Oreo is a popular sandwich cookie where the U.S. version is made by the Nabisco division of Kraft Foods. Since its 1912 introduction, Oreo has become the best selling cookie in the United States, through the 20th century and into the 21st.
The trademarked face of an Oreo cookie
The "Oreo Biscuit" was developed and first produced by the National Biscuit Company (today known as Nabisco) in 1912 at its Chelsea factory in New York City, which was located on Ninth Avenue between 15th and 16th Streets. Today, this same block of Ninth Avenue is known as "Oreo Way." The name Oreo was first trademarked on March 14, 1912. It was launched as an imitation of the Hydrox cookie manufactured by Sunshine company, introduced in 1908.
The original design of the cookie featured a wreath around the edge of the cookie and the name "OREO" in the center. In the United States, they were sold for 25 cents a pound in novelty cans with clear glass tops.
The Oreo Biscuit was renamed in 1921, to "Oreo Sandwich." A new design for the cookie was introduced in 1924. A lemon-filled variety was available briefly during the 1920s, but was discontinued.
In 1948, the Oreo Sandwich was renamed the "Oreo Creme Sandwich"; it was changed in 1974 to the Oreo Chocolate Sandwich Cookie. The modern-day Oreo design was developed in 1952 by William A. Turnier, to include the Nabisco logo.
The modern Oreo cookie filling was developed by Nabisco's principal food scientist, Sam Porcello. Porcello held five patents directly related to his work on the Oreo. He also created a line of Oreos covered in dark chocolate and white chocolate. Porcello retired from Nabisco in 1993.
In the mid-1990s, health concerns prompted Nabisco to replace the lard in the filling with partially hydrogenated vegetable oil.
Starting in January 2006, Oreo cookies replaced the trans fat in the cookie with non-hydrogenated vegetable oil.
Nabisco began a marketing program in 2008, advertising the use of Oreo cookies in a game called DSRL, which stands for "Double Stuf Racing League." The DSRL was introduced one week prior to Super Bowl XLII. This sport had also been endorsed by football brothers Peyton Manning and Eli Manning. Sisters Venus and Serena Williams have also joined, and challenged the Mannings to a race, which aired in an ad on January 18, 2009. Another campaign started for Golden Double Stuf Oreo cookies with the brothers being challenged by Donald Trump & "Double Trump" played by Darrell Hammond; the date for this competition was January 24, 2010. The Mannings won in both cases. A new ad campaign is currently revolving around a 'Hooded Menace' threatening to take over the Double Stuf Racing League, and Eli Manning and Stufy (the DSRL mascot) needing some help airing beginning on or around September 14, 2010. Six days later, it was announced that Shaquille O'Neal and Apolo Ohno joined Oreo Double Stuf Racing League vets Eli Manning and Venus Williams.
In April 2011, Oreo announced its special edition Oreo cookies with blue cream in promotion of the 2011 3D computer animated film Rio. The promotion included stickers inside each package of cookies. Two types of contests were also announced: first, by completing an album of stickers, consumers could win three movie passes and medium snack bar combos; second, by finding winning stickers in packages with prizes, including a trip to Rio de Janeiro, backpacks, cinema passes for a year, and 3D glasses. The promotion ended May 30, 2011, and was available in Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia.
The rainbow Oreo cookie in support of Gay Pride month
In June 2012, Oreo posted an ad displaying an Oreo cookie with rainbow colored cream to commemorate Gay Pride month. The cookie itself is not being manufactured or available for sale. The ad prompted some backlash by Christian radical groups on Facebook, including the creation of a Facebook page calling for a boycott of Oreo. Kraft have stood by their promotion stating "Kraft Foods has a proud history of celebrating diversity and inclusiveness. We feel the Oreo ad is a fun reflection of our values." The Gay Pride ad was followed during 2012 by a series of ads commemorating other holidays and events, including a red, white and blue cream Oreo for Bastille Day, a stream of cookie crumbs for the appearance of the Delta Aquarid meteor shower, and a cookie with a jagged bite taken out of it for Shark Week.
No one seems to know where the name 'Oreo' came from, but there are many theories, including derivations from the French word 'Or', meaning gold (as early packaging was gold), or the Greek word 'Oreo', meaning beautiful, nice or well done. Still others believe the name is a combination of taking the "re" from "cream" and placing it between the two "o"s in "chocolate" - making "o-re-o." And still others believe that the cookie was named Oreo because it was short and easy to pronounce. 
In Argentina, a "Duo" variety of Oreos is sold, containing cookies with banana filling and with dulce de leche filling in the same package.
In Canada, Oreo products are manufactured and sold under the Christie brand. However, the Canadian version contains coconut oil, giving it a different taste from its American counterpart. All the Oreos in Canada are manufactured in a Kraft plant in Montréal's Mercier-Hochelaga-Maisonneuve borough on Viau street.
