Oscar Pistorius

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Oscar Pistorius
Oscar Pistorius 2 Daegu 2011.jpg
Pistorius at the 2011 World Championships in Athletics in Daegu, South Korea
Personal information
Nickname(s)Blade Runner; the fastest man on no legs; "Oz" Pistorius[1]
Born(1986-11-22) 22 November 1986 (age 27)
Sandton, Johannesburg, Transvaal Province, South Africa
Alma materUniversity of Pretoria (did not graduate)
Height1.84 m (6 ft 12 in) in prosthetics[2]
Weight80.6 kg (178 lb) (2007)[3]
Websitewww.oscarpistorius.com
Sport
CountrySouth Africa
SportRunning
Event(s)Sprints (100, 200, 400 m)
Achievements and titles
World finals2005 Paralympic World Cup: 100 m (T44) – Gold; 200 m (T44) – Gold
National finals2007 South African Senior Athletics Championships: 400 m (T44) – Gold
Paralympic finals

2004 Summer Paralympics: 100 m (T44) – Bronze; 200 m (T44) – Gold
2008 Summer Paralympics: 100 m (T44) – Gold, 200 m (T44) – Gold; 400 m (T44) – Gold

2012 Summer Paralympics: 200 m (T44) – Silver; 4 × 100 m relay – Gold; Men's 400 m (T44) – Gold
Highest world ranking

100 m: 1st (2008)[4]
200 m: 1st (2008)[5]

400 m: 1st (2008)[6]
Personal best(s)

100 m (T44): 10.91 s (2007, WR)[7]
200 m (T44): 21.30 s (2012, WR)[8]

400 m: 45.07 s[9]
Updated on 6 September 2012.
 
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Oscar Pistorius
Oscar Pistorius 2 Daegu 2011.jpg
Pistorius at the 2011 World Championships in Athletics in Daegu, South Korea
Personal information
Nickname(s)Blade Runner; the fastest man on no legs; "Oz" Pistorius[1]
Born(1986-11-22) 22 November 1986 (age 27)
Sandton, Johannesburg, Transvaal Province, South Africa
Alma materUniversity of Pretoria (did not graduate)
Height1.84 m (6 ft 12 in) in prosthetics[2]
Weight80.6 kg (178 lb) (2007)[3]
Websitewww.oscarpistorius.com
Sport
CountrySouth Africa
SportRunning
Event(s)Sprints (100, 200, 400 m)
Achievements and titles
World finals2005 Paralympic World Cup: 100 m (T44) – Gold; 200 m (T44) – Gold
National finals2007 South African Senior Athletics Championships: 400 m (T44) – Gold
Paralympic finals

2004 Summer Paralympics: 100 m (T44) – Bronze; 200 m (T44) – Gold
2008 Summer Paralympics: 100 m (T44) – Gold, 200 m (T44) – Gold; 400 m (T44) – Gold

2012 Summer Paralympics: 200 m (T44) – Silver; 4 × 100 m relay – Gold; Men's 400 m (T44) – Gold
Highest world ranking

100 m: 1st (2008)[4]
200 m: 1st (2008)[5]

400 m: 1st (2008)[6]
Personal best(s)

100 m (T44): 10.91 s (2007, WR)[7]
200 m (T44): 21.30 s (2012, WR)[8]

400 m: 45.07 s[9]
Updated on 6 September 2012.

Oscar Leonard Carl Pistorius (/pɪsˈtɔriəs/; born 22 November 1986) is a South African sprint runner. Although both of Pistorius' legs were amputated below the knee when he was 11 months old, he competes in events for single below-knee amputees and for able-bodied athletes.

After becoming a Paralympics champion, Pistorius attempted to enter able-bodied international competition, over persistent objections of the IAAF and charges that his artificial limbs gave an unfair advantage. Pistorius eventually prevailed in this legal dispute. At the 2011 World Championships in Athletics, Pistorius became the first amputee to win an able-bodied world track medal. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, Pistorius became the first double leg amputee to participate in the Olympics when he entered the men's 400 metres and 4 × 400 metres relay races. At the 2012 Summer Paralympics, Pistorius won gold medals in the men's 400-metre race and in the 4 × 100 metres relay, setting world records in both events. He also took a silver in the 200 metres race, having set a world record in the semifinal.

On 14 February 2013, Pistorius was charged with the murder of his girlfriend, Reeva Steenkamp, whom he had fatally shot at his home in the early hours of that morning. He was granted bail on 22 February 2013 and at a hearing on 19 August 2013, dates were set for a trial to start on 3 March 2014.

Early years and education

Oscar Pistorius was born to Henke and Sheila Pistorius on 22 November 1986 in Sandton, Johannesburg, in what was then Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province) of South Africa.[1] He grew up in a Christian home,[10] and has an elder brother, Carl, and a younger sister, Aimée.[11][12] Pistorius credits his mother, who died at the age of 43 when Pistorius was 15 years old, as a major influence in his life.[13][14] He is a white South African with Italian ancestry from his mother's grandfather, an Italian emigrant to Kenya.[15][16] He is English-speaking.[17]

Pistorius was born with fibular hemimelia (congenital absence of the fibula) in both legs. When he was 11 months old, his legs were amputated halfway between his knees and ankles.[3] He attended Constantia Kloof Primary School[18] and Pretoria Boys High School,[1][19] where he played rugby union in the school's third XV team.[20] He played water polo and tennis at provincial level between the ages of 11 and 13.[20] In addition, Pistorius took part in club Olympic wrestling,[20][21][22] and trained at Jannie Brooks's garage gym in Pretoria, South Africa.[23] After a serious rugby knee injury in June 2003, he was introduced to running in January 2004 while undergoing rehabilitation at the University of Pretoria's High Performance Centre[24] with coach Ampie Louw, and "never looked back".[20] His first racing blades were fitted by South African prosthetist Francois van der Watt. Because he was unable to find suitable running blades in Pretoria, van der Watt ordered some to be made by a local engineer. However, as these quickly broke, van der Watt referred Pistorius to American prosthetist and Paralympic sprinter Brian Frasure to be fitted for blades by Icelandic company Össur.[25][26]

