. The original airfield near Palm Springs became a staging area for the Air Corps Ferrying Command's 21st Ferrying Group in November 1941 and a new airfield was built ½ mile from the old site. The new airfield,:43 designated Palm Springs Army Airfield, was completed in early 1942. Personnel from the Air Transport Command 560th Army Air Forces Base Unit stayed at the La Paz Guest Ranch and training was conducted at the airfield was by the 72nd and 73rd Ferrying Squadrons. Later training was provided by the IV Fighter Command 459th Base Headquarters and Air Base Squadron.
Eight months before Pearl Harbor Day, the El Mirador Hotel was fully booked and adding new facilities. After the war started, the U.S. government bought the hotel from owner Warren Phinney for $750,000 and converted it into the Torney General Hospital, with Italian prisoners of war serving as kitchen help and orderlies in 1944 and 1945. Through the war it was staffed with 1,500 personnel and treated some 19,000 patients.:55
Architectural modernists flourished with commissions from the stars, using the city to explore architectural innovations, new artistic venues, and an exotic back-to-the-land experiences. Inventive architects designed unique vacation houses, such as steel houses with prefabricated panels and folding roofs, a glass-and-steel house in a boulder-strewn landscape, and a carousel house that turned to avoid the sun's glare.
In 1946 Richard Neutra designed the Edgar and Liliane Kaufmann House. A modernist classic, this mostly glass residence incorporated the latest technological advances in building materials, using natural lighting and floating planes and flowing space for proportion and detail. In recent years an energetic preservation program has protected and enhanced many classic buildings.
Culver (2010) argues that Palm Springs architecture became the model for mass-produced suburban housing, especially in the Southwest. This "Desert Modern" style was a high-end architectural style featuring open-design plans, wall-to-wall carpeting, air-conditioning, swimming pools, and very large windows. As Culver concludes, "While environmentalists might condemn desert modern, the masses would not. Here, it seemed, were houses that fully merged inside and outside, providing spaces for that essential component of Californian—and indeed middle-class American—life: leisure. While not everyone could have a Neutra masterpiece, many families could adopt aspects of Palm Springs modern."
Hollywood values permeated the resort as it combined celebrity, health, new wealth, and sex. As Culver (2010) explains: "The bohemian sexual and marital mores already apparent in Hollywood intersected with the resort atmosphere of Palm Springs, and this new, more open sexuality would gradually appear elsewhere in national tourist culture." During this period, the city government, stimulated by real estate developers systematically removed and excluded poor people and Indians.
Palm Springs was pictured by the French photographer Robert Doisneau in November 1960 as part of an assignment for Fortune on the construction of golf courses in this particularly dry and hot area of the Colorado desert. Doisneau submitted around 300 slides following his ten-day stay depicting the lifestyle of wealthy retirees and Hollywood stars in the 1960s. At the time, Palm Springs counted just nineteen courses, whereas the city now has "One hundred and twenty-five golf courses, 2,250 holes, or rather continually thirsty pits, which soak up 1.2 million gallons of water just to survive."
A postcard of Palm Canyon Dr. through Palm Spring's downtown village in the 1950s
Similar to the pre-war era, Palm Springs remained popular with the rich and famous of Hollywood, as well as retirees and Canadian tourists. Between 1947 and 1965, the Alexander Construction Company built some 2,200 houses in Palm Springs effectively doubling its housing capacity.
As the 1970s drew to a close, increasing numbers of retirees moved to the Coachella Valley. As a result, Palm Springs began to evolve from a virtual ghost town in the summer to a year-round community. Businesses and hotels that used to close for the months of July and August instead remained open all summer. As commerce grew, so too did the number of families with children.
The recession of 1973–1975 impacted Palm Springs as many of the wealthy residents had to cut back on their spending. Later in the 1970s numerous Chicago mobsters invested $50 million in the Palm Springs area, buying houses, land, and businesses. While Palm Springs faced competition from the desert cities to the east in the later 1980s, it has continued to prosper into the 21st century.