Oreo cookies were introduced to Chinese consumers in 1996 and sales gradually grew. By 2006, Oreo became the best-selling cookie in the People's Republic of China, after altering its recipe to have a lower sugar content to suit local tastes. Kraft Foods also introduced smaller size packages of Oreo cookies that became more affordable to the majority of Chinese consumers. Kraft began a grassroots marketing campaign in China to "educate" Chinese consumers about the American tradition of pairing milk with cookies. The company created an Oreo apprentice program at 30 Chinese universities that drew 6,000 student applications. Three hundred of the applicants were trained to become Oreo brand ambassadors, and some students rode around Beijing on bicycles with wheel covers resembling Oreo cookies and handed out cookies to more than 300,000 consumers. Others organized Oreo-themed basketball games to reinforce the idea of dunking cookies in milk. Television commercials depicted children twisting apart Oreo cookies, licking the cream center and dipping the chocolate cookie halves into glasses of milk.
Although sales improved, Kraft still felt the Oreo could do better and decided to reinvent the traditional, round biscuit to a wafer. The new offering was called Oreo Wafer Sticks and consists of four layers of crispy wafer filled with vanilla and chocolate cream, and on the exterior is coated with chocolate. The wafer was also formulated to ensure that the chocolate coating was not too sweet for Chinese consumers and product could be shipped across the country---withstanding the cold climate in the north and the hot, humid weather in the south. The new Oreo was outselling traditional round Oreo cookies in China in 2006, and Kraft has begun selling the wafers elsewhere in Asia, as well as in Australia and Canada. Kraft has also introduced Oreo Wafer Rolls, a tube-shaped wafer lined with cream, in China. The hollow cookie can be used as a straw through which to drink milk.
Over the period of 2006–2007, Kraft doubled its Oreo sales in China, making China the second-largest Oreo market globally behind the United States. With the help of those sales, Oreo revenue topped $1 billion world-wide for the first time in 2007.
Oreo introduced new flavor varieties from 2008 through 2010. Oreo with strawberry creme filling was introduced in 2009 and Oreo Ice Cream flavors were introduced in 2010. Oreo Ice Cream flavors included Vanilla and Green Tea ice cream flavors. "Double-Fruit" flavored fillings, orange and mango or strawberry and blueberry, are also available. Mini Oreo, a smaller version of the original cookie, were introduced to China late in 2010. In April 2012, in celebration of Oreo's 100 year anniversary, Birthday Cake Oreos, debuted in China.
Oreo used Shanghai-born Yao Ming, the tallest player in the National Basketball Association, as a brand ambassador, featuring him 'dunking' Oreo cookies like a basketball in its 2010 Oreo advertising campaign.
In February 2011, Oreo initiated a large advertising campaign in Croatia and the product became available in supermarkets and shops.
It was first introduced in India in March 2011 under Cadbury, a major chocolate brand recently acquired by Kraft, with the tag line, it is the world's No. 1 biscuit. It is also available in local McDonald's restaurants as an addition to McFlurry ice cream. Before the launch of the brand in India, Britannia Industries launched a similar brand named Treat-o.
In 2007 Oreo became available in Italy and it is commercialized by Saiwa, Italian society owned by Kraft Foods.
In 2004, the convenience store chain Deli de Luca started selling Oreo in all of their stores. It was welcomed by consumers, and is the top-selling cookie to young people. Other larger chains in Norway (Ica, Rema 1000, Meny and | Ultra) began selling Oreo cookies as well and they can now be found in almost every convenience store in urban/suburban Norway. In 2005, the stores stopped the importation to Norway because Kraft Foods took over.
In February 2011, Oreo became available in Polish supermarkets and shops, promoted with a huge advertising campaign.
In January 2012, Oreo became available in Czech supermarkets and shops, promoted with a huge advertising campaign.
In May 2008, following stocking of Oreo (called Oreo biscuits in UK) in the supermarket chain Sainsbury's, Kraft decided to fully launch the Oreo across the UK, repackaged in the more familiar British tube design, accompanied with a £4.5M television advertising campaign around the 'twist, lick, dunk' catchphrase. Kraft recently partnered with McDonald's to bring the Oreo McFlurry (already on sale in many countries) to a few McDonald's locations during its yearly Great Tastes of America promotions. An Oreo flavored "Krushem" drink was also on sale in UK KFC stores. The UK Oreo website gives a slightly different ingredients list to that of the US product. Unlike the US version, UK oreos contain whey powder and so are not suitable for people who avoid milk products. On 6 December 2011, Kraft announced that Oreos would start to be produced in the UK. Their Cadbury factory at Sheffield in South Yorkshire has been selected to manufacture Oreos in the UK for the first time. Construction of the Oreo plant in Sheffield is due to start in March 2012.