Pistorius began studying for a Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com.)[11] in business management with sports science at the University of Pretoria in 2006.[20][21][27] In a June 2008 interview for his University's website, he joked: "I won't graduate soon. With all the training I have had to cut down on my subjects. Hopefully I'll finish by the time I'm 30!"[11] Asked by a journalist for his "sporting motto", he said: "You're not disabled by the disabilities you have, you are able by the abilities you have."[20]

Sporting career

Pistorius taking part in the Landsmót ungmennafélags Íslands in Kópavogur, Iceland, in July 2007

Pistorius, who has double below-knee amputations, competes in T44 (single below-knee amputees) events though he is actually classified in T43 (double below knee amputee).[28] Sometimes referred to as the "Blade Runner" and "the fastest man on no legs",[22][29][30] Pistorius took part in the 2004 Summer Paralympics in Athens and came third overall in the T44 (one leg amputated below the knee)[22] 100-metre event.[31] Despite falling in the preliminary round for the 200 metres, he qualified for the final.[32] He went on to win the final in a world record time of 21.97 seconds, besting a pair of American runners both possessing a single amputation, Marlon Shirley and Brian Frasure.[31]

In 2005, Pistorius finished sixth in the able-bodied South African Championships over 400 metres with a world-record time of 47.34 seconds,[22] and at the Paralympic World Cup in the same year, he won gold in the 100 metres and 200 metres, beating his previous 200-metre world record.[33][34] At the 2006 Paralympic Athletics World Championships, Pistorius won gold in the 100, 200 and 400-metre events, breaking the world record over 200 metres.[35] On 17 March 2007, he set a disability sports world record for the 400 metres (46.56 seconds) at the South African Senior Athletics Championships in Durban,[36] and at the Nedbank Championships for the Physically Disabled held in Johannesburg in April 2007, he became the world record holder of the 100- and 200-metre events with times of 10.91 and 21.58 seconds respectively.[7][37]

Pistorius was invited by the IAAF to take part in what would have been his first international able-bodied event, the 400-metre race at the IAAF Grand Prix in Helsinki, Finland, in July 2005. He was unable to attend, however, because of school commitments.[38] On 13 July 2007, Pistorius ran in the 400-metre race at Rome's Golden Gala and finished second in run B with a time of 46.90 seconds, behind Stefano Braciola who ran 46.72 seconds.[39] This was a warm-up for his appearance at the 400 metres at the Norwich Union British Grand Prix at the Don Valley Stadium in Sheffield on 15 July 2007.[40] As American Olympic champion Jeremy Wariner stumbled at the start of the race and stopped running, Pistorius took seventh place in a field of eight in wet conditions with a time of 47.65 seconds. However, he was later disqualified for running outside his lane. The race was won by American Angelo Taylor with a time of 45.25 seconds.[41][42] Pistorius had ambitions of competing in other able-bodied events. In particular, he had set his sights on competing at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China,[43] but was ultimately not selected by the South African Olympic Committee (see below).

Dispute over prosthetics

Pistorius in his prosthetics at an International Paralympic Day event in Trafalgar Square, London, on 8 September 2011
The South African newspaper The Citizen announcing the IAAF's decision to bar Pistorius from its competitions – photographed in Johannesburg on 16 January 2008

Pistorius has been the subject of criticism because of claims that his artificial limbs give him an advantage over runners with natural ankles and feet. He runs with J-shaped carbon-fibre prosthetics called the "Flex-Foot Cheetah" developed by biomedical engineer Van Phillips and manufactured by Össur.[22]

On 26 March 2007, the IAAF amended its competition rules to include a ban on the use of "any technical device that incorporates springs, wheels or any other element that provides a user with an advantage over another athlete not using such a device".[44] It claimed that the amendment was not specifically aimed at Pistorius. To decide whether or not he was running with an unfair advantage, the IAAF monitored his track performances using high-definition cameras to film his race against Italian club runners in Rome on 13 July, and his 400 metres in Sheffield on 15 July 2007,[29][45] at which he placed last.[42]

In November 2007, Pistorius was invited to take part in a series of scientific tests at the Cologne Sports University under the guidance of Professor of Biomechanics Dr. Peter Brüggemann in conjunction with Mr. Elio Locatelli, who was responsible with the IAAF of all technical issues. After two days of tests, Brüggemann reported on his findings on behalf of the IAAF. The report claimed that Pistorius's limbs used 25% less energy than runners with complete natural legs to run at the same speed, and that they led to less vertical motion combined with 30% less mechanical work for lifting the body.[46] In December, Brüggemann told Die Welt newspaper that Pistorius "has considerable advantages over athletes without prosthetic limbs who were tested by us. It was more than just a few percentage points. I did not expect it to be so clear."[47] Based on these findings, on 14 January 2008, the IAAF ruled Pistorius's prostheses ineligible for use in competitions conducted under the IAAF rules, including the 2008 Summer Olympics.[48] Pistorius called the decision "premature and highly subjective" and pledged to continue fighting for his dream. His manager Peet van Zyl said his appeal would be based on advice from United States experts who had said that the report "did not take enough variables into consideration".[49]

Pistorius subsequently appealed against the adverse decision to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) in Lausanne, Switzerland, and appeared before the tribunal at the end of April 2008.[50] After a two-day hearing, on 16 May 2008, the Court of Arbitration for Sport upheld Pistorius's appeal and the IAAF council decision was revoked with immediate effect. The CAS panel unanimously determined that Dr. Brüggemann tested Pistorius's biomechanics only at full-speed when he was running in a straight line (unlike a real 400-metre race); that the report did not consider the disadvantages that Pistorius suffers at the start and acceleration phases of the race; and that overall there was no evidence that he had any net advantage over able-bodied athletes.[51] In response to the announcement, Pistorius said: "My focus throughout this appeal has been to ensure that disabled athletes be given the chance to compete and compete fairly with able-bodied athletes. I look forward to continuing my quest to qualify for the Olympics."[52]

Attempts to qualify for 2008 Summer Olympics

To have a chance of representing South Africa at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing in the individual 400-metre race, Pistorius had to attain the Olympic "A" standard time of 45.55 seconds; the "B" qualifying time of 45.95 seconds if no other athlete from his country achieved the faster time did not apply. Each national athletics federation is permitted to enter three athletes in an event if the "A" standard is met, and only one athlete if the "B" standard is met.[53] However, he was eligible for selection as a member of the relay squad without qualifying.[54] His best chance was to try for a time of close to 46 seconds to make the 4 × 400-metre relay team. However, he said: "If I make the team I don't want to be the reserve for the relay, I want to be in the top four. I want to bring something to the race and make the relay stronger." To give him a chance of making the South African Olympic team, selectors delayed naming the team until 17 July.[55]

