One World Trade Center

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

One World Trade Center
OneWorldTradeCenter.jpg
One World Trade Center on July 30, 2013.
Alternative names
  • 1 WTC
  • Freedom Tower (pre-2009)[1]
General information
StatusTopped out, Interior furnishing and exterior under construction
TypeOffice, observation, communication
Architectural styleContemporary modern
Location72 Vesey Street
New York City, NY 10048
Coordinates40°42′46.8″N 74°0′48.6″W / 40.713000°N 74.013500°W / 40.713000; -74.013500Coordinates: 40°42′46.8″N 74°0′48.6″W / 40.713000°N 74.013500°W / 40.713000; -74.013500
Construction startedApril 27, 2006
OpeningLate January / Early February 2014[2][3]
CostUS$3.9 billion (April 2012 estimate)[4][5]
Height
Architectural1,776 ft (541.3 m)[2][6]
Tip1,792 ft (546.2 m)[2]
Roof1,368 ft (417.0 m)
Top floor1,268 ft (386.5 m)[2]
Observatory1,254 ft (382.2 m)[2]
Technical details
Floor count104 (+5 basement floors)[2]
Floor area3,501,274 sq ft (325,279 m2)[2]
Lifts/elevators73[2]
Design and construction
ArchitectDavid Childs (Skidmore, Owings & Merrill)[7]
DeveloperPort Authority of New York and New Jersey[2]
Structural engineerWSP Cantor Seinuk
Main contractorTishman Construction
References
[2][8]
 
Jump to: navigation, search
One World Trade Center
OneWorldTradeCenter.jpg
One World Trade Center on July 30, 2013.
Alternative names
  • 1 WTC
  • Freedom Tower (pre-2009)[1]
General information
StatusTopped out, Interior furnishing and exterior under construction
TypeOffice, observation, communication
Architectural styleContemporary modern
Location72 Vesey Street
New York City, NY 10048
Coordinates40°42′46.8″N 74°0′48.6″W / 40.713000°N 74.013500°W / 40.713000; -74.013500Coordinates: 40°42′46.8″N 74°0′48.6″W / 40.713000°N 74.013500°W / 40.713000; -74.013500
Construction startedApril 27, 2006
OpeningLate January / Early February 2014[2][3]
CostUS$3.9 billion (April 2012 estimate)[4][5]
Height
Architectural1,776 ft (541.3 m)[2][6]
Tip1,792 ft (546.2 m)[2]
Roof1,368 ft (417.0 m)
Top floor1,268 ft (386.5 m)[2]
Observatory1,254 ft (382.2 m)[2]
Technical details
Floor count104 (+5 basement floors)[2]
Floor area3,501,274 sq ft (325,279 m2)[2]
Lifts/elevators73[2]
Design and construction
ArchitectDavid Childs (Skidmore, Owings & Merrill)[7]
DeveloperPort Authority of New York and New Jersey[2]
Structural engineerWSP Cantor Seinuk
Main contractorTishman Construction
References
[2][8]
Rebuilding of the
World Trade Center
One World Trade Center
2 World Trade Center
3 World Trade Center
4 World Trade Center
5 World Trade Center
6 World Trade Center
7 World Trade Center
National September 11 Memorial & Museum
Transportation Hub

One World Trade Center (also 1 World Trade Center or 1 WTC, formerly the Freedom Tower) is the primary building of the new World Trade Center complex in New York City's Lower Manhattan and is the tallest building in the United States. The 104-story supertall skyscraper stands on the northwest corner of the 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site, on the site of the original 6 World Trade Center. The building is bordered to the west by West Street, to the north by Vesey Street, to the south by Fulton Street, and to the east by Washington Street. Construction on below-ground utility relocations, footings, and foundations for the building began on April 27, 2006.[9] On March 30, 2009, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey confirmed that the building would be known by its legal name, One World Trade Center, rather than the colloquial name, Freedom Tower.[1]

The tower's steel structure topped out on August 30, 2012.[3][10] On May 10, 2013, the final component of the skyscraper's spire was installed, making One World Trade Center the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth-tallest skyscraper in the world by pinnacle height. Its spire reaches a symbolic height of 1,776 feet (541 m) in reference to the year of the United States Declaration of Independence.[11][12][13] It has been the tallest structure in New York City since April 30, 2012, when it surpassed the height of the Empire State Building.[14][15] The new World Trade Center complex will also feature three other high-rise office buildings, located along Greenwich Street, and the National September 11 Memorial & Museum, located just south of One World Trade Center, where the Twin Towers once stood. The construction is part of an effort to memorialize and rebuild following the destruction of the original World Trade Center complex during the attacks of September 11, 2001.

History

Planning and development

Following the destruction of the original World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, there was much debate regarding the future of the World Trade Center site. Proposals for its reconstruction began almost immediately, and by 2003, the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation organized a competition to determine how to use the site. Public rejection of the first round of designs, the "Preliminary Design Concepts," led to a second, more open competition in December 2002, in which a design by Daniel Libeskind was selected. This went through many revisions,[16] largely because of disagreements with developer Larry Silverstein, who held the lease to the World Trade Center site on September 11, 2001.

Criticism was leveled at the limited number of floors that were designated for office space and other amenities in an early plan. Only 82 floors would have been habitable, and the overall office space of the entire rebuilt World Trade Center would have been reduced by more than 3,000,000 square feet (280,000 m2) in comparison with the original complex. The floor limit was imposed by Silverstein, who expressed concern that higher floors would be a liability in the event of a future terrorist attack or other incident. Much of the building's height would have consisted of a large, open-air steel lattice structure above the roof of the tower, containing wind turbines and "sky gardens". In a subsequent design, the highest space that could be occupied became comparable to the original World Trade Center, and the open-air lattice was removed from the plans.[6] In 2002, former New York Governor George Pataki faced accusations of cronyism for supposedly using his influence to get the winning architect's bid picked as a personal favor for his friend and campaign contributor, Ron Lauder.[17]

