Pacific Highway (Australia)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Pacific Highway
Queensland – New South Wales
General information
TypeHighway
Length960 km (597 mi)
Route number(s)
Former
route number
Only former and current NSW sections included[1]
Major junctions
Brisbane to Mayfield West
North endNorth Quay Brisbane
 
South end Industrial Drive
Newcastle West to Tuggerah then Ourimbah to Wyoming
NE end Stewart Avenue/Hunter Street
 
SW end Mann Street
Kariong to North Sydney
North end Pacific Motorway
Central Coast Highway
 
South end Warringah Freeway, North Sydney, Sydney
Location(s)
Major settlements
Highway system
Highways in Australia
National HighwayFreeways in Australia
Highways in Queensland
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Pacific Highway
Queensland – New South Wales
General information
TypeHighway
Length960 km (597 mi)
Route number(s)
Former
route number
Only former and current NSW sections included[1]
Major junctions
Brisbane to Mayfield West
North endNorth Quay Brisbane
 
South end Industrial Drive
Newcastle West to Tuggerah then Ourimbah to Wyoming
NE end Stewart Avenue/Hunter Street
 
SW end Mann Street
Kariong to North Sydney
North end Pacific Motorway
Central Coast Highway
 
South end Warringah Freeway, North Sydney, Sydney
Location(s)
Major settlements
Highway system
Highways in Australia
National HighwayFreeways in Australia
Highways in Queensland
Hunter River bridge, Pacific Highway, Hexham, New South Wales is the largest of few surviving lift span bridges in NSW, still in working order.

The Pacific Highway is a major transport route along part of the east coast of Australia, with the majority part of Australia's national route 1.

It is 960 km long and links Sydney, the capital of New South Wales, to Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, along the coast, via Gosford, Newcastle, Taree, Port Macquarie, Kempsey, Coffs Harbour, Grafton, Ballina, and the Gold Coast. Although one of the busiest highways in Australia, it is still an undivided road for almost half its length.

History[edit]

Initially, the primary mode of transport of the coastal areas between Sydney and Brisbane was by boat. From the roads radiating out from the port towns, the intervening hills were eventually crossed to create a continuous route along the coast, but this did not occur until the first decade of the 20th century. By contrast a continuous inland route from Newcastle to Brisbane via the tablelands had been in existence since the 1840s. A direct coastal route between Sydney and Newcastle was not completed until 1930, and completion of the sealing of the Pacific Highway did not occur until 1958 (at Koorainghat, south of Taree). The last of the many ferries across the coastal rivers was not superseded by a bridge until 1966 (the Harwood Bridge across the south channel of the Clarence River – the north channel had been bridged in 1931).

In 1928 the road from Sydney to Newcastle (still under construction) was proclaimed as part of the Great Northern Highway, and the road from Hexham to Tweed Heads as the North Coast Highway. In 1931 the full length from Sydney to Brisbane was proclaimed as the Pacific Highway.

Until the 1990s most road freight between Sydney and Brisbane passed along the New England Highway instead, due to the easier topography of the Northern Tablelands it traverses. Between 1950 and 1967, traffic on the Pacific Highway quadrupled due to the attraction of coastal towns between Sydney and Brisbane for retirement living and tourism.

Shark Creek bridge near Maclean, formerly part of the Pacific Hwy

Two major coach accidents on the Pacific Highway in 1989 near Grafton (in which 20 people died) and at Clybucca near Kempsey (in which 35 people died) resulted in a public outcry over the poor quality of the road and its high fatality rate.[7] The Pacific Highway was never part of the Federally funded system of National Highways. This appears to be because when the Commonwealth funding of the 'national highway' system began in 1974, the longer New England Highway was chosen rather than the Pacific Highway as the Sydney–Brisbane link due to its easier topography and consequent lower upgrade costs.

Yet the highway was undeniably heavily used by interstate traffic and its upgrade was beyond the resources of the New South Wales Government alone. The NSW Government and the Commonwealth Government argued for years about how the responsibility for funding the highway's upgrade should be divided between themselves, only coming up with a mutually acceptable upgrade package just after the 1996/97 financial year.

Former highway sections[edit]

Pacific Highway used to be an undivided road from Sydney to Brisbane when it was first proclaimed. Now it is made up of 4 divided sections.[8]

Before the Central Coast Highway was proclaimed, one of the sections from Ourimbah to Sydney were undivided. When a part of the highway (Kariong to Gosford section) was converted to Central Coast Highway, this section is split into 2: Kariong to Sydney, and Ourimbah to Wyoming. The short section from Gosford to Wyoming was renamed as Mann Street.

