Ohio and Erie Canal

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Ohio and Erie Canal Historic District
Ohio Canal.jpg
The Ohio and Erie canal in 1902
LocationIndependence and
Valley View,
Cuyahoga County, Ohio
Area24.5 acres (99,000 m2)[1]
Built1825
ArchitectUnknown
Architectural styleNo Style Listed
Governing bodyNational Park Service
NRHP Reference #66000607
Significant dates
Added to NRHPNovember 13, 1966[2]
Designated NHLDNovember 13, 1966[3]
 
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Ohio and Erie Canal Historic District
Ohio Canal.jpg
The Ohio and Erie canal in 1902
LocationIndependence and
Valley View,
Cuyahoga County, Ohio
Area24.5 acres (99,000 m2)[1]
Built1825
ArchitectUnknown
Architectural styleNo Style Listed
Governing bodyNational Park Service
NRHP Reference #66000607
Significant dates
Added to NRHPNovember 13, 1966[2]
Designated NHLDNovember 13, 1966[3]

The Ohio and Erie Canal was a canal constructed in the 1820s and early 1830s in the U.S. state of Ohio. It connected Akron, Summit County, with the Cuyahoga River near its mouth on Lake Erie in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, and a few years later, with the Ohio River near Portsmouth, Scioto County, and then connections to other canal systems in Pennsylvania.

The canal carried freight traffic from 1827 to 1861, when the arrival of railroads killed the market. From 1862 to 1913, the canal served as a water source to industries and towns. In 1913, much of the canal system was abandoned after important parts were severely flooded.

Today, most of the remaining portions are managed by the National Park Service or Ohio Department of Natural Resources. They are used for various recreational purposes by the public, and still provide water for some industries. Parts of the canal are preserved, including the Ohio and Erie Canal Historic District, a National Historic Landmark.

History[edit]

Ohio, which achieved statehood in 1803, remained a sparsely populated region of 50,000 persons who were scattered throughout the state and who had no means of economically transporting goods. With no easy access to distant markets, agriculture served only local needs and large-scale manufacturing was nearly non-existent.[4]

Agitation for a canal system (1787–1822)[edit]

As early as 1787, George Washington and Thomas Jefferson had discussed the desirability of a canal linking Lake Erie to the Ohio River as part of a national system of canals.[5] It wasn't until 1807 that Ohio's first Senator, Thomas Worthington offered a resolution in Congress asking Treasury Secretary Albert Gallatin to report to the Senate. In 1810, DeWitt Clinton was appointed to head the Erie Canal Commission. He was unsuccessful in his attempt to get national aid for the construction of a canal connecting Lake Erie to the Hudson River, so he enlisted the aid of state legislators and Ohio's congressional delegation. On January 15, 1812 the Ohio General Assembly passed a resolution expressing its view that the connection of the Great Lakes with the Hudson River was a project of "national concern". President Madison was against the proposal, however, and the War of 1812 ended all discussion.

On December 11, 1816, Clinton, by then the Governor of New York, sent a letter to the Ohio Legislature indicating his state's willingness to construct the Erie Canal without national help, and asking the State of Ohio to join in the endeavor. On January 9, 1817, the Ohio Legislature directed Ohio's Governor (and former Senator) Thomas Worthington to negotiate a deal with Clinton. Due to the cost, however, the Ohio Legislature dallied, and nothing happened for the next 3 years. Finally, in January 1822, in a fit of progressivism, the Ohio Legislature passed acts to fund the canal system and the state's public education obligations.

Survey and design (1822)[edit]

On January 31, 1822 the Ohio Legislature passed a resolution to employ an engineer and appoint commissioners to survey and design the canal system as soon as possible. A sum not to exceed $6000 was set aside for this purpose.

James Geddes, an engineer whose past work included experience on the New York canals, was employed. Since most of Ohio's population lived along a line from Cleveland to Cincinnati, it was necessary that these areas be served by the main trunk of the canal. Since canals must generally follow river valleys, it was difficult to design a suitable system. Specifically, the bridging of the Scioto and Miami river valleys required raising the canal to such an elevation that water from neither river could be used as a source. As a result, the canal was divided into two sections, the Ohio and Erie Canal from Cleveland to Portsmouth which crossed the Licking Divide and followed the Scioto River Valley, and the Miami and Erie Canal which connected Cincinnati to Dayton. In later years this second canal would be extended all the way to the Maumee River at Toledo.