A final design for the "Freedom Tower" was formally unveiled on June 28, 2005. To satisfy security issues raised by the New York City Police Department, a 187-foot (57 m) concrete base was added in April of that year. The design originally included plans to clad the base in glass prisms to address criticism that it looked uninviting and resembled a "concrete bunker". However, this later proved unworkable, as preliminary testing revealed that the prismatic glass easily shattered into large and dangerous shards. As a result, it was replaced by a simpler facade consisting of stainless steel panels and blast-resistant glass.[18]

Contrasting with Libeskind's original plan, the tower's final design tapers octagonally as it rises. Its designers stated that the tower would be a "monolithic glass structure reflecting the sky and topped by a sculpted antenna." Larry Silverstein commented in 2006 on a planned completion date: "By 2012 we should have a completely rebuilt World Trade Center, more magnificent, more spectacular than it ever was."[19] On April 26, 2006, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey approved a conceptual framework that enabled foundation construction to begin, and a formal agreement was drafted on the following day, the 75th anniversary of the 1931 opening of the Empire State Building. The tower's construction began in May with a formal ceremony that took place when the first construction team arrived.[20] The building's topping out occurred on August 31, 2012, and was completed on May 2, 2013.[18]

In 2009 the Port Authority changed the official title of the building from "Freedom Tower" to "One World Trade Center," stating that this name was the "easiest for people to identify with."[1][21] The change came after board members voted to sign a 21-year lease deal with Vantone Industrial Co., a Chinese real estate giant, which will become the first commercial tenant. It plans to create the China Center, a trade and cultural facility, in 191,000 square feet on floors 64 through 69. Vantone is closely affiliated with the Chinese Communist government.[22]

A report in September 2013 revealed that, at the time of the report, the World Trade Center Association (WTCA) continues to negotiate with the One World Trade Center in regard to the title "World Trade Center," as the WTCA purchased the rights to the name in 1986. The WTCA is seeking free office space in the tower worth US$500,000 in exchange for the use of "World Trade Center" on the One World Trade Center tower and associated souvenirs.[23]

In May 2011, detailed floor plans of the tower were displayed on New York City's Department of Finance website, resulting in an uproar from the media and citizens of the surrounding area, who warned that the plans could potentially be used for a future terrorist attack.[24] In April 2012, with the tower's structure nearing completion, the owners of 1 WTC began a public marketing campaign for the building, seeking to draw in visitors and additional tenants.[25]

On November 12, 2013, the Height Committee of the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) in Chicago, made the controversial[26] announcement that One World Trade Center is the tallest building in the United States at 1,776 feet, declaring that the mast on top of the building is a spire since it is a permanent part of the building's architecture.[27][28]

Construction history

The symbolic cornerstone of One World Trade Center was laid in a ceremony on July 4, 2004,[29] but further construction work was stalled until 2006 due to disputes over money, security and design.[29] The last major issues were resolved on April 26, 2006, when a deal was struck between developer Larry Silverstein and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. For two months during the summer of 2006, explosives were detonated at the World Trade Center construction site, testing the use of charges to clear bedrock for the building's foundations. On November 18, 2006, 400 cubic yards (310 cubic meters) of concrete were poured onto the foundations, carried by as many as 40 trucks. On December 17, 2006, a ceremony was held in Battery Park City, with members of the public invited to sign a 30-foot (9.1 m) steel beam.[30] This beam, the first to be installed, was welded onto the building's base on December 19, 2006.[31] Afterwards, construction of the foundation and further steel installation commenced, and by the end of 2007, the tower's footings and foundations were nearly complete.[32]

In January 2008, two construction cranes were moved onto the construction site. The tower's concrete core began rising in the first months of 2008,[32] and had reached street level by May 17. Construction of the base continued through 2009 and was completed by January 2010. That same month, construction of the office floors began, then afterwards the installation of the first glass windows. In May 2010, the Port Authority stated that they were building nearly one floor of the tower per week, and it was projected that 1 WTC would reach 55 stories by the end of 2010.[33] An advanced "cocoon" scaffolding system was installed to protect workers from falling, marking the first time that such a safety system had been installed on a steel structure in the city.[34]

On December 16, 2010, the Port Authority announced that the tower's construction had reached the 52nd floor, rising to over 600 feet (180 m) and marking the halfway point for the tower's steel frame.[35][36] By September 11, 2011, ten years after the destruction of the original World Trade Center, the tower's steel had reached the 82nd floor, while its concrete flooring had reached the 72nd floor, and glass cladding had reached the 56th floor.[37]

While under construction, the tower was specially illuminated on several occasions.[38] On the weekend of July 4, 2011, it was lit up in the colors of the American flag to commemorate Independence Day, and it was lit up in the same colors on September 10 to mark the 10th anniversary of the September 11 terrorist attacks.[39] On October 27, it was illuminated in pink in honor of Breast Cancer Awareness Month. On December 11, the Port Authority illuminated the tower in multicolored lights to celebrate the holiday season. On February 24, 2012, the building was lit up in red in honor of Archbishop of New York Timothy Dolan, who became a cardinal on February 18. On June 14, 2012, it was illuminated in red, white, and blue to honor Flag Day. In August, it was illuminated in red in honor of the Armed Forces. On September 8, 2012, it was again illuminated in red, white, and blue to honor the 11th anniversary of the September 11 attacks. On June 24, 2013, One World Trade Center was again illuminated in red, white, and blue to celebrate the Fourth of July.

On January 31, 2012, the Port Authority stated that the tower's loading dock would not be finished in time to move equipment into the completed building, and that five temporary loading bays would be added instead, at a cost of millions. The temporary Trans Hudson station will not be removed until its replacement is completed, preventing access to the planned loading area.[40] By March 2012, One World Trade Center's steel had reached the 93rd floor,[3] and on March 30, the 100th floor was reached at a height of 1,240 feet (380 m).[41] Though this floor was numbered as floor 100, it was in fact the 94th floor constructed the intervening space was occupied by the high-ceilinged mechanical floors 91.[41] The incomplete tower became New York City's tallest building by roof height, superseding the 1,250-foot (380 m) roof height of the Empire State Building, on April 30, 2012.[14] However, the Empire State Building's total spire height of 1,454 feet (443 m) remained unsurpassed until 2013, when One World Trade Center's antenna was installed.