Even though these sections are not gazetted as the highway anymore, maps continue to show both the current road name and "Pacific Highway" together.

Current status[edit]

The overview of the Pacific Highway between Sydney and Brisbane:

1996 upgrade masterplan[edit]

Single carriageway sections from Tweed Heads to Hexham are progressively being converted to freeway or dual carriageway standards. These are currently being upgraded as part of a joint New South Wales and Commonwealth funding arrangement and upgrade masterplan commencing in 1996. At the time, the plan targeted to have the Pacific Highway upgraded to dual carriageway by 2016. With the target unlikely to be reached, the current strategy has assigned 3 levels of prority to the remaining road:[9]

In the meantime, numerous sections of existing single carriageway road have been upgraded by re-alignments and safety improvement work including the addition of overtaking lanes, pavement widening and median barriers. Most large towns have bypasses of a freeway standard, with Coffs Harbour and Grafton being important remainders. Overall the highway has become safer and travelling times have been substantially reduced, particularly during holiday periods. About 44% of the Pacific Hwy (Tweed Heads to Hexham) remains one lane in each direction with some form of overtaking opportunity occasionally (or three lanes undivided on occasions), 56% (368 km) is dual carriageway and a further 14% (95 km) of dual carriageway is under construction.[9] Continuous dual carriageway, much of it is freeway standard, now extends from the Pacific Motorway (Sydney–Newcastle) and New England Highway junction at Beresfield to the Oxley Highway interchange at Port Macquarie.

As of 1 February 2014 (2014-02-01) the status of four lane dual carriageway on the highway was:[10]

Four lane dual carriageway status
SectionTotal length (km)4-lane divided highway (km)
CurrentCompletionCurrentUnder
construction
Planned
Tweed Heads to Ballina (Bruxner Hwy)
including part of Pacific Motorway
90.588.570.5170
Ballina to Coffs Harbour206.5198.519.530.5155
Coffs Harbour to Port Macquarie (Oxley Hwy)1511463662.557.4
Port Macquarie to Hexham
including Pacific Motorway (Sydney–Newcastle) extension
21822021312.118
Totals666653339107.5247.4

Projects[edit]