On 2 July 2008, Pistorius competed in the 400 metres in the B race of the Notturna International in Milan but was "disappointed"[55][56] when he failed to achieve the minimum Olympic qualification time, completing the race in fourth place in 47.78 seconds.[55][57] His performance on 11 July 2008 at the Rome Golden Gala was an improvement of more than a second, though his sixth-place time of 46.62 seconds in the B race was still short of the Olympic qualification time. Nonetheless, he was pleased with his performance, commenting that he felt he could improve on it.[58]

On 15 July 2008, IAAF general secretary Pierre Weiss commented that the world athletics body preferred that the South African Olympic Committee not select Pistorius for its 4 × 400 metres relay team "for reasons of safety", saying that Pistorius could cause "serious damage" and risk the physical safety of himself and other athletes if he ran in the main pack of the relay.[59] Pistorius branded this as the IAAF's "last desperate attempt" to get him not to qualify,[60] and threatened legal action if the Federation did not confirm that it had no objections to his participation in the relay.[61] The IAAF responded by issuing a statement saying that Pistorius was welcome to seek qualification for the Olympics and future competitions under IAAF rules: "The IAAF fully respects the recent CAS decision regarding the eligibility of Oscar Pistorius to compete in IAAF competitions, and certainly has no wish to influence the South African Olympic Committee, who has full authority to select a men's 4x400m relay team for the Beijing Olympics."[62][63]

Coming third with a personal best time of 46.25 seconds at the Spitzen Leichtathletik meeting in Lucerne on 16 July 2008, Pistorius failed to qualify for the 400 metres at the 2008 Summer Olympics by 0.70 seconds. Athletics South Africa later announced that he would also not be selected for the 4 × 400 metres relay team as four other runners had better times.[62][64] Had Pistorius been selected, he would have been one of the first[65] competitors with a leg amputation to participate in the Olympic Games. Pistorius's compatriot Natalie du Toit, a swimmer whose left leg was amputated above the knee after a traffic accident, duly became the first athlete with an amputation to qualify for the 2008 Summer Olympics.[66] Asked about the possibility of the IAAF offering him a wild card to take part in the Olympics, Pistorius responded: "I do not believe that I would accept. If I have to take part in the Beijing Games I should do it because I qualified." He expressed a preference for focusing on qualification for the 2012 Summer Olympics in London,[56] stating that it was a more realistic target as "[s]printers usually reach their peak between 26 and 29. I will be 25 in London and I'll also have two, three years' preparation."[57]

2008 Summer Paralympics

Pistorius participated in the 2008 Summer Paralympics in Beijing in the 100, 200 and 400 metres (T44). On 9 September, in the heats of the 100 metres, he set a Paralympic record with his time of 11.16 seconds.[67] Later, following a slow start, he rallied to snatch gold from the United States' Jerome Singleton in the 100 metres in a time of 11.17 seconds, 0.03 seconds ahead of the silver medallist.[68] Four days later, on 13 September, the defending Paralympic champion in the 200-metres sprint[69] won his second gold in the event in a time of 21.67 seconds,[70] setting another Paralympic record.[67] He completed a hat-trick by winning gold in the 400 metres in a world-record time of 47.49 seconds on 16 September,[71] calling it "a memory that will stay with me for the rest of my life".[72]

2011 and qualification for 2012 Summer Olympics

Pistorius during the 2011 World Championships in Athletics in Daegu, South Korea

In January 2011, a slimmer, trimmer Pistorius won three IPC Athletics World titles in New Zealand but was beaten for the first time in seven years in the 100 metres by American Jerome Singleton.[73] He subsequently won the T44 400 metres in 47.28 seconds and the 100 metres in 11.04 seconds at the BT Paralympic World Cup in May to reassert himself as the world's leading Paralympic sprinter.[74]

Pistorius competed across a number of able-bodied races in the summer of 2011 and posted three times under 46 seconds, but it was at the 19th Internazionale di Atletica Sports Solidarity Meeting in Lignano, Italy, on 19 July that he set a personal best of 45.07 seconds in the 400 metres, attaining the World Championships and Olympic Games "A" standard qualification mark.[9][75][76] Pistorius won the 400&-metres event with a posted time that ranked him as 15th fastest in the world.[77]

On 8 August 2011 it was announced that he had been included in the South African team for the World Championships in Daegu, South Korea, and had been selected for the 400 metres and the 4 × 400 metre relay squad. In the heats of the 400 metres, Pistorius ran in 45.39 seconds and qualified for the semifinal. However, in the semifinal, he ran 46.19 seconds and was eliminated.[78]

In the heats of the 4 × 400 metres relay, Pistorius ran the opening leg as South Africa advanced to the finals with a national record time of 2 minutes 59.21 seconds. However, he was not selected to run in the finals based on having the slowest split time of 46.20. This caused a controversy, as the first leg is normally Pistorius's slowest since it requires a start from blocks, and he was restricted to the first leg by Athletics South Africa "on safety grounds". He initially tweeted "Haven't been included in final. Pretty gutted.", but later added "Well done to the SA 4×400m team. Was really hard watching, knowing I deserved to be part of it."[79] Pistorius still won the silver medal because he ran in the heats, becoming the first amputee to win an able-bodied world track medal.[80][81] Reflecting on his World Championship debut, Pistorius said: "I really enjoyed the whole experience. I ran my second fastest time ever in the heats and was really pleased to have reached the semifinals. In the relay I was unbelievably chuffed to have broken the South African record, and hopefully my name will stay on that for a long time to come."[82]

On 4 July 2012, the South African Sports Confederation and Olympic Committee (SASCOC) announced that Pistorius had been included in the Olympic team[83] for the 400 metres and the 4 × 400 metres relay races.[84][85]

2012 Summer Olympics

Pistorius running in the Olympic Stadium during the heats of the 400 metres at the 2012 Summer Olympics on 4 August

At the 2012 Summer Olympics on 4 August 2012, Pistorius became the first amputee runner to compete at an Olympic Games.[86] In the 400 metres race, he took second place in the first heat of five runners, finishing with a time of 45.44 seconds (his best time of the season so far) to advance to the semifinals on 5 August.[87] He ran in the second semifinal, where he finished eighth and last with a time of 46.54 seconds.[88][89]