Copies of the original survey plat maps for the construction of both Ohio canals are available on-line[6] from the Ohio Department of Natural Resources.

Construction (1825–32)[edit]

On February 4, 1825, the Ohio Legislature passed "An Act to provide for the Internal Improvement of the State of Ohio by Navigable Canals". The Canal Commission was authorized to borrow $400,000 in 1825, and not more than $600,000 per year thereafter. The notes issued were to be redeemable between 1850 and 1875.

On July 4, 1825, ground was broken on the canal at Licking Summit near Newark, Ohio.

The canals were specified to have a minimum width of 40 feet (12 m) at the top, 26 feet (8 m) at the bottom, and a depth of 4 feet (1.2 m) feet minimum. These limits were often exceeded, and indeed it was cheaper to do so in most cases. For example, it might be cheaper to build one embankment and then let the water fill all the way to the adjacent foothills, perhaps hundreds of feet away, rather than build two embankments. By damming the rivers, long stretches of slackwater could be created which, with the addition of towpaths, could serve as portions of the canal. Where it made economic sense to do so, such as lock widths or portions of the canal through narrow rock or across aqueducts, the minimum widths were adhered to.[citation needed]

Contracts were let for the following tasks:

Initially, contractors in general proved to be inexperienced and unreliable. It was common for one job to receive 50 bids, many of them local to where the work was being performed. The chosen contractor, having underbid the contract, often would vanish in the night leaving his labor force unpaid and his contract unfulfilled. This problem was so bad that laborers refused to perform canal work for fear of not being paid. As the bidding process was improved, and more reliable contractors engaged, the situation improved.[citation needed]

Workers were initially paid $0.30 per day and offered a jigger of whiskey. As work progressed, and where labor was in shortage, workers could make as much as $15 per month. At that time, cash money was hard to come by in Ohio forcing much bartering. Working on the canal was appealing and attracted many farmers from their land.[citation needed]

On July 3, 1827 the first canal boat on the Ohio and Erie Canal left Akron, traveled through 41 locks and over 3 aqueducts along 37 miles (60 km) of canal, to arrive at Cleveland on July 4. While the average speed of 3 mph (4.8 km/h) may seem slow, canal boats could carry 10 tons of goods and were much more efficient than wagons over rutted trails.

Graph showing the annual expenditures and revenues accrued to the State of Ohio by the Ohio and Erie Canal from 1827 to 1903.

Over the next five years, more and more portions of the canal opened, with it finally being completed in 1832:

In 1832, the Ohio and Erie Canal was completed. The entire canal system was 308 miles (496 km) long with 146 lift locks and a rise of 1,206 feet (368 m). In addition, there were five feeder canals that added 24.8 miles (39.9 km) and 6 additional locks to the system consisting of:

The canal's lock numbering system was oriented from the Lower Basin, near the southwest corner of the current Exchange and Main streets in Akron. North of the basin is Lock 1 North, and south of the basin is Lock 1 South. At this basin was the joining of the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal.[7][8]

Operation (1833–1913)[edit]

The Akron Beacon Journal front page on March 25, 1913; two days after the flood

The canals enjoyed a golden period of prosperity from the 1830s to the early 1860s, with a peak in revenue between 1852 and 1855. During the 1840s, Ohio was the third most prosperous state, owing much of that growth to the canal.[9] Immediately following the Civil War, it became apparent that railroads would take the canal's business. From 1861 until 1879, after the canal had been badly flooded,[9] Ohio leased its canals to private owners who earned revenue from dwindling boat operation and the sale of water to factories and towns. When the state took the canals back in 1879, it discovered that they had not been maintained, and that state lands surrounding the canals had been illegally sold to private owners. In many cases, canals were filled in for "health reasons", only to find a newly laid railroad track on their right of way. Much State land was given away for free to politically savvy private owners. Nevertheless, some revenue was accrued into the early twentieth century from the sale of water rights as well as recovery and sale of land surrounding the canals.