List of projects on the Pacific Highway
ProjectLength (km)Construction datesValueStatusDescription
StartEnd
Tugun Bypass7June 2006[11]3 June 2008[11]$543 million[11]CompletePart of the Pacific Motorway, partly in Queensland
Banora Point2.5[12]December 2009[12]September 2012[12]$359 million[12]CompletePart of the Pacific Motorway
Chinderah Bypass5.8[13]1993[14]29 November 1996[13]$67 million[13]CompletePart of the Pacific Motorway
Yelgun to Chinderah28.6[15]May 2000[15]4 August 2002[15]$348 million[15]CompletePart of the Pacific Motorway, includes 3 interchanges
Brunswick Heads Bypass (stage 1)3.4[16]12 September 1996[16]5 June 1998[16]$17 million[16]CompletePart of the Pacific Motorway, first 2 lanes
Brunswick Heads to Yelgun8.6[17]July 2005[14]July 2007[17]$219 million[18]CompletePart of the Pacific Motorway, duplication
Tandy's Lane realignment5.5[19]October 1999[20]19 December 2001[21]$44 million[20]CompletePart of the Pacific Motorway
Ewingsdale to Tyagarah realignment4.3[22]Late 1996[21]16 October 1998[22]$22 million[22]CompletePart of the Pacific Motorway
Ewingsdale interchange1.9[23]February 1999[23]20 December 2000[23]$22.5 million[23]CompletePart of the Pacific Motorway
Tintenbar to Ewingsdale17[24]May 2012[24]Late 2014 (est.)[24]$862 million[24]Under ConstructionFour lane motorway (limited access), new alignment, 110 km/h speed limit, twin-tube road tunnel under St Helena Hill.
Ballina Bypass12[25]May 2008[25]28 April 2012[25]$640 million[25]CompleteNew alignment
Pimlico to Teven2.3[26]November 2013[26]Mid 2016 (est.)[26]$92 million[26]Under constructionDuplication, rebuilding of old carriageway, to be completed as part of Woolgoolga to Ballina project
Woolgoolga to Ballina155[27]TBATBATBAIn planningFreeway, new alignment or reconstruction of old highway, does not include Devils Pulpit, Halfway Creek or Glenugie sections
Devils Pulpit7.3[28]December 2011[28]Early 2014 (est.)[28]$77 million[28]Under constructionFour lanes, partly new alignment
Glenugie upgrade2.5[29]201031 October 2011[29]$60 million[29]CompleteFour lanes, partly new alignment
Halfway Creek3.4[30]Late 2002[31]June 2004CompletePartly new alignment
Sapphire to Woolgoolga25[32]August 2010[32]Late 2014 (est.)[32]$850 million[32]Under construction (10 km Woolgoolga bypass opened to traffic on Monday 16 December 2013)Four lane divided highway, new alignment
Korora Hill Reconstruction1.5[33]January 1997[33]15 December 1997[33]$6 million[33]CompleteDuplication and reconstruction
Coffs Harbour Bypass12[34]TBATBATBAIn planningfour lane freeway with 3 interchanges, new alignment
Lyons Rd to Englands Rd5.3[35]October 1997[36]May 2001[36]$73m[37]CompleteDuplication and reconstruction
Bonville upgrade9.6[38]November 2006[39]15 September 2008[39]$245m[38]CompleteDuplication and reconstruction, covered tunnel for koalas
Raleigh Deviation8[40]January 1995[40]17 September 1998[40]$72m[40]CompleteDuplication and reconstruction
Nambucca Heads to Urunga22[41]15 January 2014[41]TBA$780 million[41]Under constructionFour lane limited access freeway, 110 km/h, 3 interchanges
Warrell Creek to Nambucca Heads20[42]TBATBATBAEarly works
Eungai Duplication4.2[43]January 1998[40]March 1999[40]$15m[43]CompleteDuplication of first carriageway, which was built in 2 stages in the mid 1980s and early 1990s[44]
Frederickton to Eungai26.5[45]August 2013[45]2016 (est.)[45]$675 millionUnder constructionFour lane divided highway
Kempsey Bypass14.5[46]June 2010[46]27 March 2013[46]$618 million[46]CompleteDual carriageway freeway with 3.2 km bridge over Macleay River, New alignment
Kundabung to Kempsey14[47]Mid 2014 (est.)[47]TBATBAEarly works
Oxley Highway to Kundabung[47]23[47]Late 2014 (est.)TBAEarly worksEarly works
Herons Creek Deviation Duplication14[48]November 1997[49]3 July 1998[48]$19m[48]CompleteDuplication of the first carriageway, which was opened in 2 stages: the northern stage from Ryans Road to the Oxley Highway in December 1990 and the southern stage in November 1993.[48]
Herons Creek to Stills Road Upgrade3.5[50]March 2011[50]Late 2013$60m[50]CompleteReplacement of substandard carriageway (part of the old highway) to raise the road to freeway standard.
Coopernook to Herons Creek33[51]November 2007[51]July 2010[51]$555m[52]CompleteUpgrade of highway to four lanes including a western bypass of Moorland, Johns River and a eastern bypass of Kew.
Coopernook Bypass4.2[53]February 2004[54]22 March 2006[53]$44m[54]CompleteFour lane bypass.
Taree to Coopernook7.5[55]November 2001[54]4 August 2005[55]$59m[55]CompleteUpgrade to four lanes, two new bridges over Ghinni Ghinni Creek and two cattle underpasses. Some upgrading, including fout-lane sections had commenced in September 1996 and was completed in 1998.
Taree Bypass14.5[56]July 1993 (first carriageway)[57]December 1997 (first carriageway); May 2000 (second carriageway)[57]$126m[58]CompleteFour lane highway, new alignment
Possum Brush to Taree17[59]1990 [59]August 1991 (Possum Brush Deviation); May 1993 (Rainbow Flat Deviation)[59]CompleteFour lane highway, old road used for northbound carriageway between Failford Road and Bonvale Close, planned to be replaced as part of Failford Road to Tritton Road upgrade
Failford Road to Tritton Road upgrade3[60]TBATBATBAIn planningNew carriageway and interchange with Failford Road
Bundacree Creek to Possum Brush9.7[61]2004[62]2006[63]$115m[63]CompleteFour lanes generally along old alignment, including upgrade of existing Nabiac bypass, new interchange and bridges.
Wang Wauk to Bundacree Creek4.8[64]August 1997[64]10 December 1998[64]$21m[64]CompleteFour lanes generally along old alignment.
Coolongolook to Wang Wauk11.7[65]1999[66]July 2001[65]$49m[67]CompleteFour lanes generally along old alignment, 80km/h zone through Coolongolook.
Bulahdelah to Coolongolook23[68]April 1997[66]October 1999[66]$130m[68]CompleteFour lanes freeway on new alignment.
Bulahdelah upgrade8.6[69]August 2010[69]27 June 2013[69]$315 million[69]CompleteFour lane highway, new alignment
Karuah to Bulahdelah11 (section 1),[70] 23 (section 2 and 3)[71]June 2005 (section 1)[72] February 2007 (sections 2 and 3)15 December 2006 (section 1),[72] September 2009 (sections 2 and 3)[72]$114m (section 1),[70] - (sections 2 and 3)CompleteFour lane highway (section 1 from Karuah to 2 km north of Myall Way and sections 2 and 3 further north)
Karuah bypass9.8[73]June 2002[74]22 September 2004[75]$117m[74]CompleteFour lane freeway, bridge over Karuah River and interchanges at either end.
Raymond Terrace to Karuah18[76]August 1998[76]1 December 2000[76]$86m[76]CompleteFour lane highway, consisting of new 2-lane northbound carriageway and upgrade of old road as southbound carraigeway
Raymond Terrace Bypass7.6[77]November 1993[77]17 December 1998[77]$78m[77]CompleteFour lane freeway, including 1 interchange and pairs of bridges at three other places
F3 Freeway to Raymond Terrace15TBATBATBAIn planning
(Preferred routes selected)
Four lane highway with uninterrupted traffic flow

