Boeing P-8 Poseidon

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P-8 Poseidon
Pale gray jet aircraft touches down on clear day
A P-8A lands at Maryland's NAS Patuxent River in April 2010.
RoleAnti-submarine warfare and anti-surface warfare
National originUnited States of America
ManufacturerBoeing Defense, Space & Security
First flight25 April 2009[1]
IntroductionInitial operating capability planned for 2013[2]
StatusFlight testing, initial production
Primary usersUnited States Navy
Indian Navy
Number built15 as of July 2013
(6 test aircraft, 9 production aircraft)[3]
Program costUS$33.638 billion (for FY2013)[4]
Unit cost
US$201.4 million (FY13)[4]
US$275.7M (with R&D, FY13)[4]
Developed fromBoeing 737 Next Generation
 
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P-8 Poseidon
Pale gray jet aircraft touches down on clear day
A P-8A lands at Maryland's NAS Patuxent River in April 2010.
RoleAnti-submarine warfare and anti-surface warfare
National originUnited States of America
ManufacturerBoeing Defense, Space & Security
First flight25 April 2009[1]
IntroductionInitial operating capability planned for 2013[2]
StatusFlight testing, initial production
Primary usersUnited States Navy
Indian Navy
Number built15 as of July 2013
(6 test aircraft, 9 production aircraft)[3]
Program costUS$33.638 billion (for FY2013)[4]
Unit cost
US$201.4 million (FY13)[4]
US$275.7M (with R&D, FY13)[4]
Developed fromBoeing 737 Next Generation

The Boeing P-8 Poseidon (formerly the Multimission Maritime Aircraft or MMA) is a military aircraft currently being developed for the United States Navy (USN). The aircraft is being developed by Boeing Defense, Space & Security, modified from the 737-800.

The P-8 is intended to conduct anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and shipping interdiction and to engage in an electronic intelligence (ELINT) role. This will involve carrying torpedoes, depth charges, SLAM-ER, Harpoon anti-ship missiles, and other weapons. It will also be able to drop and monitor sonobuoys. It is designed to operate in conjunction with the Broad Area Maritime Surveillance unmanned aerial vehicle. The P-8 has also been ordered by the Indian Navy.

Development[edit]

Origins[edit]

The Lockheed P-3 Orion ASW aircraft has been in service with the U.S. Navy since 1962.[5] In the mid-1980s the Navy began studies for a replacement aircraft for the P-3, which had its range and time on station capabilities reduced because of increasing weight and was approaching the end of its airframe fatigue life. The Navy specification also required reduced operating and support costs. In 1989, the Navy awarded Lockheed a fixed-price contract to develop the P-7, but the project was canceled the following year.[6]

Boeing and Lockheed Martin were part of a new competition for a replacement aircraft begun in 2000. Lockheed submitted the Orion 21, an updated, new-build version of the P-3 turboprop.[7] Boeing submitted a proposal centered around its 737-800 airliner.[8] BAE Systems offered a new-build version of the Nimrod MRA4, the newest version of the UK's indigenous jet-powered maritime patrol aircraft. However, BAE withdrew from the competition in October 2002, recognizing the political reality that the failure to find a US-based production partner made the bid unrealistic.[9]

On 14 May 2004, Boeing was selected winner of the competition.[10] The following month the Navy awarded Boeing a development contract for MMA.[11] The project was planned to be for at least 108 airframes for the U.S. Navy.[12] More orders are possible from the other nations operating over 200 P-3s. Project value is expected to be worth at least $15 billion. Raytheon, Northrop Grumman, Spirit AeroSystems, GE Aviation Systems, Marshall Aerospace, CFMI, BAE Systems, and Marotta are major subcontractors.[13]

In July 2004, the U.S. Navy placed an order for five MMA aircraft. The first flight-test aircraft was to be completed in 2009 before beginning testing.[12] The first aircraft, a test aircraft, is to be converted to production standards at a later date. Boeing's MMA aircraft received the P-8A designation on 30 March 2005.[14] The Navy later ordered another five aircraft.