In the first semifinal of the 4 × 400 metres relay race on 9 August, the second runner of the South African team, Ofentse Mogawane, fell and was injured before reaching Pistorius, who was to have run the third leg. South Africa was passed into the final on appeal to the IAAF, due to interference by Vincent Kiilu, the Kenyan athlete who downed Mogawane.[90][91] The South African relay team eventually finished eighth out of the field of nine in the final on 10 August. However, it established a season's best time for the team of 3 minutes 3.46 seconds,[92] with Pistorius running the final leg in 45.9 seconds.[93] Pistorius was chosen to carry the South African flag for the closing ceremony.[94]

2012 Summer Paralympics

Pistorius also carried the flag at the opening ceremony of the 2012 Summer Paralympics on 29 August.[95] He entered the men's 100 metres, 200 metres and 400 metres races in the T44 classification, and the T42–T46 4 × 100 metres relay.[96]

Pistorius carrying the flag at the opening ceremony of the 2012 Summer Paralympics

In the 200 metres competition Pistorius established a new T43 world record of 21.30 seconds in his heat on 1 September,[8] but he was defeated in the final the next day by Alan Oliveira of Brazil. Pistorius took silver, and then created a controversy by complaining about the length of Oliveria's blades. He later apologised for the timing of his remarks, but not the content of his complaint.[97] The IPC confirmed the length of Oliveira’s blades were proportional to his body, with all the finalists measured before the race. The IPC also confirmed that Pistorius had raised the issue of blade length with it six weeks prior to the race. SASCOC issued a statement welcoming Pistorius's apology for his outburst and declared their full support for him and promised to assist him in discussions with the IPC about the issue of lengthened prosthetics after the conclusion of the Games. The IPC expressed willingness to engage with Pistorius about the issue.[98] Australian runner Jack Swift,[2] USA runner Jerome Singleton,[99] and other athletes[100] also expressed support for Pistorius's position.

Pistorius won a gold medal on 5 September running the anchor leg as part of the South African 4 × 100 metres relay team. The team set a world record time of 41.78 seconds.[101] He was unsuccessful in defending his Beijing Olympics 100 metres title when he came fourth with a season's best time of 11.17 seconds, and the race was won by Great Britain's Jonnie Peacock.[102] On 8 September, the last full day of competition, Pistorius won gold in the T44 400 metres with a time of 46.68 seconds, breaking the Paralympic record.[103]

Achievements

Disability sports events

Time (s)ResultsDateEvent
100 m (class T44)
10.91[7]
(world record)
Gold4 April 2007Nedbank Championships for the Physically Disabled
Germiston, Gauteng, South Africa
11.16[104]Bronze17–28 September 20042004 Summer Paralympics
Athens, Greece
11.17[68]Gold9 September 20082008 Summer Paralympics
Beijing, People's Republic of China
11.23[33]Gold15 May 20052005 Visa Paralympic World Cup
Manchester, England, United Kingdom
11.32[105]Gold5 September 2006IPC World Championships
Assen, Netherlands
11.34[106]Silver26 January 2011IPC World Championships
Christchurch, New Zealand
11.42[4]Gold6 June 2008Sportfest
Duisburg, Germany
11.48[107]Gold1 June 2008Dutch Open National Championships
Emmeloord, Netherlands
11.62[105]Gold2004USA
200 m (class T44)
21.52[108]
(21.30 in semifinal – T43 world record)[8]
Silver2 September 20122012 Summer Paralympics
London, England, United Kingdom
21.58[37]
(world record)
Gold5 April 2007Nedbank Championships for the Physically Disabled
Germiston, Gauteng, South Africa
21.67[70]
(Paralympic record)[67]
Gold13 September 20082008 Summer Paralympics
Beijing, People's Republic of China
21.77[5]Gold15 June 2008German Open National Championships
Berlin, Germany
21.80
(21.66 in semifinal – world record)[105]
Gold8 September 2006IPC World Championships
Assen, Netherlands
21.80[106]Gold24 January 2011IPC World Championships
Christchurch, New Zealand
21.97[104]Gold17–28 September 20042004 Summer Paralympics
Athens, Greece
22.01[34]
(world record)
Gold15 May 20052005 Visa Paralympic World Cup
Manchester, England, United Kingdom
22.04[109]Gold31 May 2008Dutch Open National Championships
Emmeloord, Netherlands
22.71[105]Gold2004USA
400 m (class T44)
46.68[103]
(Paralympic record)
Gold8 September 20122012 Summer Paralympics
London, England, United Kingdom
47.49[71]
(world record)
Gold16 September 20082008 Summer Paralympics
Beijing, People's Republic of China
47.92[107]Gold1 June 2008Dutch Open National Championships
Emmeloord, Netherlands
48.37[106]Gold29 January 2011IPC World Championships
Christchurch, New Zealand
49.42[105]Gold4 September 2006IPC World Championships
Assen, Netherlands
4 × 100 m relay (classes T42–T46)
41.78[101]
(world record)
Gold5 September 20122012 Summer Paralympics
London, England, United Kingdom
42.80[106]Gold29 January 2011IPC World Championships
Christchurch, New Zealand

Able-bodied sports events

Time (s)ResultsDateEvent
400 m
45.07[105]
(personal best)
First place19 July 2011Meeting Internazionale di Atletica Sports Solidarity
Lignano, Italy
45.44[87]
(seasonal best)
16th in Round 1
(out of 51 athletes)
4 August 20122012 London Olympics
London, United Kingdom
45.52[110]Silver29 June 20122012 African Championships in Athletics
Porto-Novo, Benin
46.56[111]Silver17 March 20072007 Senior South African National Championships
Durban, South Africa
4 × 400 m relay
2 min 59.21 s (heats)[80]Silver1 September 20112011 World Championships in Athletics
Daegu, South Korea
3 min 04.01 s[112]Silver1 July 20122012 African Championships in Athletics
Porto-Novo, Benin

Other awards and accolades

Greeting fans after a race in the Second Kamila Skolimowska Memorial in Warsaw, 20 September 2011