North of the Oxley Highway there are dual carriageway sections from Kempsey South to Frederickton (Kempsey Bypass),[46] Eungai-Warrell Creek, North Urunga to Coffs Harbour, the Coffs Harbour urban area (not freeway standard – but still 4 lanes), the Ballina bypass and short sections at Halfway Creek and Glenugie.

Environmental impact assessments have been completed for the following future projects: Warrell Creek to Urunga upgrade,[78] Oxley Highway to Kempsey.[79]

Preferred routes have been selected for the following future projects: Woodburn to Ballina Upgrade, Wells Crossing to Iluka Road,[80] Woolgoolga to Wells Crossing,[81] F3 Freeway to Raymond Terrace

Funding Issues[edit]

In 2007 mounting pressure was place on the Federal Government to provide additional funding for the highway.[citation needed] On 10 October 2007 the Federal Minister for Transport and Regional Services pledged $2.4 billion in funding for the highway, subject to dollar for dollar funding by the NSW state government. However, the NSW state government refused to match funding. In the lead up to the 2007 Federal election, then opposition leader Kevin Rudd pledged $1.5 billion in funding.[82] As part of Auslink 2 (Nation Building Program), the Federal Govt announced in its 2009 Federal budget that $3.1 billion would be spent on the highway up until 2014[83] at which time just 63% of the highway would be duplicated.[84] The NSW Government will spend just $500 million over that same period, with $300 million cut as a result of the 2008 mini budget.[85][86]

The upgrading of the Pacific Highway is occasionally a subject of political contention. Greens Senator Lee Rhiannon has claimed that "much of our transport funding has gone into the Pacific Highway in response to a very powerful lobby that comes from the trucking industry".[87] On the other hand, journalist Miranda Devine has charged that "Pacific Highway construction has been bogged down and delayed by absurd bureaucratic processes, mostly to do with trivial environmental and heritage concerns".[88]

From time to time, there are proposals in the media for the private sector to build a fully controlled-access high-speed tollway between Newcastle and the Queensland border, possibly using the BOT system of infrastructure provision. Nothing has eventuated from these proposals.[89]

Safety[edit]

The Pacific Highway is one of the most dangerous and deadly stretches of road in Australia. Between 1995 and 2009, over 400 people died on the highway. In 1989, two separate bus crashes, the Grafton bus crash (in which 20 people died) and the Kempsey bus crash (in which 35 died), led to the deaths of 55 people on the highway, two of the worst road accidents in Australia's history.[90] In 2010, 38 people died on the Pacific Highway, and in 2011, 25 people.[91] Over the past 15 years, the New South Wales Roads and Traffic Authority reports that about 1,200 people have been injured each year.[91]