Since the early 1950s the city had been a popular spring break resort. Glamorized as a destination in the 1963 movie Palm Springs Weekend, the number of visitors grew and at times the gatherings had problems. In 1969 an estimated 15,000 people had gathered for a concert at the Palm Springs Angel Stadium and 300 were arrested for drunkenness or disturbing the peace. In the 1980s 10,000+ college students would visit the city and form crowds and parties – and another rampage occurred in 1986 when Palm Springs Police in riot gear had to put down the rowdy crowd. In 1990, due to complaints by residents, mayor Sonny Bono and the city council closed the city's Palm Canyon Drive to Spring Breakers and the downtown businesses lost money normally filled by the tourists.
Tourism is a major factor in the city's economy with 1.6 million visitors in 2011. The city has over 130 hotels and resorts, numerous bed & breakfast inns and over 100 restaurants and dining spots.
In the economic recession of the late 2000s/early 2010s, Palm Springs is revitalizing its Downtown or "the Village". Rebuilding started with the demolition of the Bank of America building in January 2012, with the Desert Fashion Plaza scheduled for demolition later in 2012.
The movement behind Mid-Century modern architecture (1950s/60s era) in Palm Springs is backed by architecture enthusiasts, artistic designers and local historians to preserve many of Central Palm Springs' buildings and houses of famous celebrities, businessmen and politicians.
Palm Springs has a mostly hot, and usually dry climate, with over 300 days of sunshine and around 4.83 inches (122.7 mm) of rain annually. The winter months are warm, with a majority of days reaching 70 °F (21 °C) and in January and February days often see temperatures of 80 °F (27 °C) and on occasion reach over 90 °F (32 °C), while, on average, there are 17 nights annually dipping to or below 40 °F (4 °C); freezing temperatures occur in less than half of years. The lowest temperature recorded is 19 °F (−7 °C), on January 22, 1937. Summer often sees daytime temperatures above 110 °F (43 °C) coupled with warm overnight lows remaining above 80 °F (27 °C). The mean annual temperature is 74.6 °F (23.7 °C). There are 180 days with a high reaching 90 °F (32 °C), and 100 °F (38 °C) can be seen on 116 days. The highest temperature on record in Palm Springs is 123 °F (51 °C), most recently achieved on July 28 and 29, 1995.
Climate data for Palm Springs Fire Station 2, California (1981–2010 normals)
The City of Palm Springs has developed a program to identify distinctive neighborhoods in the community. Of the 33 neighborhoods, 7 have historical and cultural significance.
Movie Colony neighborhoods
The Movie Colony is just east of Palm Canyon Drive. The Movie Colony East neighborhood extends further east from the Ruth Hardy Park. These areas started growing in the 1930s as Hollywood movie stars built their smaller getaways from their Los Angeles area estates. Bob Hope, Frank Sinatra, Estée Lauder, and Bing Crosby built homes in these neighborhoods.
El Rancho Vista Estates
In the 1960s, Robert Fey built 70 homes designed by Donald Wexler and Ric Harrison in the El Rancho Vista Estates. Noted residents included Jack LaLanne and comic Andy Dick.
Historic homes in the Warm Sands area date from the 1920s and many were built from adobe. It also includes small resorts and the Ramon Mobile Home Park. Noted residents have included screenwriter Walter Koch, artist Paul Grimm, activist Cleve Jones and actor Wesley Eure.
The Mesa started off as a gated community developed in the 1920s near the Indian Canyons. Noted residents have included King Gillette, Zane Grey, Clark Gable, Carole Lombard, Suzanne Somers, Herman Wouk, Henry Fernandez, Barry Manilow and Trina Turk. Distinctive homes include Wexler's "butterfly houses" and the "Streamline Moderne Ship of the Desert".
Tahquitz River Estates
Some of the homes in this neighborhood date from the 1930s. The area was owned by Pearl McCallum McManus and she started building homes in the neighborhood after World War II ended. Dr. William Scholl (Dr. Scholl's foot products) owned a 10 acre estate here. Today the neighborhood is the largest neighborhood organization with 600 homes and businesses within its boundaries.
