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Oliver Jesse Carter (April 7, 1911 – June 14, 1976) was a United States federal judge.
The son of future California Supreme Court Justice Jsees Carter; Judge Cater was born in San Francisco, California where his father was attending Golden Gate University School of Law. Carter received an LL.B. from the University of California, Hastings College of Law in 1935. He was in private practice in Redding, California from 1936 to 1938. He was an Assistant district attorney of Shasta County, California from 1938 to 1939. He returned to private practice in Redding from 1940 to 1950, and served in the California State Senate from 1941 to 1949.
On September 27, 1950, Carter received a recess appointment from Harry S. Truman to a new seat on the United States District Court for the Northern District of California created by 63 Stat. 493. Formally nominated on November 27, 1950, he was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 13, 1950, and received his commission on December 21, 1950. He served as chief judge from 1970 to 1976, assuming senior status on April 7, 1976. Carter served in that capacity for just over two months, passing away on June 14, 1976.