Abandonment[edit]

After the peak of the 1850s and a bottoming out of revenue due to the Civil War in the early 1860s the canal's expenditures started to outgrow its revenues due to rising maintenance costs. By 1911, most of the southern portion of the canal had been abandoned.[9] On March 23, 1913, after a winter of record snowfall, storms dumped an abnormally heavy amount of rain on the state, causing extensive flooding. This caused the reservoirs to spill over into the canals, destroying aqueducts, washing out banks, and devastating most of the locks. In Akron, Lock 1 was dynamited to allow backed up floodwater to flow.[10]

Notable persons associated with the Canal[edit]

The Canal today[edit]

Restored canal boat

The Ohio and Erie Canal Historic District, a 24.5-acre (99,000 m2) historic district including part of the canal, was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1966.[1][3] It is a four mile (6 km) section within the village of Valley View comprising three locks, the Tinkers Creek Aqueduct, and two other structures.[1]

A remaining watered section of the Ohio & Erie Canal is located in Summit County, Ohio. The Ohio & Erie Canal is maintained, to this day, as a water supply for local industries. After the flood, a few sections of the canal continued in use hauling cargo to local industries. Another watered section extends from the Station Road Bridge in Brecksville northwards into Valley View and Independence, all Cleveland suburbs.

The section of the Ohio & Erie Canal from the Brecksville Dam to Rockside Road in Cuyahoga County was transferred to the National Park Service in 1989 as part of the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreational Area (now known as the Cuyahoga Valley National Park).

A lease on the canal lands from the Cuyahoga Valley National Park to the terminus of the canal has been executed with the Cleveland Metroparks. The Metroparks manage the adjacent real estate and the surrounding Ohio & Erie Canal Reservation.

The section of the Ohio & Erie Canal still owned and maintained by the Division of Water in southern Summit is referred to as the watered section. This section runs from the north end of Summit Lake south to Barberton, a distance of about 12 miles (19 km). Included in this section is the feeder canal from the Tuscarawas River and the hydraulics at the Portage Lakes.

The Ohio & Erie Canal is maintained from Akron by a staff of six Division of Water employees. Like its sister canal, the Ohio & Erie Canal carries a large amount of stormwater. The canals were not designed to accommodate this great influx of stormwater. Most of the siltation and erosion problems experienced today are the result of stormwater inappropriately piped into the canals over the years.

In late 1996, the canal from Zoar to Cleveland was designated a National Heritage Corridor. This designation was brought about through the efforts of many communities, civic organizations, businesses and individuals working in partnership. The Department is working with numerous local communities and organizations to assure the continued development of the Ohio & Erie Canal.

A map showing the disposition of the canal lands[13] is available on-line from the Ohio Department of Natural Resources.

Points of interest[edit]

Towpath through Akron

Connecting canals[edit]

The Ohio and Erie Canal initially provided a connection between Akron and Lake Erie at Cleveland, then extending all the way to the Ohio River within a few years. Later, connecting canal systems were built connecting it with the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal and other parts of Eastern Ohio.[14]

Ohio and Erie Canal - Connecting Canals
Coordinates
Elevation
Name
Description
Columbus FeederLockbourne, Columbus, Franklin County
Granville FeederGranville, Licking County
Hocking ValleyCarroll, Lancaster, Fairfield County;
Logan, Hocking County;
Nelsonville, Athens, Athens County
Muskingum Side CutDresden, Zanesville, Muskingum County;
McConnelsville, Morgan County;
Marietta, Washington County
Pennsylvania and Ohio CanalAkron, Summit County;
Kent, Ravenna, Portage County;
Warren, Trumbull County;
Youngstown, Mahoning County; Ohio;;
Lawrence; Beaver, Beaver County; Allegheny, Pennsylvania[15]
40°44′27″N 80°53′37″W / 40.74083°N 80.89361°W / 40.74083; -80.89361 (Sandy Beaver Canal)[16][17]1,112 feet (339 m)[16][17]Sandy and Beaver Canal
a.k.a. Tuscarawas Feeder
Bolivar, Tuscarawas County;
Hanoverton, Lisbon, East Liverpool, Columbiana County;
Glasgow, Beaver County, Pennsylvania
40°19′19″N 81°56′49″W / 40.32194°N 81.94694°W / 40.32194; -81.94694 (Walhonding Canal)[18]774 feet (236 m)[18]Walhonding CanalRoscoe Village, Coshocton County;
Brinkhaven, Knox County

Towpath Trail landmarks[edit]

An all-purpose bicycle/pedestrian trail was constructed by Cuyahoga Valley National Park in Southern Cuyahoga County and Northern Summit County, Cleveland Metroparks in Northern Cuyahoga County, and Akron/Summit County Metroparks in Southern Summit County to roughly follow the original Ohio and Erie Canal Towpath route.[19] (The northernmost section in Cuyahoga County is still undergoing construction.) There are many connecting trails going to other points of interest throughout their park systems.