During World War II, the original Sunmor Estates area was the western portion the Palm Springs Army Airfield. Homes here were developed by Robert Higgins and the Alexander Construction Company. Actor and former mayor Frank Bogert bought his home for $16,000 and lived there for more than 50 years.
Historic Tennis Club
Impoverished artist Carl Eytel first set up his cabin on what would become the Tennis Club in 1937. Another artist in the neighborhood, who built his Moroccan-style "Dar Marrac" estate in 1924, was Gordon Coutts. Other estates include Samuel Untermyer's Mediterranean style villa (now The Willows Historic Palm Springs Inn), the Casa Cody Inn, built by Harriet and Harold William Cody (cousin of Buffalo Bill Cody) and the Ingleside Inn, built in the 1920s by the Humphrey Birge family. The neighborhood now has about 400 homes, condos, apartments, inns and restaurants.
Las Palmas neighborhoods
To the west of Palm Canyon Drive are the Vista Las Palmas and Old Las Palmas neighborhoods. These areas also feature distinctive homes and celebrity estates.
The Census reported that 44,013 people (98.8% of the population) lived in households, 343 (0.8%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 196 (0.4%) were institutionalized.
There were 22,746 households, out of which 3,337 (14.7%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 5,812 (25.6%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,985 (8.7%) had a female householder with no husband present, 868 (3.8%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,031 (4.5%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 2,307 (10.1%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 10,006 households (44.0%) were made up of individuals and 4,295 (18.9%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.93. There were 8,665 families (38.1% of all households); the average family size was 2.82.
The population was spread out with 6,125 people (13.7%) under the age of 18, 2,572 people (5.8%) aged 18 to 24, 8,625 people (19.4%) aged 25 to 44, 15,419 people (34.6%) aged 45 to 64, and 11,811 people (26.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 51.6 years. For every 100 females there were 129.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 133.8 males.
There were 34,794 housing units at an average density of 366.3 per square mile (141.4/km²), of which 13,349 (58.7%) were owner-occupied, and 9,397 (41.3%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 6.7%; the rental vacancy rate was 15.5%. 24,948 people (56.0% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 19,065 people (42.8%) lived in rental housing units.
16.3% of households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.0% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 53.9% were non-families. 41.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.1 and the average family size was 2.9.
In the city the population was spread out with 17.0% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, and 26.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females there were 107.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $35,973 and the median income for a family was $45,318. Males had a median income of $33,999 versus $27,461 for females. The per capita income for the city was $25,957. The relatively low income reflects the presence of a large retired population and a large population of owners of second homes whose income is not reported. About 11.2% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.2% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over.
Palm Springs has one of the highest concentration of same-sex couples of any community in the United States. In the city, 7.2% of households belong to a same-sex couple compared to the national average of 1%. Palm Springs has the fifth-highest percentage of same-sex households in the nation.:27 Former mayor Ron Oden estimated that about a third of Palm Springs is gay. Over various times, the city has catered to LGBT tourists.
Though celebrities still retreat to Palm Springs, many today establish residences in other areas of the Coachella Valley. The city's economy now relies on tourism, and local government is largely supported by related retail sales taxes and the TOT (transient occupancy tax). It is a city of numerous festivals, conventions, and international events including the Palm Springs International Film Festival.
Numerous hotels, restaurants and attractions cater to tourists, while shoppers can find a variety of high-end boutiques in downtown and uptown Palm Springs. The city is home to 20 clothing-optional resorts catering to gay men.
Starting in 2004, the city worked with downtown businesses to develop the weekly Palm Springs VillageFest. The downtown street fair has been a regular Thursday evening event, drawing tourists and locals alike to Palm Canyon Drive to stroll amid the food and craft vendors.
Events related to films and film-craft are sponsored by the Desert Film Society.
The city council has established a 7 member commission to promote art in the city. The commission has sponsored several notable public art projects in the city, including:
"Red Echo" (2010) by Konstantin Demopoulos. Ramon Road and Gene Autry Trail
Numerous galleries and studios are located in the city and region. The California Art Club has a chapter in Palm Springs. The Desert Art Center of Coachella Valley was established in Palm Springs in 1950.