In 2006, Pistorius was conferred the Order of Ikhamanga in Bronze (OIB) by the President of South Africa for outstanding achievement in sports.[1][27] On 9 December 2007, Pistorius was awarded the BBC Sports Personality of the Year Helen Rollason Award, which is conferred for outstanding courage and achievement in the face of adversity.[113]

In May 2008, Pistorius made the "Time 100" – Time magazine's annual list of the world's most influential people – appearing third in the "Heroes & Pioneers" section. Erik Weihenmayer, the first blind person to climb Mount Everest, wrote in an essay that Pistorius was "on the cusp of a paradigm shift in which disability becomes ability, disadvantage becomes advantage. Yet we mustn't lose sight of what makes an athlete great. It's too easy to credit Pistorius' success to technology. Through birth or circumstance, some are given certain gifts, but it's what one does with those gifts, the hours devoted to training, the desire to be the best, that is at the true heart of a champion."[114] In 2012 he made the list again.[115]

In February 2012, Pistorius was awarded the Laureus World Sports Award for Sportsperson of the Year with a Disability for 2012.[116] On 22 August 2012, he was honoured with the unveiling of a large mural depicting his achievements in the town of Gemona, Italy.[117]

On 9 September 2012, Pistorius was shortlisted by the IPC for the Whang Youn Dai Achievement Award as a competitor "who is fair, honest and is uncompromising in his or her values and prioritises the promotion of the Paralympic Movement above personal recognition". According to director Craig Spence, he was nominated by an unnamed external organisation from South Korea.[118] The award went to two other athletes.[119]

After the 2012 Summer Paralympics, the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow announced they would confer on Pistorius, among others, an honorary doctorate. Sir Jim McDonald, Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University, said: "Each of our honorary graduands has excelled in their chosen field, and each has touched the lives of many others around the world. As a leading international technological university committed to excellence, it is fitting that we recognise their inspiring achievements and we look forward to welcoming them to the university in November."[120]

Sponsorship and charitable activities

Pistorius has sponsorship deals worth US$2 million a year with Össur,[121] BT, Nike, Oakley and Thierry Mugler.[122] In 2011, Pistorius participated as a model in an advertising campaign for a Thierry Mugler fragrance called A*Men.[123]

In 2008, Pistorius collaborated in the release of a music CD called Olympic Dream. Produced in Italy, it consists of disco remixes of music pieces that Pistorius finds inspirational, and two tracks written for him, "Olympic Dream" and "Run Boy Run", for which he provided voiceovers. Part of the CD's proceeds of sale went to charity.[124] Pistorius also actively supports the Mineseeker Foundation, a charity that works to raise awareness for landmine victims and has a support programme to provide prosthetics for victims.[125]

On 21 February 2013, after previously suspending adverts that featured Pistorius and the line "I am the bullet in the chamber" in the wake of his shooting of Reeva Steenkamp, sportswear manufacturer Nike suspended its contract with Pistorius: "We believe Oscar Pistorius should be afforded due process and we will continue to monitor the situation closely."[126][127]

Personal life

Pistorius has two visible tattoos. The dates of his mother's birth and death ("LVIII V VIII – II III VI" – 8 May 1958 – 6 March 2002) are tattooed on the inside of his right arm.[13] The other tattoo, which is on his back, is the Bible verse 1 Corinthians 9:26-27 which begins, "I do not run like a man running aimlessly."[128] He owns a house in South Africa but trains for the European season in Gemona del Friuli, Italy,[129] and is a supporter of Italian Serie A football club Lazio.[16] His other interests include architecture,[130] motorbiking, and breeding race horses.[131]

Pistorius's autobiography, Dream Runner, was published in Italian in 2008 with Gianni Merlo, a journalist with La Gazzetta dello Sport.[132] An English version entitled Blade Runner was released in 2009.[133] In 2010, Pistorius appeared on L'isola dei famosi, an Italian version of Celebrity Survivor.[134] On 7 January 2012, he appeared as a special guest on the Italian version of Dancing with the Stars called Ballando con le Stelle at Auditorium Rai in Rome, where he danced a tango with Annalisa Longo to ABBA's "The Winner Takes It All".[135] On 9 October 2012, Pistorius appeared on the The Tonight Show with Jay Leno.[136] He was also scheduled to appear on Piers Morgan Tonight and the Larry King Now show at later dates.[137]

In February 2009, Pistorius was seriously injured when he was thrown from a boat in an accident on the Vaal River near Johannesburg. He was airlifted to Milpark Hospital where he underwent surgery to repair broken facial bones including his nose and jaw.[138] There were initial concerns about his fitness, but he recovered fully. However, the accident affected his training and running schedule for that year.[139]

Pistorius was scheduled as an amateur golfer in the 2012 Alfred Dunhill Links Championship held at St Andrews, Carnoustie and Kingsbarns in Scotland. Pistorius has a 21 handicap in South Africa, but played off an 18 handicap for the Championship.[140] In 2010 he played in the Laureus World Sports Awards Golf Challenge at the Abu Dhabi Golf Club in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates[141] and the Help-net Fund Celebrity Charity Golf Day.[142]