On June 2, 2012, a fire broke out on the 89th floor of the tower, but was extinguished by New York City firefighters before causing any injuries or serious structural damage. However, firefighting efforts were delayed because the tower's emergency standpipes were found to be dry.[42] On June 14, 2012, President Barack Obama visited the construction site and signed a steel beam that would be hoisted to the top of the tower. Obama wrote, "We remember, we rebuild, we come back stronger!"[43]

In August 2012, One World Trade Center's steel officially topped out at the nominal 104th floor, at a total height of 1,368 feet (417 m). The tower's antenna was shipped to New York in November 2012;[44] the first antenna section was hoisted to the top of the tower on December 12, 2012,[45] and installed on January 15, 2013.[46]

By March 2013, two sections of the antenna had been installed. The spire was expected to be completed on April 29, 2013, but weather delayed the delivery of the final pieces.[47] On May 10, 2013, the final piece of the spire was lifted to the top of One World Trade Center, bringing it to its full height of 1,776 feet (541 m), and making it the third-tallest building in the world.[48]

As of June 28, 2013, the tower's concrete construction is largely complete, and its facade is complete with the exception of the exterior hoist areas.[3] Construction of the observation deck, installation of the podium's lower glass curtain wall, and elevator and bathroom fit-outs continue. Roof and parapet steel are being finalized. The tower will officially open when the installation of podium glass and interior construction are completed in early 2014.

As of September 2013, the exterior elevator shaft is being removed, podium glass continues to be installed, and interior decorating and finishings are being installed. The concrete floor and steel installation is now complete.[49]

Estimated cost and funding

A February 2007 estimate put the initial construction cost of One World Trade Center at about US$3 billion, or $1,150 per square foot ($12,380 per square meter).[50] However, by April 2012 the tower's total estimated cost had risen to $3.9 billion, making it the most expensive single building in the world at the time.[4][5] The tower's construction was partly funded with approximately $1 billion of insurance money recouped by Silverstein in connection with the September 11 attacks.[50] The State of New York provided $250 million toward construction costs, and the Port Authority agreed to finance a further $1 billion through the sale of bonds.[51] A series of bridge and tunnel toll hikes were also implemented by the Port Authority to raise funds, with a 56 percent toll increase scheduled between 2011 and 2015; however, the proceeds of these toll hikes were not ultimately used to pay for the tower's construction.[5][52]

Architecture and design

Many of Daniel Libeskind's concepts from the 2002 competition were later discarded from the tower's design. One World Trade Center's final design consisted of simple symmetries and a more traditional profile, intended to bear comparison with selected elements of the contemporary New York skyline. The tower's central spire draws from precedents such as the Empire State Building and the Chrysler Building, and is also visually reminiscent of the North Tower of the original World Trade Center, rather than being an off-center spire intended to echo the Statue of Liberty.

Preliminary site plans for the World Trade Center's reconstruction. Orange: new buildings (WTC One is square at upper left), blue: memorial for old WTC.

The building's footprint is a 200-foot (61 m) square with an area of 40,000 square feet (3,700 m2), nearly identical to the footprints of the original Twin Towers. The tower rises from a 185-foot (56 m) windowless concrete base, designed to protect it against truck bombs and other ground-level terror threats.[53] Originally, the base was intended to be clad in decorative prismatic glass, but a simpler glass-and-steel façade was adopted when this proved unworkable.[18] The current base cladding design consists of angled glass fins protruding from stainless steel panels, similar to those on 7 World Trade Center. LED lights behind the panels will illuminate the base at night.[54] Cable-net glass façades on all four sides of the building for the higher floors, designed by Schlaich Bergermann, will be consistent with the other buildings in the complex. They measure 60 feet (18 m) high and range in width from 30 feet (9.1 m) on the east and west sides (for access to the observation deck) to 50 feet (15 m) on the north side, and 70 feet (21 m) on the south for primary tenant access.[8] The curtain wall was manufactured and assembled in Portland, Oregon, by Benson Industries, using glass made in Minnesota by Viracon.[55]

From the 20th floor upwards, the square edges of the tower's cubic base are chamfered back, transforming the building's shape into eight tall isosceles triangles, or an elongated square antiprism.[56] Near its middle, the tower forms a perfect octagon in-plan, and then culminates in a glass parapet whose shape is a square oriented 45 degrees from the base. A 408-foot (124 m) sculpted mast containing the broadcasting antenna – designed in a collaboration between SOM, artist Kenneth Snelson (who invented the tensegrity structure), lighting designers and engineers – is secured by a system of cables, and rises from a circular support ring which will contain additional broadcasting and maintenance equipment. At night, an intense beam of light will be projected above the spire, being visible over 1,000 feet (300 m) into the air above the tower.[57]

David Childs of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, the architect of One World Trade Center, said the following regarding the tower's design:[58]

We really wanted our design to be grounded in something that was very real, not just in sculptural sketches. We explored the infrastructural challenges because the proper solution would have to be compelling, not just beautiful. The design does have great sculptural implications, and we fully understand the iconic importance of the tower, but it also has to be a highly efficient building. The discourse about Freedom Tower has often been limited to the symbolic, formal and aesthetic aspects but we recognize that if this building doesn't function well, if people don't want to work and visit there, then we will have failed as architects.