Delos Van Earle's "Jungle Red" (Warm Sands neighborhood)
Aerial view overlooking the O'Donnell Golf Club during the 1960s
With more golf courses than any other region in California, Coachella Valley is the most popular golf vacation destination in California. Early golf courses in Palm Springs were the O'Donnell Golf Club (built by oil magnate Thomas A. O'Donnell) and the El Mirador Hotel course, both of which opened in the 1920s.:120 After the Cochran-Odlum (Indio) and Shadow Mountain pitch and putt courses were built after World II, the first 18-hole golf course in the area was the Thunderbird Country Club, established 1951 in Rancho Mirage. Thunderbird was designed by golf course architects Lawrence Hughes and Johnny Dawson and in 1955 it hosted the 11th Ryder Cup championship.
In 1931 the Desert Riders was established. Starting off as a social organization for the cream of Palm Springs society, the group sponsors horseback riding and trail building for equestrians, hikers, and bicyclists. The Desert Riders were also significant in providing combination chuckwagon meals and rides through nearby canyons to hotel guests as Palm Springs developed its tourist industry.
Business owners in the village first established a Palm Springs Board of Trade in 1918, followed by a chamber of commerce; the City itself was established by election in 1938 and converted to a charter city, with a charter adopted by the voters in 1994.
Presently the city has a council-manager type government, with a five-person city council that hires a city manager and city attorney. The mayor is directly elected and serves a four-year term. The other four council members also serve four-year terms, with staggered elections. The city is considered a full-service city, in that it staffs and manages its own police and fire departments including parks and recreation programs, public library, sewer system and wastewater treatment plant, international airport, and planning and building services.
The current mayor is Steve Pougnet, elected in 2007 and returned to office in 2011. Pougnet succeeded Ron Oden, the city's first African-American and openly gay mayor in the city's history (2003–07). Palm Springs' longest-tenured mayor was Frank Bogert (1958–66 and 1982–88), but the best-known mayor in the city's history was Sonny Bono. Bono served from 1988 to 1992 and was eventually elected to the U.S. Congress.
Private schools in Palm Springs and nearby communities include Desert Chapel Christian School (K-12), Desert Adventist Academy (K–8), Sacred Heart School (PS-8), St. Theresa (PreK–8), King's School – formerly known as Palm Valley School (K–8), Desert Christian (K–12), Marywood-Palm Valley School, and The Academy
Palm Springs is the 144th largest TV market as defined by AC Nielsen. The Palm Springs DMA is unique among TV markets as it is entirely located within only a small portion of Riverside County. Also, while most areas received their first local television stations during the 1950s, Palm Springs did not receive its first TV stations until October 1968 when stations KPLM-TV (now KESQ) and KMIR-TV debuted. Prior to that time, Palm Springs was served by TV stations from the Los Angeles market, which were carried on the local cable system that began operations in the 1950s and which predated the emergence of local broadcast stations by more than a decade.
TV stations serving the Palm Springs and Coachella Valley area include:
Palm Springs Life is a monthly magazine; it also has publications on El Paseo Drive shopping in Palm Desert, desert area entertainment, homes, health, culture and arts, golf, plus annual issues on weddings and dining out.
The Palm Springs Villager was published in the early 20th century until 1959.
Amtrak's Thruway Motorcoach connects Palm Springs to Bakersfield, Claremont, Indio, La Crescenta, Ontario, Pasadena, Riverside and San Bernardino. A city curbside Thruway bus stop is located at 3400 East Tahquitz Canyon Way.
The Welwood Murray Cemetery was started by hotel operator Welwood Murray in 1894 when his son died.:46 It is maintained by the Palm Springs Cemetery District, which also maintains the Desert Memorial Park in Cathedral City.
^Gudde, Erwin Gustav; Bright, William (1998). California Place Names: The Origin and Etymology of Current Geographical Names (4th ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. p. 277. ISBN0520242173. LCCN97043168. "'The fine large trees which mark the course of the run have furnished the name ...' (Whipple 1849:7–8). The place is shown as Big Palm Springs on the von Leicht-Craven map of 1874."Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
^ abWild, Peter (2007). Tipping the Dream: A Brief History of Palm Springs. Johannesburg, CA: The Shady Myrick Research Project. p. 228. OCLC152590848.