Murder case

In the early morning of Thursday, 14 February 2013, Pistorius shot and killed South African model Reeva Steenkamp, his girlfriend of three months, at his home in Pretoria.[143][144][145] Pistorius acknowledges that he shot Steenkamp to death and says that he mistook her for an intruder.[146] Pistorius' trial for murder began on 3 March 2014 in Pretoria.[147][148] As of April 2014, the trial entered its 7th week before adjourning until Monday 5 May.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Mr. Oscar "Oz" PISTORIUS, Who's Who of Southern Africa, 24.com, archived from the original on 27 April 2009, retrieved 18 May 2007 
  2. ^ a b John Leicester (5 September 2012), "Column: History-maker Pistorius a hypocrite, too?", The Huffington Post, archived from the original on 6 September 2012 
  3. ^ a b Josh McHugh (March 2007), "Blade Runner", Wired (15.03) 
  4. ^ a b World wide ranking: T44 male 100 2008, International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation, retrieved 19 July 2008 
  5. ^ a b World wide ranking: T44 male 200 2008, International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation, retrieved 19 July 2008 
  6. ^ World wide ranking: T44 male 400 2008, International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation, retrieved 19 July 2008 
  7. ^ a b c Oscar sets 100m world record, News24, 4 April 2007 [dead link]
  8. ^ a b c "Oscar Pistorius: I proved my doubters wrong with world record in 200m heats at Paralympic Games". The Telegraph (London). 1 September 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  9. ^ a b Jon Mulkeen (19 July 2011), Pistorius gets world and Olympic qualifier in Lignano: Double-amputee sprinter clocks 45.07 to guarantee his major champs selection, Athletics Weekly, archived from the original on 7 August 2012 
  10. ^ Nico Bougas (9 June 2012), Enabled not disabled: Oscar Pistorius: 'The fastest thing on no legs', Assistnews.net, archived from the original on 4 August 2012 
  11. ^ a b c De Jong Borchardt (18 June 2008), 30 minutes with Oscar Pistorius, University of Pretoria, archived from the original on 27 August 2008 
  12. ^ Robert Philip (27 April 2005), "Pistorius masters quick step", The Daily Telegraph (London) 
  13. ^ a b Paralympics 2012: Oscar Pistorius beaten by Alan Oliveira in 200m, BBC Sport, 2 September 2012 
  14. ^ Tom English (5 August 2011), "London 2012 Olympics: 'Blade runner' Oscar Pistorius becomes first amputee to qualify for Olympic heat", The Scotsman 
  15. ^ Gennaro Bozza (11 July 2007), "Pistorius bionico? 'No, solo un uomo' [Pistorius bionic? 'No, just a man']", La Gazzetta dello Sport [Sports Gazette], retrieved 7 February 2008  (Italian)
  16. ^ a b Gennaro Bozza (11 July 2007), Oscar Pistorius: "Tifo per la Lazio" ["Fan of Lazio"], Lazio.net, retrieved 8 January 2009 
  17. ^ "Oscar Pistorius Murder Trial Day 1 Part 1 Oscar pleads not guilty". YouTube. Retrieved 19 March 2014. "Masipa: "The accused is English-speaking?", Nel: "Indeed, My Lady"." 
  18. ^ Oscar Pistorius; Rebecca Servadio-Kenan, transl. (2009), Blade Runner, London: Virgin Books, p. 33, ISBN 978-0-7535-1939-4 
  19. ^ Gareth A. Davies (6 October 2004), "Olympics within amputee's reach", The Daily Telegraph (London) 
  20. ^ a b c d e f Gareth A. Davies [interviewer] (23 May 2007), "My sport: Oscar Pistorius", The Daily Telegraph (London) 
  21. ^ a b Jeré Longman (15 May 2007), "An amputee sprinter: Is he disabled or too-abled?", The New York Times: A1 & A21 
  22. ^ a b c d e Oscar Pistorius, Össur, retrieved 22 March 2008 
  23. ^ Martha Kelner (25 August 2012), "How Paralympic legend Pistorius found nothing is impossible", Daily Mail (London), retrieved 25 August 2012 
  24. ^ Mike Moon (2012), "Blade Runner: Oscar Pistorius is forcing the world to rethink what it means to be disabled", Readers' Digest Asia, archived from the original on 29 August 2012, retrieved 29 August 2012 
  25. ^ Felix Gillette (10 November 2004), "Racing tall: A Paralympian stands accused of getting an illegal leg up", Slate, archived from the original on 12 September 2012 
  26. ^ Stepzinski, Teresa (27 June 2004). "The art and craft of a sports prosthesis". Jacksonville.com. Retrieved 28 March 2013. 
  27. ^ a b Sholain Govender (28 September 2006), "South Africa honours 27 outstanding citizens", Independent Online, archived from the original on 4 August 2012, "'It means so much to me and I can't believe that I'm getting an award alongside all the other people here who have done so much for the country,' said Pistorius, who is currently a first-year University of Pretoria business management student." 
  28. ^ PISTORIUS Oscar, International Paralympic Committee, archived from the original on 10 August 2012, retrieved 9 August 2012 
  29. ^ a b Tom Knight (11 July 2007), "Pistorius is no novelty sprinter", The Daily Telegraph (London): S12 
  30. ^ Amputee sprinter second in Rome, BBC News, 14 July 2007 
  31. ^ a b Oscar Pistorius's profile on paralympic.org
  32. ^ From Paralympics to Olympics?, Disability Sport South Africa, 9 November 2006, archived from the original on 12 December 2008, retrieved 26 March 2008 
  33. ^ a b Athletics results: Event 6: T44 100m (Men), Paralympic World Cup, retrieved 6 March 2008 
  34. ^ a b Athletics results: Event 16: T44 200m (Men), Paralympic World Cup, retrieved 6 March 2008 
  35. ^ Crates leads superb day for GB, BBC Sport, 9 September 2006 
  36. ^ De Jongh Borchardt (19 March 2007), Oscar reaches for his dream, News24 [dead link]
  37. ^ a b "Oscar Pistorius shatters 100m, 200m Records", Mail & Guardian, 5 May 2007 
  38. ^ Mike Burnett (5 May 2005), Olympic dreams of a blade runner, BBC Sport ; Matthew Pryor (24 April 2006), "Pistorius willing and able to compete with the best", The Times (London) 
  39. ^ Andrew Dampf (13 July 2007), "Paralympian Pistorius 2nd in able-bodied 'B' race", USA Today ; Oscar: Nice to be out on track, News24, 14 July 2007 [dead link]