Design phase and testing[edit]

Roll-out of the P-8 on 30 July 2009

The P-8 is based on a proven airframe design and will at first be equipped with legacy P-3 systems with later upgrades to more advanced technology. The Government Accountability Office has credited this incremental approach with keeping the project on schedule and on budget. Timely replacement of the P-3s is vital because their airframes are breaking down from age and use.[15]

In mid-2008, the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) deleted the requirement for the P-8A to be equipped with magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) equipment. This was part of a NAVAIR-directed effort to reduce P-8A aircraft weight by 3,500 lb (1,600 kg) to improve aircraft range and endurance. P-8Is destined for the Indian Navy will continue to retain MAD. The P-8A will use a new hydrocarbon sensor to detect fuel vapors from diesel submarines and other conventionally powered ships.[16]

The P-8's first flight occurred on 25 April 2009.[1] The second and third P-8s had flown and were in flight testing in early August 2010.[17] On 11 August 2010, the U.S. DoD approved the P-8 for low-rate production.[18][19] A P-8 released sonobuoys for the first time on 15 October 2010, dropping six sonobuoys in three separate low altitude passes.[20]

In 2011, it was found that the ice detection system on the P-8 was defective due to the use of several counterfeit components. It is alleged that these substandard parts had been poorly refurbished and sold to P-8 subcontractor BAE Systems as new by a supplier in China.[21]

The first production P-8A was handed over to the Navy on 4 March 2012. It flew to Naval Air Station Jacksonville, Florida, where it will be used for aircrew training with the Fleet Replacement Squadron (FRS), Patrol Squadron 30 (VP-30).[2] On 24 September 2012, Boeing announced it had received a $1.9 billion order for another 11 aircraft. It has delivered the first three P-8As.[22]

On 10 June 2013, a DoD Inspector General (IG) report noted that the Navy should delay full-rate production for the P-8, as they lack critical information necessary about whether the aircraft meets operational requirements to perform primary missions. Additional testing also needs to be completed to guarantee a 25-year lifespan for the airframe.[23] Boeing executives dismissed the report, saying the flight test program is on track.[24]

On 24 June 2013, a P-8 Poseidon successfully fired a live AGM-84D Block IC Harpoon anti-ship missile scoring a direct hit. The test was to validate the weapons' hardware and software integration onto the aircraft.[25]

On 1 July 2013, a U.S. Navy initial operational test and evaluation (IOT&E) report found that the P-8A Poseidon was "operationally effective, operationally suitable, and ready for fleet introduction." Nine low-rate initial production aircraft have been delivered to the service.[3]

On 31 July 2013, Boeing received a $2.04 billion contract to build 13 P-8A Poseidons as part of the fourth low-rate initial production lot. Deliveries from the fourth lot will raise the fleet to 37 aircraft by the end of 2016. The contract also funds long-lead parts to build 16 P-8As for the first full-rate production lot, scheduled to be awarded in 2014.[26] The decision for the contract to be part of low-rate production is in response to the 10 June Inspector General report. Full-rate production has been delayed until the aircraft demonstrates it can survive its 25-year lifespan without structural fatigue, overcome mission-limited deficiencies, track surface ships, and perform other primary missions.[27]

As of September 2013 it is intended to replace all of the Navy's P-3s with 117 P-8As by 2019, but sequestration may delay this by two years.[28]

Derivatives[edit]

Boeing approached the U.S. Air Force in 2010 about replacing the E-8C Joint STARS fleet with a modified version of the P-8 at the same cost Northrop Grumman proposed for re-engining and upgrading the E-8s.[29][30] The proposed version is named P-8 Airborne Ground Surveillance (AGS) and would integrate an active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, and have ground moving target indicator (GMTI) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) capabilities.[31]

The main distinguishing feature of the P-8 AGS is pod-mounted radar, fixed to the lower centerline of the fuselage; the pod is lowered so the engine nacelles do not interrupt the radar's line of sight. Two aft ventral fins on lower aft provide stability for the aircraft. The P-8 AGS also uses the P-8A's Raytheon AN/APY-10 multi-mission surface search radar.[31] Boeing has campaigned for a fleet of P-8 AGS aircraft instead of re-engining the E-8s.[32] The Air Force’s Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) of the JSTARS platform began in March 2010 to review options for performing the JSTARS mission. An initial decision on the AOA was expected in September 2011.[33] At a Senate Armed Services Committee meeting on 20 March 2012, the Air Force said they did not have the resources to buy a new business-class ISR platform.[34]