^Palm Valley Land Co. (1888[?]). Views in Palm Valley...: The earliest fruit region in the state...now on sale by Biggs, Fergusson & Co. San Francisco. OCLC82950785.Check date values in: |date= (help)
^Two early, but fictional, visitors were 6-year-old Mary and her cousin Jack. See: Foster, Ethel T.; Villa, Hernando G. (illustrations) (1913). "A Visit to Palm Springs". Little Tales of the Desert. Los Angeles, CA: Kingsley, Mason and Collins Co. p. 23. ISBN978-1176787933. LCCN13025440. OCLC3726918. "Just beyond [the Indian village] was Palm Springs settlement itself, with lots of tents, several houses, a store and [Dr. Murray's Hotel]....They visited the funny little cottages with their roofs and sides all covered with big palm leaves instead of boards. Then they went up to the hot springs."Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
Wonders is illustrated with over 300 drawings by desert artist Carl Eytel. Many of those drawings, including the Title Page figure, are used throughout Steve Lech's extensive history of early Riverside County. See: Along the Old Roads (cited above).
"A Guide to the New Books". The Literary Digest (New York and London: Funk & Wagnalls). XXXIV (7): 263–4. February 16, 1907. "This elaborate treatise is a distinct contribution to the literature of the natural wonders of our country."
Gilmour, John Hamilton (February 3, 1907). "The Wonders of the Colorado Desert, California". San Francisco Call101 (65): Magazine, 3. "He has written admirably and knowingly ... and this ... is in line with his previous works."
^Starr, Kevin (1997). "1. Good Times on the Coast: Affluence and the Anti-Depression". The Dream Endures: California Enters the 1940s. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 512. ISBN978-0195100792.
^Desert Inn (1923). The Desert Inn: Where Desert and Mountains Meet, Palm Springs, California. Los Angeles, CA: Times-Mirror Print & Binding House. p. 24. OCLC82839637.
^"Historic Sites: Desert Inn". Palm Springs Life. "County of Riverside Historical Marker No. 044; 123 North Palm Canyon (image of marker with 1908 date)"
^Bright, Marjorie Belle (1981). Nellie's Boardinghouse: a dual biography of Nellie Coffman and Palm Springs. Palm Springs, CA: ETC Pub. p. 247.
^Janss, Betty; Frashers Inc (1933). Palm Springs California: presented with the compliments of the Desert Inn. Palm Springs, CA: Desert Inn. p. 34. OCLC427216166.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
^Rippingale, Sally Presley (1984). The History of the Racquet Club of Palm Springs. Yucaipa, CA: US Business Specialties. p. 146. LCCN85226534. OCLC13526611.. Also see: Turner, Mary L. and Turner, Cal A. (photography) (2006). The Beautiful People of Palm Springs. Sedona, AZ: Gene Weed. pp. 154. ISBN 978-1-4116-3488-6OCLC704086361. The Racquet Club would cater to the Hollywood elite for decades.
^Except where noted, most data is from: Lech, Steve (2005). "Six: Palm Springs, Desert Hot Springs, Indio, and La Quinta". Resorts of Riverside County. Charleston, SC: Arcadia. p. 128. ISBN978-0738530789. OCLC62790503.
^Palm Springs, California. Palm Springs, CA: The Hotels. 1929. p. 34. "WorldCat note: sponsored and distributed by the four leading hotels of Palm Springs: the Desert Inn, El Mirador, the Oasis, Deep Well Guest Ranch"; OCLC29907656 and 228699240
^Holmes, Elmer Wallace; Bird, Jessica (1912). "XX: San Gorgonio Pass". History of Riverside County, California. Los Angeles, CA: Historic Record Company. p. 783. OCLC7951260.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
^Wills, Eric (May/June 2008). "Palm Springs Eternal", Preservation, Vol. 60, Issue 3, pp. 38–45
^Goldberger, Paul (May–June 2008). "The Modernist Manifesto". Preservation60 (3): 30–5.