Layout

One World Trade Center's top floor will be designated as 104.[2] The building will have 86 usable above-ground floors, of which 78 will be assigned as office space (approximately 2,600,000 square feet or 240,000 square meters).[59][60][61] The base will occupy floors 1–19, including a 65-ft-high (20 m) public lobby. The office stories will begin at floor 20, and run through floor 63. There will be a sky lobby on floor 64, and then office floors will resume between floors 65–90. Meanwhile, floors 91–99 and 103–104 will be designated as mechanical space.[8]

The design also includes a three-story observation deck located on floors 100–102, as well as broadcast and antenna facilities, all supported by both above- and below-ground mechanical infrastructure for the building and its adjacent public spaces.[citation needed] Similar to the arrangement at the Empire State Building, observatory visitors are segregated from the users of the tenant floors with their own separate entrance next to the museum, descending down to a security screening area at mall level[62] Below-ground tenant parking and storage, shopping, and access to the PATH and subway trains and the World Financial Center are also provided. There will be approximately 55,000 square feet (5,100 m2) of below-ground retail space. A plan to build a restaurant near the top of the tower, similar to the original World Trade Center's Windows on the World, was abandoned as logistically impractical. The window-washing tracks are located on a 16-square-foot area which will be denoted as floor 110, in a symbolic reference to the 110 stories of the original Twin Towers.[63]

Sustainability

Like the other buildings of the rebuilt World Trade center complex, One World Trade Center includes a number of sustainable architecture features. Much of the building's structure is made from post-industrial recycled materials, and about 80 percent of its waste products are also being recycled.[64] Although the roof area of any tower is comparatively limited, the building will implement a rainwater collection and recycling scheme for its cooling systems. The building's PureCell phosphoric acid fuel cells will generate 4.8 million watts of power, and its waste steam will also help generate electricity.[65] The New York Power Authority selected UTC Power to provide the tower's fuel cell system, which will rank as one of the largest installations of fuel cells in the world once complete.[66] The tower will also make use of off-site hydroelectric and wind power.[67] The windows are made of an ultra-clear glass which allows maximum daylight to pass through, while interior lighting is equipped with dimmers that automatically lower the lights on sunny days, thereby reducing energy costs.[57] Like all of the new facilities at the World Trade Center site, One World Trade Center will be heated by steam, with limited oil or natural gas utilities located on-site.[68]

One World Trade Center is expected to receive a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold Certification, making it one of the most environmentally sustainable buildings of its size in the world.[69]

Safety and security

Along with the protection offered by the reinforced concrete base, a number of other safety features were included in the building's design, in order to better prepare it for a major accident or terrorist attack. In line with the new philosophy set by 7 World Trade Center, the building features 3-foot (91 cm) thick reinforced concrete walls for all stairwells, elevator shafts, risers, and sprinkler systems; extra-wide, pressurized stairwells; a dedicated set of stairwells exclusively for the use of firefighters; and biological and chemical filters throughout its ventilation system. By way of comparison, the Twin Towers used a purely steel central core to house their utility functions, protected only by a system of lightweight drywall panels.

The building is no longer 25 feet (8 m) away from West Street, as the Twin Towers were; at its closest point, West Street is 65 feet (20 m) away. The windows on the side of the building facing in this direction are equipped with specially tempered blast-resistant plastic, which looks nearly the same as the glass used in the other sides of the building.[57] The Port Authority has stated: "Its structure is designed around a strong, redundant steel moment frame consisting of beams and columns connected by a combination of welding and bolting. Paired with a concrete-core shear wall, the moment frame lends substantial rigidity and redundancy to the overall building structure while providing column-free interior spans for maximum flexibility."[69]

In addition to optimal safety design, new security measures will also be implemented. All vehicles will be screened before they enter the site via the underground roadway, including for radioactive materials. Visitors to the National September 11 Memorial currently undergo airport-style screening as part of the "Interim Operating Period", which is expected to end on December 31, 2013.[70] 400 closed-circuit surveillance cameras will be placed in and around the site, with live camera feeds being monitored around the clock by the NYPD. A computer system will use video-analytic computer software designed to detect potential threats such as unattended bags and retrieve images based on descriptions of terror or other criminal suspects. New York City and Port Authority police will patrol the site. Once the World Trade Center site is fully completed, the plaza will be opened entirely to the public, as was the original World Trade Center plaza.[53]

The fortified base of the tower has been a source of controversy. A number of critics (notably Deroy Murdock of the National Review) have suggested that it is alienating and dull, and reflects a sense of fear rather than freedom, leading them to dub the project "the Fear Tower".[71][72] Nicolai Ouroussoff, the architecture critic for the New York Times, calls the tower base decorations a "grotesque attempt to disguise its underlying paranoia".[73]

Design evolution

The original design went through significant changes after the Durst Organization joined the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in 2010 as the co-developer of the project.[74]

(1)-(2) Libeskind's original design and modified design 2002-2003. (3) Childs' design from August 2003 followed by (4) Libeskind-Childs collaboration from December same year. (5) Final Childs design from June 2005. Height: (1) and (5) 1776 feet, (2)-(4) 2000 feet.

The Port Authority formally approved all these revisions. Patrick Foye, the executive director of the Port Authority, stated: "I think they've been few and minor."[74] Douglas Durst said: "We didn't make the changes to save money... The changes were made in order to construct the building."[74] The contract negotiated between the Port Authority and the Durst Organization specifies that the Durst Organization receive a $15 million fee and a percentage of "base building changes that result in net economic benefit to the project." The specifics of the signed contract give Durst 75 percent of savings up to $24 million, and further returns stepping down thereafter (to 50 percent, 25 percent and 15 percent as the savings increase).[74]

Height

Height comparison of major skyscrapers in New York City, with One World Trade Center shown at far left. The North Tower of WTC was 1,727 ft (526.3 m)

The roof of the top floor of One World Trade Center is 1,368 feet (417 m) tall, including a 33 ft 4 in (10.16 m) parapet; this is identical to the roof height of the North Tower of the original World Trade Center.[79] The building's antenna/spire complex brings One World Trade Center to a pinnacle height of 1,776 feet (541 m),[2][80] a figure symbolic of the 1776 United States Declaration of Independence.[81] If the antenna is included in the building's official height, as defined by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH), One World Trade Center surpasses the 1,671-foot (509 m) height of Taipei 101 and is the world's tallest all-office building, and the fourth-tallest skyscraper in the world, behind the Burj Khalifa, Abraj Al Bait and Shanghai Tower.