Design[edit]

External images
P-8 Poseidon cutway showing weapons bay
Cutaway of P-8 from Flightglobal.com

The P-8 is a militarized version of the 737-800 with 737-900-based wings.[35] The airframe uses a 737-800-based fuselage that is similar to but longer than the 737-700-based C-40 Clipper. The P-8 has a strengthened fuselage and 767-400ER-style raked wingtips, instead of the blended winglets available on 737NG variants.[36] The five operator stations (two Naval Flight Officers plus three enlisted Aviation Warfare Operators/Naval Aircrewman) are mounted in a sideways row, along the port side of the cabin. None of these crew stations have windows. One observer window is located on each side of the forward cabin.

The P-8 features the Raytheon APY-10 multi-mission surface search radar.[37] The P-8I will feature an international version of the APY-10.[38] A short bomb bay for torpedoes and other stores opens behind the wing. The aircraft also includes six additional body fuel tanks for extended range from Marshall Aerospace; three of the tanks are located in the forward cargo compartment and three in the rear. In-flight refueling is via a receptacle on top of the forward fuselage, just aft of the cockpit. This receptacle will receive a flying boom that is typically used to refuel US Air Force aircraft, as opposed to the hose-and-drogue system used by other US Navy aircraft. In order to power the additional electronics, the P-8 has a 180kVA electric generator on each engine instead of the 90kVA generator found on civilian 737s. This required a redesign of the nacelles and their mountings to the wings.[39]

In U.S. service, the Poseidon will be complemented by around 40 MQ-4C Triton UAVs for the Broad Area Maritime Surveillance system to provide continuous surveillance. Because of the cancellation of Lockheed Martin's Aerial Common Sensor project, Boeing will propose a signals intelligence variant of the P-8 to service the requirement for the U.S. Navy.[40]

Operational history[edit]

P-8A Poseidons of VP-16 at NAF Atsugi.

In February 2012, the P-8 made its mission debut during "Bold Alligator" 2012, an annual littoral warfare exercise.[41] In April 2012, the aircraft took part in Exercise Joint Warrior, flying out of RAF Lossiemouth.[42] During RIMPAC 2012 in the Hawaiian area, two P-8As participated in 24 exercise scenarios as part of Air Test and Evaluation Squadron One (VX-1) forward deployed at Marine Corps Base Hawaii in Kaneohe Bay.[43] U.S. Navy P-8s may rotate through American allies such as "the Philippines or Thailand to help those nations with maritime domain awareness."[44]

On 29 November 2013, the P-8's inaugural deployment began when squadron VP-16 departed Naval Air Station Jacksonville, Florida, for Kadena Air Base in Okinawa, Japan. Six aircraft and 12 air-crews were deployed to suplement P-3s already based out of Kaedna Air Base.[45][46] The deployment was pre-planned as an enhancement of ISR and anti-submarine capabilities for the Pacific re-balance, but occurred shortly after the Chinese announcement of the East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone, which heightened tensions in the region.[47]

A second squadron, VP-5, completed its transition to the P-8 in August 2013 with its next overseas deployment slated for mid-2014.[45] A third squadron, VP-45, began its transition to the Poseidon in July 2013.[45]

Exports and foreign involvement[edit]

The U.S. Department of Defense wants to follow a program template similar to that of the F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program, with international cooperation from prospective MMA users.[48] Boeing publicly identified New Zealand as a potential customer.[49] Italy indicated interest in purchasing MMA aircraft, with fleet support provided by Alitalia in 2004.[50] However, in December 2008, Italy announced the purchase of four ATR 72 turboprop aircraft to replace its aging Atlantic Maritime Patrol Aircraft,[51] possibly as a temporary solution because Italy remained interested in the P-8.[52][53]

A P-8A Poseidon flying alongside a Lockheed P-3 Orion, close to Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland, in 2010.