^ abCulver, Lawrence (2010). "Chapter 5: The Oasis of Leisure – Palm Springs before 1941; and Chapter 6: Making of Desert Modern – Palm Springs after World War II". The Frontier of Leisure: Southern California and the Shaping of Modern America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 317. ISBN978-0195382631. LCCN2009053932.OCLC620294456 and 464581464
^Kray, Ryan M. (2009). Second-class Citizenship at a First-class Resort: Race and Public Policy in Palm Springs. Irvine, CA: University of California (Ph.D. thesis). p. 407. ISBN978-1109197983. OCLC518520550.
"Palm Springs Now Top Desert Resort". The Sun (Vancouver, Canada). January 5, 1968. Retrieved October 2, 2012. "One finds 21 golf courses sprinkled across the golden sands of the desert. More than 3,650 swimming pools dot the landscape."
"Palm Springs: Outdoors Paradise". St. Petersburg Independent (St. Petersburg, FL). January 11, 1972. p. 4-D. Retrieved October 2, 2012. "Moonlight steak [horseback] rides, breakfast rides and group rides are a way of life in the...desert resort."
Fix, Jack V. (June 9, 1977). "Palm Springs Place Where Rich Retire". The Pittsburgh Press. UPI. p. B-1. Retrieved October 2, 2012. "This desert town...with 5,000 private swimming pools, 38 golf courses and homes selling for 'only $250,000 down' is probably the most wealthy retirement community in the world. Yet it is an area of 37 mobile home parks and senior citizens, 32 per cent of whom...reported an income of less than $4,000 a year."
Braid, Don (January 9, 1985). "Palm Springs: Where the rich meet to greet". The Gazette (Montreal, Canada). p. B-3. Retrieved October 2, 2012. "The whole place is flamboyant, bold, obscenely rich,....It's so utterly un-Canadian that Canadian [tourists] can't resist it, even when they can't afford it."
Miller, Judith (December 16, 1990). "Palm Springs ain't what she used to be". Deseret News (Salt Lake City, UT). NY Times News Service. p. 2P. Retrieved October 3, 2012. "The metropolitan area, which includes nine cities, has 187,000 year-round residents and plays host to 2 million visitors each year. It has 7,645 swimming pools, more than 100 tennis courts and 101 golf courses ...."
Sahagun, Louis (March 16, 1986). "Palm Springs takes pains to gloss up its faded star image". The Pittsburgh Press. The Los Angeles Times. p. G1, G4. Retrieved October 3, 2012. "Now, big spenders, tourists and developers are sidestepping this 50-year-old resort community, gravitating instead toward the towns that have blossomed east of here in the Coachella Valley over the last 10 years."
"Palm Springs, Calif.; A $100 Million Resort Hotel". New York Times. February 19, 1989. Retrieved October 3, 2012. "But while the city of Palm Springs has won national recognition as a resort area, the lower Coachella Valley cities...have benefited most from the new hotels."
^Brooks, Ken (December 16, 2010). "A Palm Springs Break". Payson Roundup (Payson, AZ). Retrieved September 29, 2012. "There are spas, golf courses, famed hotels and resorts, tennis, swimming, sunning, shopping, museums, restaurants and an extensive list of amenities and attractions."
^Data in table for 1890–1930 from Berlo, Robert (2001). Population History of California Places. Livermore, California. (no publisher given).
^All data are derived from the United States Census Bureau reports from the 2010 United States Census, and are accessible on-line here. The data on unmarried partnerships and same-sex married couples are from the Census report DEC_10_SF1_PCT15. All other housing and population data are from Census report DEC_10_DP_DPDP1. Both reports are viewable online or downloadable in a zip file containing a comma-delimited data file. The area data, from which densities are calculated, are available on-line here. Percentage totals may not add to 100% due to rounding. The Census Bureau defines families as a household containing one or more people related to the householder by birth, opposite-sex marriage, or adoption. People living in group quarters are tabulated by the Census Bureau as neither owners nor renters. For further details, see the text files accompanying the data files containing the Census reports mentioned above.