Much of the danger of the Pacific Highway lies in the fact that it contains long stretches of undivided road along which all types of vehicles, including private automobiles, buses, vans and trucks, simultaneously travel at speeds approaching and in excess of 100 km/h. The undivided sections carry a high risk of head-on collisions. After the 1989 crashes, the investigating coroner, Kevin Waller, recommended that the highway be fully divided along its entire length, but only 51% had been divided by 2012.[92] Motorists surveyed by the National Roads and Motorists' Association voted the Pacific Highway the worst road in New South Wales in 2012.[93]

Route description[edit]

Map of Pacific Highway route from Sydney to Brisbane.
KEY

  Pacific Hwy
  Other major highways
  Other freeways/motorways/expressways
From the hill, showing the Chinderah-Yelgun section of the highway as it sweeps through the Tweed Valley.

From Sydney the Pacific Highway starts as the continuation of the Bradfield Highway at the northern end of the Sydney Harbour Bridge, immediately north of the Sydney Central Business District and is the main route as far as the suburb of Wahroonga. From the Harbour Bridge to the Gore Hill Freeway at Artarmon it has no route number and from the Gore Hill Freeway to Wahroonga it is designated as A1.

From Wahroonga, the Pacific Highway is mostly parallel to the freeway until Kariong (at which point it diverts into the Central Coast through Gosford and Wyong). The section of the highway from Cowan to Kariong follows a scenic winding route with varying speed limits, typically 60 or 70 km/h (37 or 43 mph). This section was damaged quite severely during severe weather in June 2007. Five people died when a bridge over Piles Creek collapsed and the entire section was closed due to subsidence 2 km (1.2 mi) further south. The road was reopened in 2009 when the Holt-Bragg Bridge was opened, named after the family that had perished.

Between 1925 and 1930 the then-Main Roads Board reconstructed a route between Hornsby and Calga that had been abandoned some forty years earlier, in order to provide a direct road link between Sydney and Newcastle. In addition a replacement route, from Calga into the gorge of Mooney Mooney Creek and up to the ridge at Kariong above Gosford, was also required. This new Sydney–Newcastle route via Calga and Gosford was some 80 km shorter than the previous route via Parramatta, McGraths Hill, Maroota, Wisemans Ferry, Wollombi and Cessnock. At first Peats Ferry was reinstituted to cross the Hawkesbury River, with construction of the bridge not beginning until 1938, due to the Great Depression. Due to the onset of World War II, the Peats Ferry Bridge was not completed until May 1945.

The section of what was formerly the Pacific Highway from the Wiseman's Ferry Road junction at Somersby, through to the Pacific Hwy exit at Gosford (adjacent to Brian McGowan Bridge), has been rebadged as the Central Coast Highway with the route number A49. Then the highway continues north without a route number through the Central Coast suburbs of Ourimbah and Wyong as a regional route before meeting with a spur of the Pacific Motorway near Doyalson numbered as "A43". At this point the Pacific Highway becomes "A43" for most of its length, and is a four-lane regional highway passing Lake Macquarie and on through the suburbs of the cities of Lake Macquarie and Newcastle before rejoining national route 1 at Hexham.

From Bennetts Green to Sandgate it is supplemented by the Newcastle Inner City Bypass, through New Lambton and Jesmond. Two lengths of this route (Bennetts Green-Kotara Heights and Jesmond-Shortland) have been replaced by freeway.

From Hexham, the Pacific Highway (A1) passes up the NSW north coast to Ewingsdale, where it becomes the Pacific Motorway (M1).

Speed limits (south to north)[edit]

Road distances (in kilometres) of towns and cities along the Pacific Highway from Sydney. Town names in brackets are bypassed

Hexham to Port Macquarie

Port Macquarie to Coffs Harbour

Coffs Harbour to Ballina

Ballina to Ewingsdale

Continues as Pacific Motorway

Cities, towns and major river crossings[edit]

The Pacific Highway passes through some of Australia's fastest growing regions, the NSW's Central Coast and North Coast and also the Brisbane-Gold Coast corridor, with tourism and leisure being the primary economic activity. Hence the traffic is heavy, particularly during holiday seasons, resulting in major congestion. For direct Sydney–Brisbane travel, the New England Highway is preferred as it passes through fewer major towns and carries less local traffic. Another alternate route is via the scenic Bucketts Way and Thunderbolts Way to the Northern Tablelands at Walcha before rejoining the New England Highway at Uralla. This route reduces the distance of the Sydney to Brisbane trip by about 70 km.