  40. ^ An article dated 11 July 2007 in the Daily Telegraph claimed that Pistorius's participation in the British Grand Prix was the first time that an athlete with a disability had competed against the world's best runners in a top international meeting: see Tom Knight (11 July 2007), "Pistorius is no novelty sprinter", The Daily Telegraph (London): S12 . However, this does not seem to be correct – for instance, American runner Marla Runyan, who is legally blind, won the 1,500-metre race at the Pan American Games in 1999. At the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, she became the first athlete who is legally blind to compete in the Olympics when she was placed eighth in the 1,500 metres.
  41. ^ "Angelo Taylor wins on Oscar Pistorius's debut", The Daily Telegraph (London), 15 July 2007 ; Taylor profits from Wariner slip, BBC Sport, 15 July 2007 
  42. ^ a b Angry Pistorius calls for talks, BBC Sport, 15 July 2007 
  43. ^ Elizabeth Hudson (5 June 2006), Amputee eyes Olympics, BBC Sport 
  44. ^ IAAF Council introduces rule regarding "technical aids", IAAF, 26 March 2007, retrieved 28 May 2008 [dead link]; Competition Rules 2008, Monaco: IAAF, 2008, p. rule 144.2(e) [dead link]. See "IAAF proposes rule which would keep South African amputee sprinter out of Beijing Games", International Herald Tribune, 31 May 2007 ; Charles Carrick (1 June 2007), "IAAF to halt Blade Runner", The Daily Telegraph (London) 
  45. ^ Simon Hart (15 July 2007), "Blade Runner Oscar Pistorius furious at IAAF", The Daily Telegraph (London) 
  46. ^ 'Blade Runner' handed Olympic ban, BBC Sport, 14 January 2008 
  47. ^ "Report: Artificial limbs give paralympic champion competitive edge", International Herald Tribune, 20 December 2007 
  48. ^ Oscar Pistorius – independent scientific study concludes that Cheetah prosthetics offer clear mechanical advantages, IAAF, 14 January 2008, retrieved 18 May 2008 [dead link]; Federation expected to rule Pistorius ineligible for Beijing Games, ESPN, 10 January 2008 ; Tom Knight (10 January 2008), "IAAF call time on Oscar Pistorius' dream", The Daily Telegraph (London) ; IAAF announcement – Oscar Pistorius banned based on test results, The Science of Sport, 14 January 2008, retrieved 15 January 2008 
  49. ^ Jonathan Clayton (15 January 2008), "Oscar Pistorius vows to fight Olympics ban", The Times (London) 
  50. ^ 'Blade Runner' fights Olympic ban, CNN, 14 February 2008, archived from the original on 8 December 2008 ; Michael Phillips (28 April 2008), "Pistorius to begin appeal to CAS", The Guardian (London) ; Pistorius waits on Olympic news, BBC Sport, 30 April 2008 
  51. ^ Arbitral award delivered by the Court of Arbitration for Sport ... in the arbitration between Mr. Oscar Pistorius ... v/ International Association of Athletics Federations (CAS 2008/A/1480 Pistorius v/ IAAF), Court of Arbitration for Sport, 16 May 2008, archived from the original on 29 May 2008 ; Pistorius is eligible for IAAF competition, IAAF, 16 May 2008, retrieved 18 May 2008 . See also Duncan Mackay (18 May 2008), "Diack relaxed over Pistorius's victory", The Observer (London) 
  52. ^ Pistorius eligible for Olympics, BBC Sport, 16 May 2008 
  53. ^ Athletics: Qualification standards, Beijing 2008: The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, 2008, archived from the original on 23 June 2008 
  54. ^ "Pistorius primed for Beijing after overturning ban: 'I look forward to continuing my quest to qualify'", The Guardian (London), 16 May 2008 ; Graham Dunbar (16 May 2008), "Double-amputee wins appeal to aim for Olympics", The Independent (London) ; Vicki Hodges (16 May 2008), "Pistorius cleared to compete for Olympic place", The Daily Telegraph (London) ; Nico Hines (16 May 2008), "Amputee sprinter Oscar Pistorius allowed to compete in Beijing", The Times (London) 
  55. ^ a b c Race return disappoints Pistorius, BBC Sport, 4 July 2008 
  56. ^ a b Pistorius: 'I won't accept wild card for Olympics', Agenzia Giornalistica Italia (AGI), 3 July 2008, archived from the original on 2 August 2008 
  57. ^ a b Michael Phillips (4 July 2008), "Pistorius trails home fourth and a long way short of Beijing", The Guardian (London) . See also Oscar Pistorius looks to one last chance in Lucerne to earn Olympics place, The Canadian Press, 4 July 2008, retrieved 5 July 2008 
  58. ^ Ron Lewis (12 July 2008), "Oscar Pistorius left with one more shot at Beijing", The Times (London) 
  59. ^ Relay safety fears over Pistorius, BBC Sport, 15 July 2008 
  60. ^ Mark Ledsom (16 July 2008), Pistorius says IAAF desperate to stop his Olympic bid, Reuters UK 
  61. ^ Joshua Robinson (16 July 2008), "Pistorius threatens action after official recommends his exclusion [UPDATED]", The New York Times 
  62. ^ a b Pistorius fails to make Olympics, BBC Sport, 18 July 2008 ; Pistorius misses out on SA Olympic squad, CNN, 18 July 2008, archived from the original on 8 December 2008 
  63. ^ John Mehaffey (17 July 2008), IAAF rejects Pistorius accusations, Reuters 
  64. ^ See also Mark Ledsom (16 July 2008), Amputee Pistorius fails in Olympic 400m bid: Pistorius was 0.70 seconds short of the qualifying standard, ABC News ; Joshua Robinson (19 July 2008), "Amputee sprinter's Beijing quest is over", The New York Times ; "Pistorius won't run For S. Africa", The Washington Post, 19 July 2008: E2 
  65. ^ For instance, George Eyser was earlier.
  66. ^ Simon Hart (4 May 2008), "Dreams carry Natalie du Toit to Beijing", The Daily Telegraph (London) ; Matthew Pryor (5 May 2008), "Oscar Pistorius left in the shade after Natalie Du Toit claims Olympic first", The Times (London) 
  67. ^ a b c Records: As of Sep 17 2008, Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games, Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, 17 September 2008, retrieved 17 September 2008 
  68. ^ a b Oscar wins gold, Independent Online, 9 September 2008, retrieved 10 September 2008 ; "Pistorius wins 100 meters at Paralympic Games in Beijing", International Herald Tribune, 9 September 2008 ; "Oscar Pistorius grabs gold", The Times (South Africa), 9 September 2008, archived from the original on 8 January 2009 ; Matthew Pryor (10 September 2008), "Oscar Pistorius wins Paralympic 100 metres title", The Times (London) 
  69. ^ Andrew McGarry (29 August 2008), Oscar Pistorius: Speed demon by any name, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, retrieved 7 September 2008 ; "Pistorius targets treble to forget troubles", China Daily, 7 September 2008 
