Padmasambhava

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Guru
Padmasambhava
Rinpoche
Guru Rinpoche in mist 2.jpg
Statue of Padmasambhava 123 ft. (37.5 m) high in mist overlooking Rewalsar Lake, Himachal Pradesh, India
BornOddiyana, Classical India (modern-day Afghanistan, Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan)
DiedUnknown
Believed by the Buddhists to be alive since he was born miraculously from the lotus flower
EthnicityIndo-Aryan (Brahmin)
OccupationBuddhist teacher and philosopher
Known forTransmitter of Buddhism to Tibet, Bhutan and neighboring countries in the 8th century CE
ReligionBuddhist
Spouse(s)Mandarava
Yeshe Tsogyal
 
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Guru
Padmasambhava
Rinpoche
Guru Rinpoche in mist 2.jpg
Statue of Padmasambhava 123 ft. (37.5 m) high in mist overlooking Rewalsar Lake, Himachal Pradesh, India
BornOddiyana, Classical India (modern-day Afghanistan, Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan)
DiedUnknown
Believed by the Buddhists to be alive since he was born miraculously from the lotus flower
EthnicityIndo-Aryan (Brahmin)
OccupationBuddhist teacher and philosopher
Known forTransmitter of Buddhism to Tibet, Bhutan and neighboring countries in the 8th century CE
ReligionBuddhist
Spouse(s)Mandarava
Yeshe Tsogyal

Padmasambhava[note 1] (lit. "Lotus-Born"), also known as the Second Buddha, was a sage guru from Oddiyana, northwestern Classical India (in the modern-day Swat Valley of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan). Padmasambhava is said to have transmitted Vajrayana Buddhism to Tibet, Bhutan and neighboring countries in the 8th century AD. In those lands, he is better known as Guru Rinpoche (lit. "Precious Guru") or Lopon Rinpoche,[1] or as Padum in Tibet,[2] where followers of the Nyingma school regard him as the second Buddha.[3][note 2]

He is, moreover, considered to have been an emanation of Buddha Amitabha, Shakyamuni Buddha, and Kuan Yin Bodhisattva.[4][5]

Biography[edit]

Sources[edit]

The most definitive source on Padmasambhava's life is the Padma bKa'i Thang,[6] said to be discovered in 1346 CE by Urgyan Lingpa (1323 or 1329-ca.1360 or 1367).[7] It belongs to the gter-ma ("hidden treasures") tradition, that began in the 11th century with Sangs-rgyasbla-ma (ca. 1000-1080).[7] According to Guenther,

"From a historical point of view these "rediscovered" texts are of little relevance: there are too many discrepancies, if not to say, blatant contradictions in one and the same text or the texts ascribed to one and the same author, concerning what we know to be historical facts."[7]

Furthermore, he informs us, the Tibetan hagiographies (Namthar) on Padmasambhava were written centuries after his own lifetime and revolve around certain supernatural accomplishments he allegedly brought about,[8] adding to the factual inaccuracy of these accounts.[9] Tsultrim Allione, Tarthang Tulku and Keith Dowman explain therefore that Namthar are not to be understood as describing actual events, but function as an example of buddhahood and a guide for those on the path to enlightenment.[10]

Owing to the aforementioned problems, we only know a few things about Padmasambhava with certainty. We know that there was once a guru from Orgyen named Padmasambhava, who stayed at the court of the Tibetan king, Trisong Detsen (742-74(7) C.E.), somehow aided in the process of constructing and inaugurating the Samye monastery, journeyed across the country and then left Tibet under mysterious circumstances.[11][12]

Apart from their apparent lack of historicity however, Guenther stresses that Tibetan hagiographical texts such as the ones on Padmasambhava do reveal valuable information about the cultures of their day. He claims that:

"Written in verse form in the language as spoken by the "discoverer" at the time of their discovery, these texts reflect the Zeitgeist that demanded that everything had to be "Indian" and, therefore, as tendentious writings, they increasingly marginalize Padmasambhava's "foreign" (Urgyan, also spelled Orgy an) and even Tibetan connection."[7]

Early years[edit]

Birth[edit]

Padmasambhava was born into a Brahmin family of Northwest India.[13][14]

According to tradition, Padmasambhava was incarnated as an eight-year-old child appearing in a lotus blossom floating in Lake Dhanakosha, in the kingdom of Oḍḍiyāna in Ancient India and in modern times identified with the Swat Valley of South Asia present-day Pakistan.[15] His special nature was recognized by the childless local king of Oḍḍiyāna and was chosen to take over the kingdom, but he left Oḍḍiyāna for northern parts of India.