Please help by expanding this section with any notable landmarks along the Ohio and Erie Canal Towpath Trail.

Restored canal Twelve Mile Lock 38, Cuyahoga Valley National Park
Peninsula Lock 29,
Peninsula Aqueduct steel trusses
over Cuyahoga River in background.
Deep Lock 28 as it existed in 1985
Ohio and Erie Canal is located in Ohio
44_North
44_North
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Ohio and Erie Canal
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Mill_Creek
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Ohio and Erie Canal
Tinkers_Creek
Tinkers_Creek
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Ohio and Erie Canal
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Ohio and Erie Canal
Ohio and Erie Canal
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Peninsula
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Furnace_Run
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Akron
Akron
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Canal_Fulton
Massillon
Massillon
Sandy Beaver
Sandy Beaver
Bolivar
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Walhonding
Walhonding
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Baltimore
Baltimore
Canal_Winchester
Canal_Winchester
Lockbourne
Lockbourne
Carroll
Carroll
Ohio and Erie Canal
Ohio and Erie Canal
Ohio Canal system


Ohio and Erie Canal Towpath Trail Landmarks
Mile
Post
B[›]
ID
#
Coordinates
Elevation
Name
Type
Municipality
County
Description
044 North41°29′39.76″N 81°42′10.4″W / 41.4943778°N 81.702889°W / 41.4943778; -81.702889 ("Lock 44")[20]0 feet (0 m)Cuyahoga River SloopLockClevelandCuyahogaMerwin Street between James street and West street
43 North0 feet (0 m)LockClevelandCuyahogaSherwin Williams, James and West, Merrwin and Vineyard
0 feet (0 m)WeighLockClevelandCuyahogaSeneca a.k.a. West 3rd. street
342 North0 feet (0 m)LockClevelandCuyahogarelocated to 42A,
342A North0 feet (0 m)Weigh and GuardLockClevelandCuyahoganear Grasselli chemical company, Dille street and Independence road
541 North41°26′49.38″N 81°40′56.88″W / 41.4470500°N 81.6824667°W / 41.4470500; -81.6824667 ("Five Mile Lock 41")[21]0 feet (0 m)RathBunsLockCuyahoganear Austin Powder Works, Harvard Road, near Jennings Road
840 North41°25′8.82″N 81°38′38.58″W / 41.4191167°N 81.6440500°W / 41.4191167; -81.6440500 ("Eight Mile Lock 40")[22]0 feet (0 m)WillowLockCuyahoga HeightsCuyahogaoff Canal Road, near I-77
41°25′2.53″N 81°38′18.88″W / 41.4173694°N 81.6385778°W / 41.4173694; -81.6385778 ("Mill Creek Aqueduct")[23]0 feet (0 m)Mill CreekAqueductCuyahoga HeightsCuyahogacarries canal over Mill Creek (Cuyahoga River) off Canal Road
41°24′57″N 81°38′2″W / 41.41583°N 81.63389°W / 41.41583; -81.63389 ("GNIS-OEC-17 Cleveland South topo")[24]0 feet (0 m)GNISGNIS 17 Cleveland South topographic map
BridgeCuyahogaRockside Road
TrailHeadCuyahogaCVSR
11MilePost MarkerCuyahoga
1139 North41°23′24.22″N 81°37′28.95″W / 41.3900611°N 81.6247083°W / 41.3900611; -81.6247083 ("Eleven Mile Lock 39")[25]590 feet (180 m)[26]LockIndependenceCuyahoga