  70. ^ a b Jeff Z. Klein (13 September 2008), "Day 7: Second gold for Pistorius; Iran forfeits before potential game vs. Israel", The New York Times ; "Oscar Pistorius's blades of glory in Beijing", The Times (South Africa), 13 September 2008, archived from the original on 8 January 2009 ; 'Blade Runner' keeps triple-gold dream alive at Beijing Paralympics, Xinhua News Agency, 13 September 2008 
  71. ^ a b Day 10: 'Blade Runner' completes gold treble, China hits 200-medal mark, Xinhua News Agency, 16 September 2008, retrieved 17 September 2008 
  72. ^ Matt McGeehan (17 September 2008), "Weir powers down home straight to win second gold: ... Oscar Pistorious takes his third gold of the Games", The Guardian (London) . See also Weir storms to second Games gold, BBC Sport, 17 September 2008 
  73. ^ Gareth A. Davies (26 January 2011), "Jerome Singleton pips Oscar Pistorius in 100 metres T44 final at IPC Athletics World Championships", The Daily Telegraph (London) 
  74. ^ Oscar Pistorius and Dan Greaves in record breaking form at BT Paralympic World Cup, BT Paralympic World Cup, 22–26 May 2012, archived from the original on 4 August 2012 
  75. ^ Oscar Pistorius closer to fulfilling Olympic dream, BBC Sport, 19 July 2011 
  76. ^ Double amputee Pistorius qualifies for track worlds, CBC Sports, 19 July 2011, archived from the original on 7 August 2012 
  77. ^ Ossur salutes Oscar Pistorius in historic achievement: South African amputee qualifies for able-bodied IAAF World Championships on Ossur's Cheetah prostheses, Yahoo! Finance, 21 July 2011, retrieved 17 August 2012 
  78. ^ World Athletics 2011: Oscar Pistorius misses out on 400m final, BBC Sport, 29 August 2011 
  79. ^ Martin Gough (2 September 2011), World Athletics 2011: Oscar Pistorius wins relay silver, retrieved 8 September 2012 
  80. ^ a b Sebastien Van Heyningen (30 July 2012), Olympics 2012: Oscar Pistorius just wants to compete, International Business Times, archived from the original on 7 August 2012 
  81. ^ "Oscar Pistorius faces race to qualify for London 2012 Olympics", The Guardian (London), 3 November 2011 
  82. ^ Team Össur – Colin Jackson interviews Oscar Pistorius, Össur, 8 September 2011, retrieved 16 September 2011 
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  84. ^ Bladerunner Pistorius included in SA's Olympic team, South African Sports Confederation and Olympic Committee, 4 July 2012, archived from the original on 4 August 2012 
  85. ^ "Oscar Pistorius set for long-awaited Olympic debut", The Times of India, 18 July 2012, archived from the original on 4 August 2012 
  86. ^ Robert Klemko (10 August 2012), "Oscar Pistorius makes history, leaves without medal", USA Today, archived from the original on 11 August 2012 
  87. ^ a b Oscar Pistorius makes Olympic history in 400m at London 2012, BBC Sport, 4 August 2012 ; Bill Chappell (4 August 2012), Oscar Pistorius makes Olympic history in 400 meters, and moves on to semifinal, NPR, archived from the original on 4 August 2012 
  88. ^ Men's 400m – semifinals, retrieved 4 August 2012 
  89. ^ "London Olympics: Pistorius fails to make 400m final", The Times of India, 6 August 2012, archived from the original on 6 August 2012 
  90. ^ "Oscar Pistorius, South Africa to run in 4×400-meter Olympic final on appeal", Newsday, 9 August 2012, archived from the original on 9 August 2012 
  91. ^ David Leon Moore (9 August 2012), "Oscar Pistorius, South Africa back in the relay", USA Today, archived from the original on 9 August 2012 
  92. ^ Greenberg, Chris (10 August 2012), Oscar Pistorius, South African 4×400m relay team finish 8th as Bahamas wins gold, Huffington Post, archived from the original on 11 August 2012 
  93. ^ Announcer: Tom Hammond (10 August 2012). "Track and Field, Diving, Cycling". XXX Summer Olympics. 186 minutes in. NBC.
  94. ^ "Oscar Pistorius to carry the flag for South Africa at closing", USA Today, 12 August 2012, archived from the original on 30 August 2012 
  95. ^ Hawking, Pistorius open London's Paralympics: Wheelchair-bound physicist Stephen Hawking challenged athletes to 'look to the stars' as he helped open a record-setting Paralympics Games that will run for 11 days in near sold-out venues, Yahoo! Sports, 30 August 2012, archived from the original on 30 August 2012 
  96. ^ Paralympics 100m: Oscar Pistorius says past experience vital, BBC Sport, 21 May 2012 
  97. ^ "Oscar Pistorius moves to diffuse row over rival's blades after unexpected Paralympics loss", The Washington Post, 4 September 2012, archived from the original on 5 September 2012 
  98. ^ Kevin McCallum (4 September 2012), "IPC considers action against Oscar", Independent Online, archived from the original on 5 September 2012 
  99. ^ US sprinter backs Pistorius blade rule review, Agence France-Presse, 5 September 2012, archived from the original on 6 September 2012, retrieved 5 September 2012 
  100. ^ Sam Cunningham (5 September 2012), "Oscar 'right to fight' as Paralympics blades row speeds up", Daily Mail (London), archived from the original on 6 September 2012 
  101. ^ a b Paralympics 2012: Oscar Pistorius makes golden return to track, BBC Sport, 5 September 2012 ; Gold for men's relay team in world record time, SuperSport, 5 September 2012, archived from the original on 6 September 2012 
  102. ^ Saj Chowdhury, Paralympics 2012: Jonnie Peacock wins gold in T44 100m, BBC Sport 
  103. ^ a b Saj Chowdhury (8 September 2012), Paralympics 2012: Oscar Pistorius powers to T44 400m gold 
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  107. ^ a b Pistorius wins at Dutch meet, ESPN, 1 June 2008, archived from the original on 8 December 2008 
  108. ^ "Oscar Pistorius sorry for timing of complaints after Paralympic defeat", The Guardian (London), 2 September 2012 
  109. ^ Raf Casert (31 May 2008), "Pistorius starts tough bid for Beijing", USA Today, archived from the original on 12 September 2012 
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  113. ^ Calzaghe wins Sports Personality, BBC Sport, 9 December 2007 
  114. ^ Erik Weihenmayer ([May 2008]), "Oscar Pistorius", Time  ; TIME Magazine ranks Oscar Pistorius one of the 100 most influential people of 2008, Össur, 2 May 2008 
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References

Further reading

External links

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Germany Verena Bentele
Laureus World Sportsperson with a Disability of the Year
2012
Succeeded by
Brazil Daniel Dias