Australia[edit]

The Australian Minister for Defence announced on 20 July 2007 that the P-8A MMA had been selected as the preferred aircraft to replace the Royal Australian Air Force's fleet of AP-3C Orions in conjunction with a yet-to-be-selected unmanned aerial vehicle. The last RAAF AP-3C is scheduled to be retired in 2018, after nearly 30 years of service.[54] A memorandum of understanding (MOU) will be signed that will help Australia to gain access to classified data and help to input specific requirements.[55] In March 2009, Australia's Chief of Air Force stated that subject to anticipated government approval, the RAAF would begin to add the P-8 to their fleet in 2016.[56]

In October 2012, Australia formalized its participation in the program with a commitment of A$73.9m (US$81.1m) in an agreement with the U.S. Navy.[57] Eight P-8 aircraft are planned to replace the RAAF's AP-3C aircraft by 2017-18, and reach operational capability by 2019.[58][59] Air Marshal Geoff Brown, head of the Royal Australian Air Force, has said Australia is considering purchasing more manned P-8 Poseidons, and reducing the number of MQ-4C Triton unmanned aircraft than it originally planned to buy.[60]

India[edit]

A Boeing P-8I of the Indian Navy

In January 2008, Boeing proposed the P-8I, a customized export variant of the P-8A, for the Indian Navy.[61] On 4 January 2009, India's Ministry of Defence signed an agreement with Boeing for the supply of eight P-8Is at a total cost of US$2.1 billion. These aircraft would replace Indian Navy's aging Tupolev Tu-142M maritime surveillance turboprops.[62][63][64] Each aircraft has an average cost of about US$220 million.[65] The deal makes India the first international customer of the P-8, and also marks Boeing's first military sale to India.[66] In October 2010, India's Defence Acquisition Council of the Ministry of Defence approved the purchase of four additional P-8Is.[67][68] In March 2011, it was reported that India was to order four additional P-8s from Boeing later in the year.[69] India plans to order another 12 P-8Is at a later time.[70][71]

The Data Link II communications technology for the P-8I was received by Boeing from Bharat Electronics Limited in April 2010. The communications system will enable exchange of tactical data and messages between Indian Navy aircraft, ships and shore establishments. Boeing will install the system during P-8I final assembly.[72][73] The IFF, system from BEL was also handed over to Boeing for integration with P-8I in December 2010.[74] India buying AGM-84L Harpoon Block II Missiles and Mk 54 All-Up-Round Lightweight Torpedoes for the P-8I.[75]

Flight testing of P-8Is began in July 2012,[76] with deliveries planned to start in 2013.[71][77] The first P-8I was handed over to an Indian naval team at the Boeing facility at Seattle on 19 December 2012.[78][79] The Indian Navy is to fly it to India along with the second and third aircraft after they are handed over in May and June 2013.[78] The Indian Navy inducted its first Boeing P-8I Poseidon aircraft on 15 May 2013.[80] It received the second and third P-8I on 16 and 22 November 2013.[81][82] The aircraft are based at INS Rajali, in Tamil Nadu.[83]

Others[edit]

In August 2012, AirForces Monthly reported that "Boeing sees the UK as a prime market for its P-8A Poseidon"[84] following the cancellation of Nimrod MRA4. However, the UK has indicated it is not interested in a "silver bullet" solution like the P-8.[85] Boeing is now repackaging the P-8 systems in a cheaper airframe, the Bombardier Challenger 605 business jet. This proposed Maritime Surveillance Aircraft (MSA) has been depicted with the AN/APY-10 radar, an electro-optical sensor in a retractable turret, and a CAE Inc. magnetic anomaly detector.[86]

Variants[edit]

Operators[edit]

 United States

 India

Specifications (P-8A)[edit]

A P-8A of VP-16 dropping a torpedo.

Data from U.S. Navy P-8A Fact File,[92] and Boeing[93][94]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

Avionics

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

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  2. ^ a b Majumdar, Dave. "Picture: Boeing delivers first production P-8A." Flight International, 8 March 2012.
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  • Endres, Günter. The Illustrated Directory of Modern Commercial Aircraft. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-1125-0.
  • Norris, Guy and Mark Wagner. Modern Boeing Jetliners. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Zenith Imprint, 1999. ISBN 0-7603-0717-2.
  • Shaw, Robbie. Boeing 737-300 to 800. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company, 1999. ISBN 0-7603-0699-0.

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