Otolaryngology

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Otolaryngologist performing an endoscopic sinus surgical procedure.
A 40-watt CO2 laser used in otolaryngology.
The National Throat Nose and Ear Hospital London.

Otolaryngology /ˌtˌlærɪŋˈɡɒləi/, is the study of ear, nose, and throat conditions or ENT. It is also referred to as Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery or Otorhinolaryngology. It is the oldest medical speciality in the United States, where nearly 50 percent of all office visits pertain to the ear, nose, and throat.[citation needed]

Physicians specializing in otolaryngology are called otolaryngologists or by the nickname "ENTs" or "ENT doctors" and often treat children with persistent ear, nose, and throat conditions to include surgery. Adult patients often seek treatment from an otolaryngologist for sinus infections, age-related hearing loss, and cancers of these regions.

Training[edit]

Otolaryngologists are physicians (MD, DO, MBBS, MBChB, etc.) who, in the United States, complete at least five years of surgical residency training. This is composed of one year in general surgical training and four years in otolaryngology–head and neck surgery. (In the past it varied between two and three years of each.) In Canada, practitioners complete a five-year residency training after medical school.

Following residency training, some otolaryngologists complete an advanced sub-specialty Fellowship where training can be 1–2 years in duration. In the United States, otolaryngology is one of the most competitive specialties in medicine in which to obtain a residency position following medical school.

Sub-specialties[edit]

Head and Neck Oncologic SurgeryFacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery*OtologyNeurotology*Rhinology and Sinus SurgeryLaryngology and Voice DisordersPediatric OtolaryngologySleep Medicine*
Surgical oncologyFacial cosmetic surgeryEarMiddle and inner earSinusitisVoice disordersVelopalatine insufficiency
ReconstructionMaxillofacialHearingTemporal boneAllergyPhono-surgeryCleft lip and palate
Endocrine surgeryTraumaBalanceSkull baseAnterior skull baseSwallowing disordersAirway
Endoscopic SurgeryDizzinessApnea and snoringVascular malformations
Cochlear implant/BAHA

(* Currently recognized by American Board of Medical Subspecialties)

Topics in Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery[edit]

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Head and neck oncology[edit]

Otology and Neurotology[edit]

Rhinology[edit]

Rhinology pertains to sinus diseases and the anterior skull base.

Pediatric Otolaryngology[edit]

Laryngology[edit]

Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery[edit]

Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery is a one-year fellowship open to otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons who wish to specialize in the aesthetic and reconstructive surgery of the head, face, and neck.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Associations and Societies

Journals