41°23′4″N 81°37′7″W / 41.38444°N 81.61861°W / 41.38444; -81.61861 ("GNIS-OEC-16 Shaker Heights topo")[24]0 feet (0 m)GNISGNIS 16 Shaker Heights topographic map
12MilePost MarkerCuyahoga
BridgeCuyahogaHillside Road
TrailHeadCuyahogaCVSR-Canal Visitor Center, 7104 Canal Road and Hillside Road
1238 North41°22′20.78″N 81°36′46.23″W / 41.3724389°N 81.6128417°W / 41.3724389; -81.6128417 ("Twelve Mile Lock 38")[27]600 feet (180 m)[28]LockValley ViewCuyahogaCanal Visitor Center
Cuyahoga CountyTinkers Creek Road
13MilePost MarkerCuyahoga
41°21′53″N 81°36′32″W / 41.36472°N 81.60889°W / 41.36472; -81.60889 ("Tinkers Creek Aqueduct")[29]610 feet (190 m)[29]Tinkers CreekAqueductCuyahogacarries canal over Tinkers Creek (Cuyahoga River)A[›]
BridgeCuyahogaAlexander Road-Pleasant Valley Road
1437 North41°21′24.06″N 81°35′49.02″W / 41.3566833°N 81.5969500°W / 41.3566833; -81.5969500 ("Fourteen Mile Lock 37")[30]620 feet (190 m)[31]LockCuyahogaAlexander's Mill
MillCuyahogaAlexanders (a.k.a. Wilsons)
14MilePost MarkerCuyahoga
TrailheadCuyahogaSagamore Road
15MilePost MarkerCuyahoga
16MilePost MarkerCuyahoga
41°21′20″N 81°35′46″W / 41.35556°N 81.59611°W / 41.35556; -81.59611 ("GNIS-OEC-15 Northfield topo")[24]0 feet (0 m)GNISGNIS 15 Northfield topographic map
1736 North41°19′23.06″N 81°35′11.9″W / 41.3230722°N 81.586639°W / 41.3230722; -81.586639 ("Pinery Dam and Feeder Lock 36")[32]0 feet (0 m)[33]Pinery Dam and FeederLockSummit
BridgeSummitSR-82
17MilePost MarkerSummit
TrailHeadSummitStation Road bridge to CVSR-Brecksville
1935 North41°18′45.43″N 81°34′59.89″W / 41.3126194°N 81.5833028°W / 41.3126194; -81.5833028 ("Kettlewell Whiskey Lock 35")[34]0 feet (0 m)[35]Kettlewell WhiskeyLockSummit
18MilePost MarkerSummit
TrailSummitOld Carriage
TrailSummitOld Carriage Connector
19MilePost MarkerSummit
2034 North41°17′21.08″N 81°33′51.99″W / 41.2891889°N 81.5644417°W / 41.2891889; -81.5644417 ("Red Lock 34")[36]0 feet (0 m)[37]RedLockSummitJaite in southwestern Northfield Township[38]
TrailHeadRed Lock
BridgeSummitHighland Road
20MilePost MarkerSummit
20.533 North41°16′33.52″N 81°33′38.14″W / 41.2759778°N 81.5605944°W / 41.2759778; -81.5605944 ("Wallace Lock 33")[39]0 feet (0 m)[40]WallaceLockSummitin Boston Township[41]
21MilePost MarkerSummit
2132 North41°15′56″N 81°33′31″W / 41.26556°N 81.55861°W / 41.26556; -81.55861 ("Boston Lock 32")[42]659 feet (201 m)[42]BostonLockSummitBoston Township
SummitBoston Mills Road
TrailHeadSummitCVSR-Boston Store
BridgeSummitI-271 Southbound
BridgeSummitI-271 Northbound
BridgeSummitI-80 Westbound
BridgeSummitI-80 Eastbound
22MilePost MarkerSummit
SummitStumpy Basin
2231 North41°15′5.93″N 81°32′45.36″W / 41.2516472°N 81.5459333°W / 41.2516472; -81.5459333 ("Lonesome Lock 31")[43]670 feet (200 m)[44]LonesomeLockSummitwas in Boston Township[45]
23MilePost MarkerSummit
2330 North41°14′44.04″N 81°33′14.87″W / 41.2455667°N 81.5541306°W / 41.2455667; -81.5541306 ("Peninsula Feeder Lock 30")[46]680 feet (210 m)[47]Peninsula FeederLockPeninsulaSummit
PeninsulaTrailHeadPeninsulaSummitCVSR
2329 North41°14′33.54″N 81°33′1.29″W / 41.2426500°N 81.5503583°W / 41.2426500; -81.5503583 ("Peninsula Lock 29")[48]690 feet (210 m)[49]PeninsulaLockPeninsulaSummit
