P

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P
ISO basic Latin alphabet
AaBbCcDdEeFfGg
HhIiJjKkLlMmNn
OoPpQqRrSsTtUu
VvWwXxYyZz
 
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P
ISO basic Latin alphabet
AaBbCcDdEeFfGg
HhIiJjKkLlMmNn
OoPpQqRrSsTtUu
VvWwXxYyZz
Cursive.svg
Circle sheer blue 29.gif
Circle sheer blue 29.gif
Cursive script 'p' and capital 'P'

P (named pee /ˈp/[1] ) is the sixteenth letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

Usage[edit]

In English orthography and most other European languages, p represents the sound /p/.

A common digraph in English is ph, which represents the sound /f/, and can be used to transliterate φ phi in loanwords from Greek. In German, the digraph pf is common, representing a labial affricate /pf/.

Arabic does not have a native phoneme /p/; the Proto-Semitic language phoneme /p/ developed into the Arabic phoneme /f/. P in modern loanwords is pronounced as /b/.[citation needed]

Most English words beginning with P are of foreign origin, primarily French, Latin, Greek, and Slavic;[citation needed] these languages preserve Proto-Indo-European initial /*p/. Native English cognates of such words often start with F, since English is a Germanic language and thus has undergone Grimm's law; a native English word with initial /p/ would reflect Proto-Indo-European initial /*b/, which is so rare that its existence as a phoneme is disputed.

However, native English words with non-initial P are quite common; such words can come from either Kluge's law or the sp combination; PIE /*p/ is preserved after s.

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, [p] is used to represent the voiceless bilabial plosive.

History[edit]

Phoenician
P
Archaic Greek
Pi
Greek
Pi
Etruscan
P
Latin
P
PhoenicianP-01.svgGreekP-02.svgPi uc lc.svgEtruscanP-01.svgRomanP-01.png

Related letters and other similar characters[edit]

The Latin letter P represents the same sound as the Greek letter pi, but it looks like the Greek letter rho.

Computing codes[edit]

CharacterPp
Unicode nameLATIN CAPITAL LETTER P    LATIN SMALL LETTER P
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode80U+0050112U+0070
UTF-8805011270
Numeric character referencePPpp
EBCDIC family215D715197
ASCII 1805011270
1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Other representations[edit]

NATO phoneticMorse code
Papa·––·
ICS Papa.svgSemaphore Papa.svg{{{Braille}}}
Signal flagFlag semaphoreBraille

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "P", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "pee," op. cit.

External links[edit]


AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMmNnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz
Letter P with diacritics
ṔṕṖṗⱣᵽƤƥP̃p̃
Related