Tantra[edit]

Statue of Princess Mandarava at Rewalsar Lake.

In Rewalsar, known as Tso Pema in Tibetan, he secretly taught tantric teachings to princess Mandarava, the local king's daughter. The king found out and tried to burn him, but it is believed that when the smoke cleared he just sat there, still alive and in meditation. Greatly astonished by this miracle, the king offered Padmasambhava both his kingdom and Mandarava.

Padmasambhava left with Mandarava, and took to Maratika Cave in Nepal to practice secret tantric consort rituals. They had a vision of buddha Amitayus and achieved what is called the Rainbow Body of the Great Transference[note 3] in the Vajrayana tradition, a very rare type of spiritual realization. [note 4] Dzogchen Practitioners of Padmasambhava's terma still achieve this type of realization today.[citation needed] Both Padmasambhava and Mandarava are still believed to be alive and active in this Rainbow Body form by their followers. She and Padmasambhava's other main consort, Yeshe Tsogyal who was responsible for hiding his numerous terma later in Tibet became fully enlightened. Many thangkas and paintings show Padmasambhava in between them.

Tibet[edit]

Subjection of local religions[edit]

Around 760,[citation needed] King Trisong Detsen, the 38th king of the Yarlung dynasty and the first Emperor of Tibet (742–797), invited the Nalanda University abbot Śāntarakṣita (Tibetan Shiwatso) to Tibet.[16] Śāntarakṣita started the building of Samye,[16] the first Buddhist monastery on Tibetan ground.[citation needed] Demonical forces hindered the introduction of the Buddhist dharma, and Padmasambhava was invited to Tibet to subdue the demonic forces.[17] The demons were not annihilated, but were obliged to submit to the dharma.[18][note 5] This was in accordance with the tantric principle of not eliminating negative forces but redirecting them to fuel the journey toward spiritual awakening.

Berzin gives a more prozaic account of the events:

In 761, [Emperor Tri Songdetsen (Khri Srong sde-btsan)] invited the Indian Buddhist abbot Shantarakshita to Tibet. There was a smallpox epidemic. The Zhang-zhung faction in court blamed Shantarakshita and deported him from the land. On the abbot's advice, the Emperor then invited Guru Rinpoche (Padmasambhava) from Swat (northwestern Pakistan), who drove out the demons who had caused the smallpox. The Emperor then reinvited Shantarakshita. Guru Rinpoche left in 774, without having completed the full transmission of dzogchen. Seeing that the times were not ripe, he buried some texts as buried treasure texts (gter-ma, "terma"). They were exclusively texts on dzogchen.[20]

According to tradition, Padmasambhava received the Emperor's wife, identified with the dakini Yeshe Tsogyal, as a consort.[21]

Translations[edit]

Statues of Padmasambhava, Buddha and Amitayus at Namdroling Monastery.

King Trisong Detsen ordered the translation of all Buddhist Dharma Texts into Tibetan. Padmasambhava, Shantarakṣita, 108 translators, and 25 of Padmasambhava's nearest disciples worked for many years in a gigantic translation-project. The translations from this period formed the base for the large scriptural transmission of Dharma teachings into Tibet. Padmasambhava supervised mainly the translation of Tantra; Shantarakshita concentrated on the Sutra-teachings.[citation needed]

Nyingma[edit]

Padmasambhava introduced the people of Tibet to the practice of Tantric Buddhism.[18][22]

He is regarded as the founder of the Nyingma tradition. The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism.[note 6] The Nyingma tradition actually comprises several distinct lineages that all trace their origins to Padmasambhava.