Major cities and towns along the Pacific Highway include: Gosford, Wyong, Newcastle, Taree, Port Macquarie, Kempsey, Coffs Harbour, Grafton, Ballina and Byron Bay, all in New South Wales; and Gold Coast in Queensland.

Major river crossings include the Hawkesbury, Hunter, Manning, Hastings, Macleay, Nambucca, Bellinger, Clarence, Richmond, Brunswick, and Tweed rivers.

Gosford[edit]

Gosford is the commercial centre of the Central Coast, Australia's ninth largest urban area at the 2001 census. Gosford is located on Brisbane Water which is an inlet off Broken Bay. The Central Coast has a moderate climate, good beaches and pretty bushland areas. It includes popular holiday resorts such as Terrigal, The Entrance and Ettalong Beach. A 50 km section of road between the Pacific Motorway at Kariong, and the Pacific Highway at Doyalson was renamed the Central Coast Highway from 9 August 2006.[94]

Newcastle[edit]

Newcastle is the second largest city in New South Wales and is the commercial, administrative and industrial hub of the Hunter Valley, a region with a population of approximately 590,000. Once a major industrial city, it is now an elegant destination full of historic buildings, beaches, interesting sights and cultural activities.

Bulahdelah[edit]

Karuah to Bulahdelah upgrade at Nerong (Completed 2009)

Bulahdelah is about 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of Newcastle with a population just over 1,000. Bulahdelah was the last town that is to be bypassed (between Hexham and Port Maquarie). A joint Commonwealth-New South Wales A$315 million initiative was approved in July 2007, and enabled the construction of about 8.6 kilometres (5.3 mi) of four lane divided road with an eastern bypass of the Bulahdelah township.[95] The bypass opened in late 2013.

Taree[edit]

Taree is a major Mid North Coast town. It is a major service centre and stopover point rather than a tourist destination. Among the attractions apart from forests and waterways is the 'Big Oyster'. The Highway now passes to the east of the town, following the opening of a bypass in December 1997. The highway crosses the Manning River south of Coopernook.

Port Macquarie[edit]

Port Macquarie is the major resort on the Mid North Coast. It is located slightly off the Pacific Highway via the Oxley Highway. It was first settled in 1821 and has historic buildings, a museum, nature reserves, surfing beaches, fishing locations and a variety of accommodation. West of Port Macquarie, the Pacific Highway crosses the Hastings River.

Kempsey[edit]

Kempsey is a large town located on the Macleay River, approximately halfway between Sydney and the Gold Coast, making it a popular stopping point for people making the journey along the Pacific Highway. Akubra Hats are made in Kempsey and it was the home town of Slim Dusty.

Coffs Harbour[edit]

Pacific Highway in Woolgoolga

Coffs Harbour is the commercial and administrative centre of the Mid North Coast and is the major resort of the NSW North Coast. With a subtropical climate, Coffs Harbour is popular with retirees and tourists. This is evident from its suburban development, more akin to big cities than North Coast towns. It is also famous for its banana plantations, celebrated by 'The Big Banana' tourist destination. Apart from banana growing fishing is important here. The Jetty area of the city includes a marina, a large harbour with an accessible jetty, shops, restaurants and cafes, as well as the Muttonbird Island reserve, famous for its muttonbird population. South is Sawtell, which is a fast-developing coastal resort with attractive beaches and its famous main street with cafes, clubs and shops. To the north of Coffs Harbour is Woolgoolga, which has similar attractions, and a large immigrant Sikh population.

South of Coffs Harbour, near Raleigh, the highway crosses the Bellinger River; while near Macksville, the highway crosses the Nambucca River.

Grafton[edit]

Grafton is a regional city with wide streets, ornamental parks and Victorian buildings, located on the banks of the Clarence River, the highway crosses the river via the Grafton Bridge. The city holds a Jacaranda Festival in November when the jacarandas which line almost every street are in full bloom.

Ballina[edit]

Roadside sign

Ballina is a major centre on the Far North Coast, attracting large numbers of retirees. It is located among sugarcane plantations at the mouth of the Richmond River. It is also holiday destination. A famous piece of kitsch, 'The Big Prawn' advertises Ballina as a desirable fishing spot. Ballina is one of the fastest growing areas in Australia.