One World Trade Center is the second-tallest freestanding structure in the Western Hemisphere, as its pinnacle height is exceeded by that of the CN Tower in Toronto by approximately 12 m (39.4 ft). The Chicago Spire, with a planned height of 2,000 feet (610 m), was expected to exceed the height of One World Trade Center, but its construction was canceled in 2009 due to financial difficulties.[82]

After the changes in the design of One World Trade Center's spire were revealed in May 2012, questions were raised as to whether the 408-foot (124 m) structure would still qualify as a spire and thus be included in the building's official architectural height.[83][84] As the building's spire is not enclosed in a radome as originally planned, it may instead be classified as a simple antenna which, according to the CTBUH, is not included in a building's official height.[84] Without the inclusion of the antenna mast, One World Trade Center's official height would be its roof height of 1,368 feet (417 m), making it the third-tallest building in the United States, behind the Willis Tower and Trump International Hotel & Tower, both located in Chicago.[85][86] Additionally, while the building is the tallest in New York City now either way, without the antenna it would be surpassed in 2015 by the under-construction 432 Park Avenue, which is expected to rise to a height of 1,398 feet (426 m).[87][88] One World Trade Center's developers have disputed the claim that the spire should be reclassified as an antenna following the redesign,[89] with Port Authority spokesman Steve Coleman reiterating that "One World Trade Center will be the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere."[83] The CTBUH announced in 2012 that it would wait to make its final decision as to whether or not the redesigned spire would count towards the building's official height.[83] On November 12, 2013 the CTBUH announced that the spire on One World Trade Center will count as part of the buildings official height which gives the building a final height of 1,776 ft and makes it the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere.[27]

Owners and tenants

One World Trade Center is owned principally by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Around 5 percent equity of the building was sold to the Durst Organization, a private real estate company, in exchange for an investment of at least US$100 million. The Durst Organization assisted in supervising the building's construction, and manages the building for the Port Authority, having responsibility for leasing, property management and tenant installations.[90][91] By September 2012, around 55 percent of the building's floor space had been leased.[92]

Government tenants

In 2006, the State of New York agreed to a 15-year lease of 415,000 square feet (38,600 m2) of space inside 1 WTC, with an option to extend the term of the lease and occupy up to 1,000,000 square feet (90,000 m2).[93] The General Services Administration (GSA) initially agreed to lease approximately 645,000 square feet (59,900 m2) of space,[68][93] and New York State's Office of General Services (OGS) planned to lease approximately 412,000 square feet (38,300 m2) of space. However, in July 2011, the GSA ceded most of its leased floor space to the Port Authority, and the OGS withdrew from the lease agreement.[94] In April 2008, the Port Authority announced that it was seeking a bidder to operate the 18,000 sq ft (1,700 m2) observation deck on the tower's 102nd floor;[95] in 2013, Legends Hospitality Management agreed to operate the observatory in a 15-year, $875 million deal.[96]

Vantone China Center

The building's first lease was announced on March 28, 2009, as a joint project between the Port Authority and Beijing-based Vantone Industrial Co. A 190,810 sq ft (17,727 m2) "China Center", combining business and cultural facilities, is to be located between floors 64 and 69, to represent Chinese business and cultural links to the United States, and to serve American companies that wish to conduct business in China.[92] Vantone Industrial's lease is for 20 years and 9 months.[97] In April 2011, a new interior design for the China Center was unveiled, featuring a vertical "Folding Garden" based on an initial proposal by the Chinese artist Zhou Wei.[98]

Condé Nast

On August 3, 2010, Condé Nast Publications signed a tentative agreement to move the headquarters and offices of its magazines into One World Trade Center, occupying up to 1,000,000 square feet (90,000 m2) of floor space.[99] On May 17, 2011, Condé Nast reached an agreement with the Port Authority, securing a 25-year lease with an estimated value of $2 billion.[100] On May 25, 2011, Condé Nast finalized the lease agreement, leasing 1,008,012 square feet (93,647.4 m2) of office space on floors 20–41 of the tower. The lease also covers 30,000 square feet (2,800 m2) of usable space in the podium and below grade floors, for mail, messenger services, and storage use. On January 17, 2012, it was reported that Condé Nast would be leasing an additional 133,000 square feet (10,000 m2) of space, occupying floors 42–44 of the tower.[101]

Proposed tenants

On January 27, 2012, it was announced that Chadbourne & Parke, a Midtown Manhattan law firm, would be signing a lease to around 300,000 square feet (30,000 m2) of space in One World Trade Center.[102] However, negotiations broke down and the deal failed abruptly in March 2012.[103]

Key figures

Larry Silverstein

Larry Silverstein of Silverstein Properties, the leaseholder and developer of the complex, retains control of the surrounding buildings, while the Port Authority has full control of the tower itself. Silverstein signed a 99-year lease for the World Trade Center site in July 2001, and remains actively involved in most aspects of the site's redevelopment process.[104]

David Childs

David Childs, one of Silverstein's favorite architects, joined the project at the urging of Silverstein and developed a proposal for 1 WTC, initially in collaboration with Daniel Libeskind. The tower's design was revised by Childs in May 2005 to address security concerns. He is the project architect of the tower, and is responsible for overseeing its day-to-day design development from inception to completion.[105]

Daniel Libeskind

Daniel Libeskind won the 2002 competition to develop a master plan for the World Trade Center's redevelopment.

Architect Daniel Libeskind won the invitational competition to develop a plan for the World Trade Center's redevelopment in 2002. He included an initial proposal, "Memory Foundations", for the design of 1 WTC, a building with aerial gardens and windmills with an off-center spire. Libeskind later denied a request to place the tower in a more rentable location next to the PATH station and instead placed it a block west, because in profile it would line up with, and resemble, the Statue of Liberty.[106] Most of Libeskind's designs were later scrapped, and other architects were chosen to construct the other WTC buildings.[107] Nonetheless, one element of Libeskind's initial plan was reflected in the final design – the tower's symbolic height of 1,776 feet (541 m).[108]

Daniel Tishman

Daniel R. Tishman – along with his father John Tishman, builder of the original World Trade Center – led the construction management effort for Tishman Realty & Construction, the selected builder for 1 WTC.[109][110]

Douglas and Jody Durst

Douglas and Jody Durst, the co-presidents of the Durst Organization, a real estate development company, won the right to invest at least $100 million in the project on July 7, 2010. The Durst Organization is a family-owned company that specializes in the development, managing, leasing, and operation of sustainable commercial construction space.[111][112][113] Condé Nast, a long-time Durst tenant, also confirmed a tentative deal to move into 1 World Trade Center in August 2010,[112][113][114] and finalized the deal on May 26, 2011.[115]