41°14′33.01″N 81°33′0.86″W / 41.2425028°N 81.5502389°W / 41.2425028; -81.5502389 ("Peninsula Aqueduct")[50]700 feet (210 m)[51]PeninsulaAqueductPeninsulaSummitcarried canal over Cuyahoga River
BridgeSummitSR-303
24MilePost MarkerSummit
2528 North41°13′57.38″N 81°33′6.77″W / 41.2326056°N 81.5518806°W / 41.2326056; -81.5518806 ("Deep Lock 28")[52]700 feet (210 m)[52][53]DeepLockPeninsulaSummitat 17 feet (5.2 m) the deepest lock along the canal
TrailHeadSummitDeep Lock Quarry
25MilePost MarkerSummit
26MilePost MarkerSummit
2727 North41°12′16.25″N 81°34′15.43″W / 41.2045139°N 81.5709528°W / 41.2045139; -81.5709528 ("Johnny Cake Lock 27")[54]710 feet (220 m)[55]Johnny CakeLockSummit
41°12′7″N 81°34′21″W / 41.20194°N 81.57250°W / 41.20194; -81.57250 ("Furnace Run Aqueduct")[56]718 feet (219 m)[56]Furnace RunAqueductSummitcarried canal over Furnace Run (Cuyahoga River)
27MilePost MarkerSummit
BridgeSummitBolanz Road
28MilePost MarkerSummit
SummitBeaver Marsh
2826 North41°11′7.74″N 81°34′52.05″W / 41.1854833°N 81.5811250°W / 41.1854833; -81.5811250 ("Pancake Lock 26")[57][58]718 feet (219 m)[57]PancakeLockSummit
IraTrailHeadSummitCVSR
29MilePost MarkerSummit
2825 North41°10′32.27″N 81°34′46.82″W / 41.1756306°N 81.5796722°W / 41.1756306; -81.5796722 ("Mudcatcher Lock 25")[59]0 feet (0 m)[60]MudcatcherLockSummit
3024 North41°10′20.5″N 81°34′40.93″W / 41.172361°N 81.5780361°W / 41.172361; -81.5780361 ("Niles Lock 24")[61]0 feet (0 m)[62]NilesLockSummit
BridgeSummitYellow Creek (Cuyahoga River)
30MilePost MarkerSummit
BridgeSummitBath Road
Indian MoundTrailHeadSummitCVSR
41°3′57″N 81°32′12″W / 41.06583°N 81.53667°W / 41.06583; -81.53667 ("GNIS-OEC-14 Akron West topo")[24]0 feet (0 m)GNISGNIS 14 Akron West topographic map
3223 North0 feet (0 m)Booth portLockSummitsewer pipe
3222 NorthBooth portLockSummitMerriman sewer pipe
3321 NorthLockSummitsewer over-flow
20 NorthLockSummittrain abutments
19 NorthBlack Dog CrossingLockSummitnear Hickory and Memorial
3518 NorthLockSummit
3617 NorthLockSummit
3616 NorthLockSummit
3615 NorthAkron Mustill StoreLockAkronSummit
3614 NorthLockAkronSummitNorth Street
3613 NorthLockAkronSummit
3612 NorthLockAkronSummit
3611 NorthLockAkronSummit
3610 NorthLockAkronSummit
9 NorthLockAkronSummitnorth of Market street
8 NorthLockAkronSummittunnel
377 NorthLockAkronSummitmiddle tunnel
376 NorthLockAkronSummittunnel below parking deck North of Mill street
375 NorthLockAkronSummittunnel
374 NorthLockAkronSummittunnel
373 NorthLockAkronSummitSouth Main street
382 NorthLockAkronSummitWater street
381 NorthLockAkronSummitWest Exchange street
0Portage landingLockAkronSummitPortage lakes, Manchester Road
1 SouthWolf creekLockBarbertonSummitSnyder avenue
Wolf creekAqueductBarbertonSummitSnyder avenue
40°54′37″N 81°37′51″W / 40.91028°N 81.63083°W / 40.91028; -81.63083 ("GNIS-OEC-13 Doylestown topo")[24]0 feet (0 m)GNISGNIS 13 Doylestown topographic map
2 SouthLockNew FranklinStarkCenter Road
3 SouthLockNew FranklinStarkCenter Road