The 12.4 kilometres (7.7 mi) long Ballina Bypass was completed and open to traffic from 28 April 2012 at a cost of A$640 million. The northern section of the bypass (Cumbalum Interchange to Ross Lane Interchange) opened in March 2011 while the central section (Teven Road Interchange to Cumbalum Interchange) partially opened in December 2011; with northbound lanes from Teven to Bruxner opened in February 2012.[96]

North of Ballina and south of Ocean Shores, the highway crosses the Brunswick River; and at Ballina the highway crosses the Richmond River.

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Highway One – NSW Section, Ozroads Website. Retrieved on 15 May 2013[self-published source]
  2. ^ NSW State Route 111, Ozroads, Retrieved on 1 June 2013.[self-published source]
  3. ^ NSW State Route 83, Ozroads, Retrieved on 1 June 2013.[self-published source]
  4. ^ Metroad 1, Ozroads, Retrieved on 1 June 2013.[self-published source]
  5. ^ NSW State Route 14, Ozroads, Retrieved on 3 June 2013.[self-published source]
  6. ^ Metroad 10, Ozroads, Retrieved on 1 June 2013.[self-published source]
  7. ^ "Pacific Highway Upgrade". Parliament of New South Wales. 3 December 2003. 
  8. ^ "Schedule of Classified Roads and Unclassified Regional Roads page 4". Roads and Maritime Services. August 2013. 
  9. ^ a b "Pacific Highway upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services. November 2013. p. 2. Retrieved 23 January 2014. 
  10. ^ Roads and Maritime Services (22 January 2014). "Pacific Highway Upgrade". Road Projects. NSW Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  11. ^ a b c "Tugun Bypass project". Queensland Government. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  12. ^ a b c d "Banora Point project". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  13. ^ a b c "Project Fact Sheet: Chinderah Bypass". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  14. ^ a b "Pacific Highway: Section: Chinderah to Tweed Heads". ozroads. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  15. ^ a b c d "Yelgun to Chinderah (official opening brochure)". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  16. ^ a b c d "Project Fact Sheet: Brunswick Heads Bypass (stage 1)". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  17. ^ a b "Brunswick Heads to Yelgun". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  18. ^ "Brunswick Heads to Yelgun - Pacific Highway". AbiGroup. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  19. ^ "Tandy's Lane". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  20. ^ a b "Tandy's Lane". Baulderstone. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  21. ^ a b "Pacific Highway: Section: Ewingsdale to Brunswick Heads". ozroads. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  22. ^ a b c "Project Fact Sheet: Ewingsdale to Tyagarah". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  23. ^ a b c d "Project Fact Sheet: Ewingsdale interchange". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  24. ^ a b c d "Tintenbar to Ewingsdale". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  25. ^ a b c d "Ballina bypass". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  26. ^ a b c d "Pimlico to Teven upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  27. ^ "Pimlico to Teven upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  28. ^ a b c d "Devils Pulpit upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  29. ^ a b c "Glenugie upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  30. ^ "Halfway Creek". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  31. ^ "Pacific Highway: Section: Halfway Creek". ozroads. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  32. ^ a b c d "Sapphire to Woolgoolga". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  33. ^ a b c d "Project Fact Sheet: Korora Hill Reconstruction". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  34. ^ "Coffs Harbour Bypass". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  35. ^ "Lyons Rd to Englands Rd". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  36. ^ a b "Pacific Highway: Section: Lyons Rd to Englands Rd". ozroads. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  37. ^ "Lyons Rd to Englands Rd". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  38. ^ a b "Bonville upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  39. ^ a b "Pacific Highway: Section: Bonville (9-19km south of Coffs Harbour)". ozroads. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  40. ^ a b c d e f "Project Fact Sheet: Raleigh Deviation". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  41. ^ a b c "Nambucca Heads to Urunga upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  42. ^ "Nambucca Heads to Urunga upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  43. ^ a b "Project Fact Sheet: Eungai Duplication". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  44. ^ "Pacific Highway: Section: Eungai Creek/Allgomera Creek". ozroads. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  45. ^ a b c "Frederickton to Eungai". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  46. ^ a b c d e "Kempsey Bypass". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  47. ^ a b c d "Nambucca Heads to Urunga upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  48. ^ a b c d "Project Fact Sheet: Herons Creek Duplication". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  49. ^ "Pacific Highway: Herons Creek to Oxley Highway". ozroads. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  50. ^ a b c "Herons Creek to Stills Road Upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  51. ^ a b c "Coopernook to Herons Creek". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  52. ^ "Kew Bypass opens on Pacific Highway" (Press release). Peter Besseling. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  53. ^ a b "Coopernook Bypass". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  54. ^ a b c "Pacific Highway: Section: Coopernook". ozroads. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  55. ^ a b c "Taree to Coopernook". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  56. ^ "Taree Bypass". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  57. ^ a b "Pacific Highway: Section: Taree". ozroads. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  58. ^ "Taree Bypass". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  59. ^ a b c "Pacific Highway: Section: Possum Brush to Taree". ozroads. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  60. ^ "Failford Road to Tritton Road upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  61. ^ "Bundacree Creek to Possum Brush". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  62. ^ "Pacific Highway: Section: Bundacree Creek to Possum Brush". ozroads. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  63. ^ a b "Bundacree Creek to Possum Brush". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  64. ^ a b c d "Wang Wauk to Bundacree Creek". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  65. ^ a b "Coolongolook to Wang Wauk". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  66. ^ a b c "Pacific Highway: Section: Coolongolook to Wang Wauk River". ozroads. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  67. ^ "Coolongolook to Wang Wauk". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  68. ^ a b "Bulahdelah to Coolongolook". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  69. ^ a b c d "Bulahdelah upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  70. ^ a b "Karuah to Bulahdelah section 1". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  71. ^ "Karuah to Bulahdelah sections 2 and 3". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  72. ^ a b c "Pacific Highway: Section: Karuah to Bulahdelah". ozroads. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  73. ^ "Karuah bypass". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  74. ^ a b "Pacific Highway: Section: Karuah". ozroads. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  75. ^ Peter Phibbs, Alexa Heidrich, Cole Cooney (ed.). "The Karuah Highway: Bypass Economic and Social Impacts: 5 year report". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  76. ^ a b c d "Raymond Terrace to Karuah Upgrade". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  77. ^ a b c d "Raymond Terrace Bypass". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  78. ^ Warrell Creek to Urunga
  79. ^ Pacific Highway Upgrade – Oxley Highway to Kempsey
  80. ^ Wells Crossing to Iluka Road
  81. ^ Pacific Highway Upgrade – Woolgoolga to Wells Crossing
  82. ^ "Rudd pledges $1.5b for Pacific Hwy upgrade". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 6 November 2007. Retrieved 27 November 2007. 
  83. ^ (12 May 2009). Federal Road Investment Program Steps Up A Gear. Media Release. Minister for Infrastructure and Transport.
  84. ^ "Nation Building program Projects Pacific Highway". Australian Government. Archived from the original on 29 September 2009. Retrieved 29 September 2009. 
  85. ^ "Pacific Highway upgrade". NSW Roads and Traffic Authority. 19 October 2009. Retrieved 20 October 2009. 
  86. ^ Gordon, Josh (8 March 2009). "Pacific Highway to hell". Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 29 September 2009. Retrieved 29 September 2009. 
  87. ^ Greens say highway funds a gift to truckies – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). Abc.net.au (10 November 2011). Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
  88. ^ Miranda Devine. Smh.com.au. Retrieved on 16 July 2013.
  89. ^ Lewis, Steve (28 June 2007). "Drivers hit with more toll roads". news.com.au. 
  90. ^ Belinda Scott (22 December 2009). "Australia's worst crash". The Coffs Coast Advocate (North Coast News). Retrieved 28 July 2012. 
  91. ^ a b Crash statistics < Downloads < NSW Centre for Road Safety < www.rta.nsw.gov.au. Rta.nsw.gov.au (11 June 2013). Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
  92. ^ http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/death-road-detour-for-retired-nsw-coroner-kevin-waller/story-e6freuy9-1226242069539
  93. ^ Motorists vote Pacific Highway worst | 2012 Press Releases | NRMA Motoring & Services. Mynrma.com.au. Retrieved on 16 July 2013.
  94. ^ Kariong to Doyalson. New South Wales Roads and Traffic Authority.
  95. ^ "Bulahdelah upgrade". Pacific Highway Upgrade. Roads and Maritime Services. 11 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013. 
  96. ^ "Ballina Bypass". Road projects: Pacific Highway upgrade. Roads and Maritime Services. 28 November 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2013. 

External links[edit]