"Nyingma" literally means "ancient," and is often referred to as "Nga'gyur" "[note 7] or the "early translation school" because it is founded on the first translations of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Tibetan, in the eighth century.[note 8]

Nyingma maintains the earliest tantric teachings. The Nyingmapa incorporates mysticism and local deities shared by the pre-Buddhist Bon religion, which has shamanic elements. The group particularly believes in hidden terma treasures. Traditionally, Nyingmapa practice was advanced orally among a loose network of lay practitioners. Monasteries with celibate monks and nuns, along with the practice of reincarnated spiritual leaders are later adaptations,[23] though Padmasambhava is regarded as the founder of Samye Gompa, the first monastery in the country[24]In modern times the Nyingma lineage has been centered in Kham in eastern Tibet.

Bhutan[edit]

In Bhutan he is associated with the famous Paro Taktsang or "Tiger's Nest" monastery built on a sheer cliff wall about 500m above the floor of Paro valley. It was built around the Taktsang Senge Samdup (stag tshang seng ge bsam grub) cave where he is said to have meditated in the 8th Century. He flew there from Tibet on the back of Yeshe Tsogyal, whom he transformed into a flying tigress for the purpose of the trip. Later he travelled to Bumthang district to subdue a powerful deity offended by a local king. Padmasambhava's body imprint can be found in the wall of a cave at nearby Kurje Lhakhang temple.

Iconography, manifestations and attributes[edit]

Iconography[edit]

Padmasambhava. Wall painting at Paro bridge (Bhutan)

General[edit]

Head[edit]

Skin[edit]

Dress[edit]

Hands[edit]

Khatvanga[edit]

The khaṭvāńga is a particular divine attribute of Padmasambhava and intrinsic to his iconographic representation. It is a danda with three severed heads denoting the three kayas (the three bodies of a Buddha, the dharmakaya, sambhogakaya, and nirmanakaya), crowned by a trishula, and dressed with a sash of the Himalayan Rainbow or Five Pure Lights of the Mahabhuta. The iconography is utilized in various Tantric cycles by yogis as symbols to hidden meanings in transmitted practices.

Seat[edit]

Surrounding[edit]

There are further iconographies and meanings in more advanced and secret stages.[citation needed]

Eight Manifestations[edit]

A wrathful manifestation of Padmasambhava

Padmasambhava is said to have taken eight forms or manifestations (Tib. Guru Tsen Gye) representing different aspects of his being, such as wrath or pacification for example. According to Rigpa Shedra the eight principal forms were assumed by Guru Rinpoche at different points in his life. The Eight Manifestations of Padmasambhava belong to the tradition of the Revealed Treasures (Tib.: ter ma).[28]

Padmasambhava's various Sanskrit names are preserved in mantras such as those found in the Yang gsang rig 'dzin youngs rdzogs kyi blama guru mtshan brgyad bye brag du sgrub pa ye shes bdud rtsi'i sbrang char zhe bya ba[29]

Attributes[edit]

Pure-land Paradise[edit]

His Pureland Paradise is Zangdok Palri (the Copper-Coloured Mountain).[30]

Samantabhadra and Samantabhadri[edit]

Padmasambhava said:

My father is the intrinsic awareness, Samantabhadra (Sanskrit; Tib. ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ). My mother is the ultimate sphere of reality, Samantabhadri (Sanskrit; Tib. ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་མོ). I belong to the caste of non-duality of the sphere of awareness. My name is the Glorious Lotus-Born. I am from the unborn sphere of all phenomena. I act in the way of the Buddhas of the three times.

Five Wisdom Dakinis[edit]

Padmasambhava in Yam-yum form with his Shakthi

Padmasambhava had five major female tantric companions, the so-called 'Five Wisdom Dakinis' (Wylie: Ye-shes mKha-'gro lnga) or 'Five Consorts.' In Padmasambhava's biography, they are described as the five women "who had access to the master's heart", and practiced tantric rites which are considered to have exorcised the previous demons of Tibet and converted them into protectors of the country.' They were:

Princess Sakya Devi from Nepal[edit]

On Padmasambhava's consort practice with Princess Sakya Devi from Nepal it is said:

In a state of intense bliss, Padmasambhava and Sakyadevi realized the infinite reality of the Primordial Buddha Mind, the All-Beneficent Lord (Samantabhadra), whose absolute love is the unimpeded dynamo of existence. Experiencing the succession of the four stages of ecstasy, their mutual state of consciousness increased from height to height. And thus, meditating on Supreme Vajrasattva Heruka as the translucent image of compassionate wrathful (energized) activity, they together acquired the mahamudra of Divinity and attained complete Great Enlightenment.[32]

Teachings and practices ascribed to Padmasambhava[edit]

The Vajra Guru mantra[edit]

The Vajra Guru Mantra in Lanydza and Tibetan script.