In January 1994, Oreo became available in supermarkets and shops, promoted with a huge advertising campaign.
According to a statement from Kim McMiller, an Associate Director of Consumer Relations, a two-stage process is used to make Oreo cookies. The base cake dough is formed into the familiar round cookies by a rotary mold at the entrance of a 300-foot-long oven. Much of current Oreo production is done at the Kraft/Nabisco factory in Richmond, Virginia. Oreo cookies for the Asian markets are manufactured in Indonesia, India and China. Oreo cookies for Europe are made in Spain and in Ukraine for consumers in several CIS countries. Oreo cookies sold in Australia are manufactured in China or Spain depending on flavor.
In addition to their traditional design of two chocolate wafers separated by a cream filling, Oreo cookies have been produced in many different varieties since they were first introduced, and this list is only a guide to some of the more notable and recent types; not all are available in every country. Notable flavors in the US are:
Different sizes of Oreos: mini, regular and Double Stuf
- Double Stuf Oreo (introduced in 1974) have about twice the normal amount of white cream filling. Available in peanut butter, original, cool mint or chocolate cream. In the UK they are called Double Stuff Oreo (note the double 'f') and are currently only available in original.
- Football Oreo football-shape Oreos, introduced in 1976
- Big Stuf Oreo (introduced in 1987) were several times the size of a normal Oreo. Sold individually, each Big Stuf contained 250 calories (1,000 kJ) and 13 grams of fat. They were discontinued in 1991.
- Mini Oreo, originally released in 1991, are bite-sized versions of ordinary Oreo cookies. After being discontinued in the late 1990s they were re-released in 2000 along with the redesigned 2001 Dodge Caravan as part of a promotional tie-in with DaimlerChrysler Their 1990s packaging consisted of a "miniaturized" version of the full-size cardboard tray and box used in packaging at the time. Their current packaging consists of an aluminum foil bag.
- "Triple Double Oreo", for sale in the US in summer 2011, combine three wafers with two layers of creme, one vanilla and one chocolate.
- Triple Double Neapolitan Oreos, are similar to the original triple double oreos, but are three vanilla oreo cookies, with chocolate filling between the first and second cookies, and strawberry filling between the second and third.
- 100 Calorie Pack Oreo (Oreo Thinsations in Canada) are miniature, thin, hexagonal versions of Oreo with no creme-filling, and come individually portioned into 100 calories (420 kJ) pouches.
- Chocolate Oreo
- Oreo Oreo
- Strawberry Milkshake Oreo, introduced in Canada, and sold for a limited time in the United States, is an Oreo cookie with strawberry flavoring.
- Strawberry Oreo, introduced in Indonesia and Malaysia.
- Green Tea Oreo, introduced in China and Japan.
- Lemon Ice Oreo, introduced in Japan.
- Organic Oreo, introduced in 2006, are plain Oreo cookies made with organic flavor and organic sugar.
- Blueberry Ice Cream Oreo, introduced in Singapore, Indonesia and Malaysia in 2010. Also sold in Thailand.
- Orange Ice Cream Oreo, introduced in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand in 2011.
- Golden Oreo, introduced in Indonesia in 2011. Oreo's chocolate cookies replaced by milk-flavored cookies
- Double Stuf Golden Oreo, introduced in late August 2009. As the name indicates they are Double Stuf Oreos with Golden Oreo wafers instead of normal chocolate Oreo wafers.
- Golden Oreo series have vanilla biscuits with other fillings like vanilla and chocolate as Uh-Oh Oreo until its rebranding in 2007. Introduced in Indonesia in 2011 with milky cookies and cream.
- Oreo Heads or Tails have vanilla creme filling with a chocolate Oreo wafer on one side and a Golden Oreo wafer on the other.
- Creamsicle Oreo have vanilla and orange creme filling with vanilla Oreo wafers.
- Ice Cream Oreo Rainbow Shure Bert have rainbow sherbet filling with vanilla Oreo wafers.
- Oreo DQ Blizzard Creme, a limited edition Oreo released in April–May 2010, celebrated the 25th anniversary of the Dairy Queen Blizzard
- Double Delight Oreo, introduced in 1987, have chocolate cookies with two fillings, notably peanut butter and chocolate, mint and cream, and coffee and cream flavors.
- Also there are ongoing fruit series: orange and mango, raspberry and blueberry, grape and peach in China.
- Cool Mint Creme Oreo are a Double Stuf Oreo with a slight minty creme filling.
- Peanut Butter Oreo are a Double Stuf Oreo with a peanut buttery creme filling.
- Pure Milk Chocolate Covered Mint Oreo are similar to Milk Chocolate Oreo but have a mint-flavored filling.
- Banana Split Creme Oreo with a light yellow banana flavor filling, were available for a limited time in 2008.