Port Authority construction workers

A WoodSearch Films short-subject documentary was uploaded to YouTube on August 31, 2010, entitled How does it feel to work on One World Trade Center?. Nearly all of the construction workers interviewed praised the unity and work ethic of the new World Trade Center's construction team. Others spoke of the importance they believed the construction of the tower had to the people of the United States. A deputy foreman, George Collins, said, "All the men are working in conjunction to put this building up. They all know how important this is to the country – and to show the world what us Americans can do – and get this done, union and proud." Another deputy foreman, Scott Williams, commented, "[The] camaraderie of the crew is very good."[116]

America's Response Monument

On October 19, 2012, a life-and-a-half scale bronze monument commemorating the actions of U.S. Special Operations Forces in the first few weeks of the War in Afghanistan was rededicated in front of the building.[117] The base of the sculpture bears its title, "America's Response Monument", and the Latin subtitle De Oppresso Liber. The subtitle uses the motto of the Green Berets, whom the monument was inspired by, and is traditionally translated as "to free the oppressed".[118] A piece of steel from the original World Trade Center is embedded in the base.[119] In an uncommon move, the bronze statue is positioned so that the soldier atop the horse is looking back over his shoulder at the World Trade Center, as if keeping watch over it. The monument is dedicated to the actions of United States special forces personnel who fought as part of Operation Enduring Freedom. It is the first publicly accessible monument to American special forces personnel.[117]