The Vajra Guru (Padmasambhava) mantra Om Ah Hum Vajra Guru Padma Siddhi Hum is favoured and held in esteem by sadhakas. Like most Sanskritic mantras in Tibet, the Tibetan pronunciation demonstrates dialectic variation and is generally Om Ah Hung Benza Guru Pema Siddhi Hung. In the Vajrayana traditions, particularly of the Nyingmapa, it is held to be a powerful mantra engendering communion with the Three Vajras of Padmasambhava's mindstream and by his grace, all enlightened beings.[33] In response to Yeshe Tsogyal's request, the Great Master himself explained the meaning of the mantra although there are larger secret meanings too.[34] The 14th century tertön Karma Lingpa has a famous commentary on the mantra.[35]

The Seven Line Prayer to Padmasambhava[edit]

The Seven Line Prayer to Padmasambhava

The Seven Line Prayer to Padmasambhava (Guru Rinpoche) is a famous prayer that is recited by many Tibetans daily and is said to contain the most sacred and important teachings of Dzogchen.

Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso composed a famous commentary to the Seven Line Prayer called White Lotus. It explains the meanings, which are embedded in many levels and intended to catalyze a process of realization. These hidden teachings are described as ripening and deepening, in time, with study and with contemplation.[36] Tulku Thondup says:

Enshrining the most sacred prayer to Guru Padmasambhava, White Lotus elucidates its five layers of meaning as revealed by the eminent scholar Ju Mipham. This commentary now makes this treasure, which has been kept secret among the great masters of Tibet for generations, available as a source of blessings and learning for all.

There is also a shorter commentary, freely available, by Tulku Thondup himself.[37] There are many other teachings and Termas and widely practiced tantric cycles incorporating the text as well as brief ones such as Terma Revelation of Guru Chöwang.[38]

Termas[edit]

Padmasambhava also hid a number of religious treasures (termas) in lakes, caves, fields and forests of the Himalayan region to be found and interpreted by future tertöns or spiritual treasure-finders.[39] According to Tibetan tradition, the Bardo Thodol (commonly referred to as the Tibetan Book of the Dead) was among these hidden treasures, subsequently discovered by a Tibetan terton, Karma Lingpa.

Tantric cycles[edit]

Tantric cycles related to Padmasambhava are not just practiced by the Nyingma, they even gave rise to a new offshoot of Bon which emerged in the 14th century called the New Bön. Prominent figures of the Sarma (new translation) schools such as the Karmapas and Sakya lineage heads have practiced these cycles and taught them. Some of the greatest tertons revealing teachings related to Padmasambhava have been from the Kagyu or Sakya lineages. The hidden lake temple of the Dalai Lamas behind the Potala called Lukhang is dedicated to Dzogchen teachings and has murals depicting the eight manifestations of Padmasambhava.[40] Padmasambhava established Vajrayana Buddhism and the highest forms of Dzogchen (Mengagde) in Tibet and transformed the entire nation.

Twenty-five main disciples[edit]

Twenty-five Main Disciples of Padmasambhava (Tibetan: རྗེ་འབངས་ཉེར་ལྔWylie: rje 'bangs nyer lnga) -also called the disciples of Chimphu[41]- in various lists these include:

Also:

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Tibetan: པདྨ་འབྱུང་གནས།Wylie: pad+ma 'byung gnas (EWTS), ZYPY: Bämajungnä); Mongolian ловон Бадмажунай, lovon Badmajunai, Chinese: 莲花生大士 (pinyin: Liánhuāshēng)
  2. ^ Other names are:
    • Guru Rinpoche
    • Orgyen Guru
    • Loppon Rinpoche
    • Padum
    • Padmakara
    • Saroruha Vajra (in Bhutan)
  3. ^ Wylie 'pho ba chen po, pronounced Phowa Chenpo
  4. ^ Wylie: 'ja' lus, pronounced Jalü.
  5. ^ The subjection of concurring deities and demons is a recurrent theme in Buddhist literature. See also Vajrapani and Mahesvara and Steven Heine's "Opening a Mountain".[19]
  6. ^ The other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug
  7. ^ Tibetan: སྔ་འགྱུར།Wylie: snga 'gyur, ZYPY: Nga'gyur, "school of the ancient translations.
  8. ^ The Tibetan script and grammar was actually created for this endeavour.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Norbu 1987.
  2. ^ Sun 2008, p. 10,31,145.
  3. ^ Jestis (2004) 668.
  4. ^ Kinnard (2010) 89.
  5. ^ Lu, Sheng-Yen (2013) 24:15. name="The Nine Stages of Great Perfection"> | url = http://vimeo.com/69438941
  6. ^ For the importance of this text, see: Tsogyal (1978) xxviii; Bischoff (1978) 28. The only available English translation of this work is Tsogyal (1978). Some scholars have questioned this translation's quality, however: they particularly criticize the manner in which this work, in and of itself embedded in Tibetan culture, was rendered into an inappropriate style of English. For this discussion, see: Jackson (1979).
  7. ^ a b c d Guenther 1996, p. 1-2, note 1.
  8. ^ For an example of the Padma bKa'i thang's miraculous nature, see: Bisschof (1972) 28f.
  9. ^ Guenther 1996, p. ix.
  10. ^ Allione (1986) 56; Dowman (1973) 71; Tsogyal (1978) xxxiii-iv.
  11. ^ Guenther 1996, p. 1.
  12. ^ Bischoff (1978) 29f.
  13. ^ Morgan (2010) 208.
  14. ^ Tsogyal (1973) volume I deals with Padmasambhava's life in India.
  15. ^ Trungpa (2001) 26. For debate on it's geographical location, see also the article on Oddiyana.
  16. ^ a b Snelling 1987, p. 198.
  17. ^ Snelling 1987, p. 196, 198.
  18. ^ a b Snelling 1987.
  19. ^ Heine 2002.
  20. ^ Berzin 2000.
  21. ^ 'Guru Rinpoche' and 'Yeshe Tsogyal' in: Forbes, Andrew ; Henley, David (2013). The Illustrated Tibetan Book of the Dead. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. B00BCRLONM
  22. ^ Harvey 1995.
  23. ^ Sherpa, Lhakpa Norbu (2008). Through a Sherpa Window: Illustrated Guide to Sherpa Culture. Kathmandu, Nepal: Vajra Publications. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/978-9937506205|978-9937506205[[Category:Articles with invalid ISBNs]]]] Check |isbn= value (help). 
  24. ^ Norbu 1987, p. 162.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, Illuminating the Excellent Path to Omniscience
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Chökyi Drakpa, A Torch for the Path to Omniscience: A Word by Word Commentary on the Text of the Longchen Nyingtik Preliminary Practices.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Patrul Rinpoche, Brief Guide to the Ngöndro Visualization
  28. ^ Khenchen Palden Sherab Rinpoche The Eight Emanations Of Guru Padmasambhava; Rigpawiki Eight Manifestations of Guru Rinpoche; For the eight manifestations as terma, see: Padmasambhava - 8 Froms: Dorje Drolo.
  29. ^ a b c d Boord 1993, p. 115.
  30. ^ Schmidt and Binder 1993, pp. 252-53.
  31. ^ The Yoniverse The Five Consorts; Five Wisdom Dakinis.
  32. ^ Dharma Fellowship of His Holiness the Gyalwa Karmapa Lord Padmasambhava: Embodiment of all the Buddhas Section 9.
  33. ^ Sogyal Rinpoche (1992). The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, pp. 386-389 Harper, San Francisco. ISBN 0-7126-5437-2.
  34. ^ Khenpo Namdrol's Padmasambhava Global Project for World Peace
  35. ^ Benefits and Advantages of the Vajra Guru Mantra
  36. ^ White Lotus: An Explanation of the Seven-line Prayer to Guru Padmasambhava by Mipham Rinpoche, Ju and translated by the Padmakara Translation Group
  37. ^ Commentary on the Seven Line Prayer to Guru Rinpoche
  38. ^ Lotsawa House|Seven Line Prayer, Accomplishing the Lama through the Seven Line Prayer: A Special Teaching from the Lama Sangdü, The Terma Revelation of Guru Chöwang
  39. ^ Laird (2006) 90.
  40. ^ Ian A. Baker: The Lukhang: A hidden temple in Tibet.
  41. ^ RigpaShedra
  42. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Denma Tsemang". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  43. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Nanam Dorje Dudjom". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  44. ^ Dorje, Gyurme (August 2008). "Lasum Gyelwa Jangchub". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  45. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Gyelwa Choyang". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  46. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Gyelwai Lodro". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  47. ^ Garry, Ron (August 2007). "Nyak Jñānakumara". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  48. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Kawa Peltsek". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  49. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Langdro Konchok Jungne". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  50. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Sokpo Pelgyi Yeshe". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  51. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Lhalung Pelgyi Dorje". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  52. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Lang Pelgyi Sengge". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  53. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Kharchen Pelgyi Wangchuk". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  54. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Odren Pelgyi Wangchuk". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  55. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Ma Rinchen Chok". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  56. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (December 2009). "Nubchen Sanggye Yeshe". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  57. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Yeshe Yang". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  58. ^ Leschly, Jakob (August 2007). "Nyang Tingdzin Zangpo". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 