- Berry Burst Ice Cream Oreo were released in April 2011.
- Sugar Free Oreo, introduced in 2006, cost over twice as much as regular Oreos, and had only trace amounts of sugar, 10 fewer calories per serving, 0.5 grams more fat and 450% more fiber.
- Reduced Fat Oreo, introduced in 2006, cost the same as regular Oreos, had as much sugar, 10 fewer calories per serving, about 35% less fat and the same amount of fiber.
- During springtime, around Halloween, and Christmas, special edition "Double Stuf Oreo" cookies are produced with colored frosting reflecting the current holiday (blue or yellow, orange, and red or green respectively).
- Chocolate and Dulce de leche Oreo, sold in Chile and Argentina, has chocolate or Dulce de Leche instead of the usual creme.
- Oreos with red creme, introduced in 2010, as a promotion for the movie How To Train Your Dragon
- Birthday Cake Oreos were a limited-edition release in February-July 2012 to celebrate Oreo's 100th birthday, made up of two chocolate Oreo cookies with a birthday-cake flavored filling and sprinkles inside. This edition replaced the traditional design on one of the two cookies with a birthday candle and the words "OREO 100".
- Birthday Cake Oreos - Fudge Dipped Vanilla were a limited-edition release in February-July 2012 to celebrate Oreo's 100th birthday, made up of one vanilla Oreo cookie with a birthday-cake flavored filling and sprinkles inside. The cookie and frosting are then dipped in fudge so that the entire cookie is covered.
- Candy Corn Oreos were a limited-edition release, made up of two golden Oreo cookies with a flavored filling that was half yellow and half orange.
- Gingerbread Oreos were a limited edition release made up of two golden Oreo cookies with a mild gingerbread flavored filling.
- Fudge Covered Oreo, White Fudge Oreo and Milk Chocolate Oreo are covered in either a layer of fudge, white fudge or milk chocolate respectively.
- Coconut Delight Oreo Fudge Cremes are covered in chocolate and contain coconut flavoring in the middle.
- Oreo Fudgees are rectangular "dipping" shaped Oreos with a chocolate fudge filling (different from the Chocolate Creme Oreo).
- Oreo Fudge Sundae Creme, a limited edition introduced in 2009, are chocolate ring cookies with traditional white cream filling on half a ring cookie, and fudge cream on the other half.
- Oreo Fudge Rings are chocolate ring cookies with the traditional white cream filling drizzled over them.
- Oreo Cakesters, introduced in 2007, are soft chocolate snack cakes with vanilla or chocolate creme in the middle
- Oreo WaferStix are long wafer sticks with a creamy filling and covered by chocolate.
- Oreo Handi-Snacks are plastic holders with rectangular Oreo cookies and a little box of icing.
- Oreo Sippers are Oreo flavored sticks that can be eaten or used as a straw.
- Oreo Star sold only in Asian Countries
- Jell-O Oreo Pudding – Jell-O brand chocolate pudding at the bottom and on top, with vanilla in the middle.
- Jell-O Oreo Instant Pudding – also named Cookies n' Cream. The box contains instant vanilla pudding with real cookie pieces.
- There was a Post cereal called Oreo O's; it was discontinued in 2007.
- Oreo Ice Cream. Licensed by Breyers, Good Humor, and Klondike in the US, and Nestlé in Canada. Flavors are:
- Oreo Ice Cream (blended Oreo cookies in vanilla ice cream)
- Oreo Ice Cream Sandwich (extra large Oreo wafers with vanilla ice cream in the middle)
- Oreo Ice Cream Bar (vanilla light ice cream mixed with Oreo pieces with a chocolate flavored coating with Oreo bits)
- Mint Oreo Ice Cream (blended Oreo cookies in mint ice cream)
- Many notable fast-food restaurants, such as Dairy Queen and Baskin Robbins, serve Oreo-flavored ice cream desserts and milkshakes
- Easy-Bake Oreo Mix– two easy-bake chocolate cakes with a marshmallow filling topped with an Oreo cookie topping
- Oreo Holiday Treats – Oreos covered in dark chocolate
- Oreo Chocolate Candy Bar- A chocolate candy bar with a rectangular Oreo cookie and Oreo cream filling covered in milk chocolate.
- Oreo Pie Crust, a pie crust made of crushed Oreos, sold around the U.S.
- Banana Split Oreo, introduced in Canada, an Oreo cookie with banana flavoring.
- Oreo Milkshake is a Kraft Foods recipe consisting of Oreo cookies, milk, vanilla ice-cream and chocolate syrup.
- Oreo Cookie Cheesecake, manufactured by The Cheesecake Factory
- Cadbury Dairy Milk 'with Oreo' - Cadbury milk chocolate with an Oreo filling.
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