The statue was dedicated by Lieutenant General John Mulholland, Deputy Commanding General of U.S. Army Special Forces Command. Soldiers representing the United States Army Special Operations Command also attended the dedication ceremony.[120] The land for the monument was donated by a private Wall Street firm.[121] The statue's cost of over $750,000 was paid entirely by hundreds of private citizens.[122][unreliable source?]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Freedom Tower has a new preferred name". Associated Press. March 26, 2009. Archived from the original on May 31, 2009. Retrieved March 30, 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "One World Trade Center – The Skyscraper Center". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved May 2, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d One World Trade Center construction updates. Lower Manhattan.info. Updated April 12, 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  4. ^ a b "1 World Trade Center Officially New York's New Tallest Building". Forbes. April 30, 2012. Retrieved July 26, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c "Tower Rises, And So Does Its Price Tag". Wall Street Journal. January 30, 2012. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
  6. ^ a b One World Trade Center. Emporis.com. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
  7. ^ "1 World Trade Center". WTC.com. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
  8. ^ a b c One World Trade Center at SkyscraperPage. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
  9. ^ "Building of N.Y. Freedom Tower begins". USA Today. Associated Press. April 28, 2006. Retrieved February 1, 2009. 
  10. ^ Higgs, Larry (August 30, 2012). "One World Trade Center steel skeleton completed". Asbury Park Press. Retrieved August 30, 2012. 
  11. ^ "Crews finish installing World Trade Center spire". CNN. May 10, 2013. Retrieved July 17, 2013. 
  12. ^ "Tallest buildings in NY". Skyscraperpage.com. Retrieved June 23, 2012. 
  13. ^ "Tallest buildings under construction in the world". Skyscraperpage.com. Retrieved June 23, 2012. 
  14. ^ a b "One World Trade Center On Top As Tallest Building In New York City". International Business Times. April 30, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
  15. ^ "It's official: 1 WTC is New York's new tallest building". NY Daily News. April 30, 2012. Retrieved April 30, 2012. 
  16. ^ "Freedom Tower's Evolution". New York Times. January 3, 2006. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
  17. ^ "America's Freedom Tower?". MSNBC. February 17, 2005. Retrieved November 22, 2011. 
  18. ^ a b c "Prismatic glass façade for WTC tower scrapped". Huffington Post. May 12, 2011. Retrieved June 19, 2011.
  19. ^ "Architects in New York unveil new Freedom Tower". Reuters. June 29, 2006. [dead link]
  20. ^ "Trucks roll to begin Freedom Tower construction". New York Daily News. April 27, 2006. Archived from the original on May 3, 2006. 
  21. ^ "The World Trade Centre Slow building". The Economist. April 23, 2009. Archived from the original on May 31, 2009. Retrieved May 31, 2009. 
  22. ^ http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/freedom-wtc-port-authority-freedom-tower-1-world-trade-center-article-1.366558
  23. ^ Simone Foxman (13 September 2013). "The puzzling non-profit behind the "World Trade Center" name makes a surprising amount of money". Quartz. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  24. ^ Lois Weiss and Chuck Bennett. "Detailed schematics of 1 World Trade Center posted online". New York Post. May 19, 2011.
  25. ^ "With New Logo, 1 WTC Begins Marketing Push". Wall Street Journal. April 11, 2012. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
  26. ^ "Tallest building ruling: Willis Tower loses to One World Trade Center". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 12 November 2013. 
  27. ^ a b "Architects rule 1 World Trade Center tallest building in US". MyFoxNY. Retrieved 12 November 2013. 
  28. ^ "CTBUH Affirms One World Trade Center Height". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. 12 November 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013. 
  29. ^ a b "Stalled Talks Are More Bad News for Pataki". New York Times. March 16, 2006. Retrieved July 24, 2013. 
  30. ^ Chan, Sewell (December 18, 2006). "Messages of Love and Hope on a Freedom Tower Beam". New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2013. 
  31. ^ "First Freedom Tower Beam Rises At Ground Zero". WCBS-TVV. December 19, 2006. Archived from the original on December 20, 2006. Retrieved July 17, 2013. 
  32. ^ a b "Statement by Port Authority Regarding Preparation of Towers 3 and 4 Bathtub at WTC Site to Allow Silverstein Properties to Begin Construction in January" (Press release). Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. December 31, 2007. Retrieved July 17, 2013. 
  33. ^ World Trade Center project has begun to take shape. NJ.com. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  34. ^ "Port Authority installs cocoon safety system around World Trade Center steel structure". NJ.com. May 2010. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
  35. ^ "1 WTC, aka Freedom Tower, reaches halfway mark"[dead link]. Associated Press via The Wall Street Journal. December 16, 2010. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  36. ^ "Freedom Tower half complete"[dead link]. New Zealand Herald. Retrieved December 17, 2010.
  37. ^ "World Trade Center Growing This Summer". Port Authority. 2011. Retrieved June 1, 2011. 
  38. ^ "WTC Progress from PANYNJ". Panynj.gov. Retrieved June 23, 2012. 
  39. ^ ""Tribute in Lights" illuminated in NYC skyline at night". Xinhua. September 11, 2011. Retrieved April 27, 2013. 
  40. ^ Hawley, Chris (February 1, 2012). "World Trade Center design flaw could cost millions". News & Record. Associated Press. Retrieved February 1, 2012. [dead link]
  41. ^ a b Brown, Eliot (March 30, 2012). "One World Trade Center Hits 100 Stories, Helped by Funny Math". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 1, 2012. 
  42. ^ "Struggle to douse WTC fire". New York Post. June 3, 2012. Retrieved June 5, 2012. 
  43. ^ Poppy Harlow; George Lerner; Jason Hanna (June 15, 2012). "Obama signs beam of One World Trade Center". CNN Newswire. Retrieved August 2, 2012. 
  44. ^ "World Trade Center's $10 million antenna finally sets sail for New York after legal dispute with Canadian maker is resolved". Daily Mail. November 22, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012. 
  45. ^ "One World Trade Center Spire: Workers Begin To Hoist Spire Atop City's Tallest Building (PHOTOS) (VIDEO)". Huffington Post. December 12, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2012. 
  46. ^ "FIRST SECTION OF SPIRE INSTALLED AT ONE WORLD TRADE CENTER". PANYNJ. January 15, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013. 
  47. ^ "1 World Trade Center to top out Monday as tallest building in hemisphere". CNN. April 28, 2013. Retrieved April 28, 2013. 
  48. ^ "Final pieces hoisted atop One World Trade Center". CNN. May 3, 2013. Retrieved May 3, 2013. 
  49. ^ http://www.panynj.gov/wtcprogress/index.html
  50. ^ a b Nordenson, Guy (February 16, 2007). "Freedom From Fear". New York Times. Retrieved February 2, 2012. 
  51. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (February 13, 2007). "Spitzer, in Reversal, Is Expected to Approve Freedom Tower, Officials Say". New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2012. 
  52. ^ "Critics blast Port Authority for changing position on how toll hike money will be spent". NJ.com. November 30, 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2012
  53. ^ a b "New York beefs up World Trade Center site security for September 11 10th anniversary". The Telegraph. August 8, 2011. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  54. ^ "New glass design for One World Trade Center base wins approval". WTC.com, November 15, 2011. Retrieved November 18, 2011.
  55. ^ "Curtain Wall Installation Begins at One World Trade Center" (Press release). Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP. November 16, 2010. [dead link]
  56. ^ "The Freedom Tower: World Trade Center, New York". Glass Steel and Stone. Retrieved March 13, 2010. 
  57. ^ a b c "SOM Freedom Tower Fact Sheet" (PDF) (Press release). Lower Manhattan Development Corporation. June 2005. 
  58. ^ Interview with David Childs (cont'd). Retrieved October 12, 2007
  59. ^ "World Trade Centre Behind Schedule And Over Budget Says New York Governor". Sky News. Retrieved March 13, 2010. 
  60. ^ "Freedom Tower || About the WTC || World Trade Center ||". Wtc.com. Retrieved March 13, 2010. 
  61. ^ Barrionuevo, Alexei (July 26, 2005). "In Chicago, Plans for a High-Rise Raise Interest and Post-9/11 Security Concerns". New York Times. Retrieved March 13, 2013. 