^Palm Springs Bureau of Tourism (2005). Palm Springs: official gay & lesbian visitors guide. Palm Springs, CA: Pride National Network. p. 62. OCLC64229593.; Gay pocket guide: Palm Springs, Cathedral City & the entire Coachella Valley. Hollywood, CA: GHighway. OCLC74711792.; The Bottom Line (Palm Springs, CA: Su-Go Ltd.). 1978–. OCLC45909832.Check date values in: |date= (help)
^The visitor's center for Palm Canyon was named "Hermit's Haven" and "Hermit's Bench" after early "hippie" William Pester who had a cabin overlooking the canyon. See: Lech, Steve (2012). For Tourism and a Good Night's Sleep. Riverside, CA: Steve Lech. p. 230. ISBN978-0983750017., citing "Hermit Haven is Next to Nature" (December 2, 1917). Los Angeles Times; and, Wild, Peter (2008). William Pester: The Hermit of Palm Springs. Johannesburg, CA: The Shady Myrick Research Project. p. 161. OCLC234084689.
Ryder, Jay; Sluman, Jeff (forward) (1989). The Greater Palm Springs Golf Guide: a Comprehensive Reference Guide to Playing the Desert's Finest Gold Courses. Palm Desert, CA: Ryder Publications. p. 156. LCCN90115597.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
^The school is named after an early teacher in Palm Springs. Galon, Buddy; et al. (1980). The Little School House: the Life of Miss Katherine Finchy. Palm Springs, CA: Lyceum of the Desert, pp. 80. OCLC7374555
Dutcher, L C (Lee Carlton); Bader, John S. (1963). Geology and Hydrology of Agua Caliente Springs, Palm Springs. Washington, DC: GPO. p. 43. LCCN63000220 gs 63000220Check |lccn= value (help). OCLC9026608.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
Gunther, Jane Davies (1984). Riverside County, California, Place Names: Their Origins and Their Stories. Riverside, CA. p. 634. LCCN84072920. OCLC12103181.
Jensen, Thomas Arden (1954). Palm Springs, California: its evolution and functions (Dissertation Thesis|format= requires |url= (help)). Los Angeles, CA: University of California, Los Angeles. p. 221. LCCNmic58006446.OCLC14691400 and 17345784
Lawson, Greg; introduction, David Michaels; translations, Fabienne S. Chauderlot, Margaret M. Posner, Roselinde Konrad (1989). Palm Springs Oasis. El Cajon, CA: First Choice Publishers. p. 63. ISBN091625139X. LCCN89085067. OCLC21541845.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
McKinney, Marshall Glenn (1996). Vanishing footprints from the hot desert sand: remembrances of a 90 year old Palm Springs pioneer: horse and wagon days on the southern California desert: a historical autobiography. Sonoma, CA: McKinney. p. 245. LCCN96094678. OCLC36017354.
Richards, Elizabeth W. (1981). Palm Springs – the Early Years. Palm Springs, CA: Palm Springs Savings and Loan. p. 37. OCLC7395533. (Originally published in 1961 as A Look into Palm Springs' Past by Santa Fe Federal Savings & Loan Assoc. LCCF869 P18 R5)
Ringwald, George (1960). "Legend, Feuding and Tragedy: A Story of Palm Springs' Beginnings". Palm Springs Life, 1960–1961: Annual Pictorial: 19–39.
Ortner, Vyola J.; du Pont, Diana C.; Swimmer, Ross O. (Foreword) (2012). You Can't Eat Dirt, Leading America's First All-Women Tribal Council and How We Changed Palm Springs. Fan Palm Research Project. p. 264. ISBN978-0615495590. LCCN2011939660. OCLC801995611.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
Patencio, Chief Francisco; Boynton, Margaret (1943). Stories and Legends of the Palm Springs Indians. Los Angeles, CA: Times-Mirror. p. 33. LCCN44018350. OCLC4020904.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
Ringwald, George (1968). The Agua Caliente Indians and Their Guardians. Riverside, CA: Press-Enterprise. p. 36.OCLC3094608 and 14015139 A reprint of Ringwald's Pulitzer Prize winning articles concerning the scandal of Section 14 of the Agua Caliente Indian Reservation.