Sources[edit]

  • Berzin, Alexander (November 10–11). "Brief History of Dzogchen". The Berzin Archives. Retrieved 19 January 2013. 
  • Bischoff, F.A. (1978). "Padmasambhava est-il un personnage historique?". In Ligeti, Louis. Csoma de Körös Memorial symposium (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó): 27–33. ISBN 963-05-1568-7. 
  • Boord, Martin (1993), Cult of the Deity Vajrakila, Institute of Buddhist Studies, ISBN 0-9515424-3-5 
  • Dudjom Rinpoche The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: Its Fundamentals and History. Translated by Gyurme Dorje and Matthew Kapstein. Boston: Wisdom Publications. 1991, 2002. ISBN 0-86171-199-8.
  • Guenther, Herbert V. (1996), The Teachings of Padmasambhava, Leiden: E.J. Brill, ISBN 90-04-10542-5 
  • Harvey, Peter (1995), An introduction to Buddhism. Teachings, history and practices, Cambridge University Press 
  • Heine, Steven (2002), Opening a Mountain. Koans of the Zen Masters, Oxford: Oxford University Press 
  • Jackson, D. (1979) 'The Life and Liberation of Padmasambhava (Padma bKaí thang)' in: The Journal of Asian Studies 39: 123-25.
  • Jestis, Phyllis G. (2004) Holy People of the World Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1576073556.
  • Kinnard, Jacob N. (2010) The Emergence of Buddhism Minneapolis: Fortress Press. ISBN 0800697480.
  • Lu, Sheng-Yen. "Nine Great Stages of Perfection" at 24:15 (2010).
  • Laird, Thomas. (2006). The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama. Grove Press, New York. ISBN 978-0-8021-1827-1.
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  • Taranatha The Life of Padmasambhava. Shang Shung Publications, 2005. Translated from Tibetan by Cristiana de Falco.
  • Thondup, Tulku. Hidden Teachings of Tibet: An Explanation of the Terma Tradition of the Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism. London: Wisdom Publications, 1986.
  • Trungpa, Chögyam (2001). Crazy Wisdom. Boston: Shambhala Publications. ISBN 0-87773-910-2.
  • Tsogyal, Yeshe. The Life and Liberation of Padmasambhava. Padma bKa'i Thang. Two Volumes. 1978. Translated into English by Kenneth Douglas and Gwendolyn Bays. ISBN 0-913546-18-6 and ISBN 0-913546-20-8.
  • Tsogyal, Yeshe. The Lotus-Born: The Lifestory of Padmasambhava Pema Kunsang, E. (trans.); Binder Schmidt, M. & Hein Schmidt, E. (eds.) 1st edition, Boston: Shambhala Books, 1993. Reprint: Boudhanath: Rangjung Yeshe Publications, 2004. ISBN 962-7341-55-X.
  • Wallace, B. Alan (1999), "The Buddhist Tradition of Samatha: Methods for Refining and Examining Consciousness", Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (2-3): 175-187 .
  • Zangpo, Ngawang. Guru Rinpoche: His Life and Times. Snow Lion Publications, 2002.

External links[edit]

General[edit]

Biographical[edit]

Prayers and Practice[edit]