  62. ^ "The World Trade Center Retail Floor Plans (Part 2)". Tribeca Citizen. Retrieved 16 January 2014. 
  63. ^ "Outdoor Observation Deck At One World Trade Center A No-Go, Developer Says". Freedom Tower NYC. June 21, 2011.[dead link]
  64. ^ "Rising new One World Trade Centre to push the envelope in green building design". Green Prospects Asia. February 27, 2012. Retrieved July 24, 2013. 
  65. ^ "Fuel cells: a clean energy alternative at new World Trade Center". CleanTechnica.com. December 18, 2011. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
  66. ^ "WTC taps fuel cell"s. Wall Street Journal. November 1, 2010. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
  67. ^ "Green Facts About 1 WTC". ThomasNet. January 3, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
  68. ^ a b Dunlap, David W. (July 9, 2008). "Answers About Ground Zero Rebuilding". New York Times. Retrieved July 9, 2008. 
  69. ^ a b "One World Trade Center: A New Icon for New York City". The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. Retrieved January 27, 2011. 
  70. ^ "Visitor Rules and Regulations". Articles of Incorporation. World Trade Center Memorial Foundation, Inc. Retrieved May 29, 2012. 
  71. ^ Letters to the editor: Taking the Measure of the New Freedom Tower. New York Times. July 1, 2005. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  72. ^ Deroy Murdock on World Trade Center. National Review. March 11, 2005. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  73. ^ Ouroussoff, Nicolai (March 4, 2007). "Medieval Modern: Design Strikes a Defensive Posture". New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  74. ^ a b c d e f g David W. Dunlap (June 12, 2012). "1 World Trade Center Is a Growing Presence, and a Changed One". New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012. 
  75. ^ Steve Cuozzo (May 24, 2012). "World Trade Center offers warm welcome". New York Post. Retrieved December 9, 2012. 
  76. ^ a b c d Eliot Brown (May 10, 2012). "Pointed Spat Over World Trade Spire". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 9, 2012. 
  77. ^ Wall Street Journal: "A Beacon Diminished" By JAMES PANERO September 10, 2013
  78. ^ Transportation Nation: "Patrick Foye Named New Executive Director of NY-NJ Port Authority" By Jim O'Grady. October 19, 2012.
  79. ^ Dunlap, David W.; Collins, Glenn (June 30, 2005). "Redesign Puts Freedom Tower on a Fortified Base". New York Times. Retrieved January 18, 2009. 
  80. ^ RenewNYC – World Trade Center Towers. 2007. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
  81. ^ "One World Trade Center Symbolic height". WTC.com. Retrieved April 24, 2013. 
  82. ^ Barrett, Joe (December 9, 2009). "Push to Finish Tallest Tower". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 24, 2013. 
  83. ^ a b c "Change Means One World Trade Center Might Not Be America's Tallest Building". CBS New York. CBS Local Media. May 10, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012. 
  84. ^ a b "Questions on One World Trade Center Height". CTBUH. May 10, 2012. Retrieved July 24, 2013. 
  85. ^ Brown, Eliot (May 10, 2012). "Pointed Spat Over World Trade Spire". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 17, 2012. 
  86. ^ "Dispute over antenna could cost One World Trade Center title of tallest building in US". FOX News Network. May 9, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012. 
  87. ^ "432 Park Avenue". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved August 17, 2012. 
  88. ^ "432 Park Avenue Will Reach 1,397 Feet, Taller Even Than the World Trade Center". New York Observer. March 30, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012. 
  89. ^ "One World Trade Center's Skinny Spire Redesign Might Not Measure Up". Architectural Record. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. August 15, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012. 
  90. ^ David M. Levitt (July 8, 2010). "Durst, Onetime Critic, Wins Bid for Stake in 1 WTC". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved July 17, 2013. 
  91. ^ Joe Nocera (September 17, 2010). "In Skyscraper at Ground Zero, Sentiment Trumped Numbers". New York Times. 
  92. ^ a b "World Trade Center returns to New York skyline". CNN Money. September 11, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  93. ^ a b "Gov. Pataki, Governor Corzine, Mayor Bloomberg Announce Agreements to Occupy Freedom Tower". US States News. September 17, 2006. 
  94. ^ "A GSA haircut at 1 WTC". New York Post. July 18, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
  95. ^ Feiden, Douglas (April 10, 2008). "Freedom Tower to open observation deck on 102nd floor". Daily News (Mortimer Zuckerman). Retrieved July 20, 2013. 
  96. ^ "World Trade Center site sits empty as rivals lease up". Crain's New York Business. May 12, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2013. 
  97. ^ "Owners drop Freedom Tower name for new WTC skyscraper". CNN. March 28, 2009. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  98. ^ "China Center Unveils Folding Garden Design For Its Space In 1 WTC". ChinaCenter.com. April 14, 2011. Retrieved January 2, 2012.
  99. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (August 3, 2010). "Condé Nast to Move to Skyscraper at Ground Zero". New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2010. 
  100. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (May 17, 2011). "Condé Nast Will Be Anchor of 1 World Trade Center". New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 2011. 
  101. ^ Cuozzo, Steve (January 17, 2012). "Condé Nast taking more space at One World Trade Center". New York Post. Retrieved June 23, 2012. 
  102. ^ "Trade Tower Is Set to Add Prime Tenant, a Law Firm". New York Times. January 26, 2012. Retrieved January 29, 2012.
  103. ^ "Chadbourne & Parke Will Not Lease at One World Trade". The Real Deal. March 20, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  104. ^ "Verdict in 9/11 insurance battle". CNN. April 30, 2004. 
  105. ^ Profile of David Childs. America Rebuilds. 2006. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
  106. ^ Architecture – Daniel Libeskind, Master Planner for the New York World Trade Center. About.com. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
  107. ^ For 2 WTC, Foster and Partners; for 3 WTC, Richard Rogers; for 4 WTC, Fumihiko Maki and associates; and for 5 WTC, Kohn Pederson Fox.
  108. ^ "What Ever Happened to Daniel Libeskind's Original WTC Freedom Tower Design?" Inhabitat.com. September 7, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2012.
  109. ^ Marino, Vivian (January 29, 2010). "Daniel R. Tishman". New York Times. Retrieved October 14, 2011. 
  110. ^ "WTC builder on the project's status". The Real Deal. February 1, 2010. Retrieved October 14, 2011. 
  111. ^ "World Trade Center site owner picks developer to negotiate stake in largest office tower". Star Tribune. Associated Press. July 7, 2010. Retrieved October 14, 2011. 
  112. ^ a b Bagli, Charles V. (August 5, 2010). "Dursts Make Deal for Stake in 1 World Trade Center". New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2013. 
  113. ^ a b Bagli, Charles V. (July 7, 2010). "Dursts' Stake in World Trade Tower Helps Project". New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2013. 
  114. ^ "Conde Nast May Move to New World Trade Center Site" (XHTML 1.0 Transitional/CSS3). WNYC News (WNYC). August 3, 2010. Retrieved October 14, 2011. 
  115. ^ Brown, Eliot (May 26, 2011). "A Day of Deals at One World Trade Center". The Wall Street Journal. 
  116. ^ "How does it feel to work on One World Trade Center?". WoodSearch Films. August 31, 2010. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 
  117. ^ a b "Artist's Statement". Foundation for U.S. Historical Monuments. Archived from the original on March 14, 2008. Retrieved January 16, 2012. 
  118. ^ "De Oppresso Liber-Green Beret Motto". November 22, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2012. 
  119. ^ ""De Oppresso Liber" Statue Finds Home at Ground Zero". November 11, 2011. Retrieved January 12, 2012. 
  120. ^ Ospina, Barbara (October 27, 2012). "America's Response Statue placed to provide overwatch on One World Trade Center". United States Army. Retrieved March 18, 2013. 
  121. ^ Bissell, Brandon (November 18, 2011). "'Horse Soldier' statue dedicated near Ground Zero". WKDZ Radio. Retrieved January 12, 2012. 
  122. ^ White, Bill (October 18, 2012). "Ground Zero salute to American heroes". New York Post. Retrieved March 18, 2013. 

External links

Records
Preceded by
Willis Tower
Tallest building in the United States
541.3 metres (1,776 ft)

2013–present
Incumbent
Preceded by
Empire State Building
Tallest building in New York City
541.3 metres (1,776 ft)

2013–present