40°53′2″N 81°35′37″W / 40.88389°N 81.59361°W / 40.88389; -81.59361 ("GNIS-OEC-12 Canal Fulton topo")[24]0 feet (0 m)GNISGNIS 12 Canal Fulton topographic map
4 SouthLockCanal FultonStark
40°47′43″N 81°31′22″W / 40.79528°N 81.52278°W / 40.79528; -81.52278 ("GNIS-OEC-11 Massillon topo")[24]0 feet (0 m)GNISGNIS 11 Massillon topographic map
TrailheadMassillonStark
40°39′32″N 81°27′22″W / 40.65889°N 81.45611°W / 40.65889; -81.45611 ("GNIS-OEC-10 Bolivar topo")[24]0 feet (0 m)GNISGNIS 10 Bolivar topographic map
39°58′17″N 82°29′15″W / 39.97139°N 82.48750°W / 39.97139; -82.48750 ("GNIS-OEC-9 Thornville topo")[24]0 feet (0 m)GNISGNIS 9 Thornville topographic map
39°53′22″N 82°32′21″W / 39.88944°N 82.53917°W / 39.88944; -82.53917 ("GNIS-OEC-8 Millersport topo")[24]0 feet (0 m)GNISGNIS 8 Millersport topographic map
5 SouthLock
5A SouthLock
Lock
Lock
31 SouthLock
32 SouthLock
33 SouthLock
North 20Lock
North 19Lock
North 18Lock
Lock
Lock
North 1Lock
North 0MinthornLockNewarkLicking
South 0PughLock
South 1195King WatsonLockCanal Road
39°51′41″N 82°33′38″W / 39.86139°N 82.56056°W / 39.86139; -82.56056 ("GNIS-OEC-7 Baltimore topo")[24]0 feet (0 m)GNISGNIS 7 Baltimore topographic map
196South 2David Miller's White MillLockBaltimoreFairfield
197.4South 3Norris MillLockBaltimoreFairfield
South 4Short LevelLockBaltimoreFairfield
198South 5Dry DockLockBaltimoreFairfield
198.3South 6Mulnix MillLockBaltimoreFairfield
198.8South 7Wells MillLockBasil, Ohio
200South 8BiblerLockBasil, Ohio
208South 9LockCarrollFairfield
South 10LockCarroll, OhioFairfield
206South 11LockViolet TownshipFairfield County, OhioUpper Lockville
South 12Tennis/TennatLockLockville
South 13RoweLockLockville
South 14SmallwoodLock
South 15Fickle Mill Short LevelLockLockville
South 16Rover Short LevelLockLockville
South 17Swimmer'sLockLockville
South 18CreekLockLockvile
208Walnet Creek GuardLock
39°51′16″N 82°52′19″W / 39.85444°N 82.87194°W / 39.85444; -82.87194 ("GNIS-OEC-6 Canal Winchester topo")[24]0 feet (0 m)GNISGNIS 6 Canal Winchester topographic map
210South 19Chaney's MillLockCanal Winchester
210South 20WoolenLockCanal WinchesterGender Road
South 21LockCanal Winchesternear Glenarda Farms, Groveport Road
George's CulvertCanal Winchester
South 22GroveportLock
39°51′14″N 82°52′34″W / 39.85389°N 82.87611°W / 39.85389; -82.87611 ("GNIS-OEC-5 Lockbourne topo")[24]0 feet (0 m)GNISGNIS 5 Lockbourne topographic map
217South 23LockLockbourneFranklinCanal Road
217South 24LockLockbourneFranklinCanal Road
217South 25LockLockbourneFranklinCanal Road
217.5South 26LockLockbourneFranklin
218South 27LockLockbourneFranklinCanal Road
218South 28LockLockbourneFranklinunder railroad track bed
South 29Lock
South 30LockLockbourneFranklinLockmeadows Park
39°48′45″N 82°43′37″W / 39.81250°N 82.72694°W / 39.81250; -82.72694 ("GNIS-OEC-4 Carroll topo")[24]0 feet (0 m)GNISGNIS 4 Carroll topographic map
39°45′0″N 82°39′49″W / 39.75000°N 82.66361°W / 39.75000; -82.66361 ("GNIS-OEC-3 Amanda topo")[24]0 feet (0 m)GNISGNIS 3 Amanda topographic map
39°39′55″N 82°58′8″W / 39.66528°N 82.96889°W / 39.66528; -82.96889 ("GNIS-OEC-2 Ashville topo")[24]0 feet (0 m)GNISGNIS 2 Ashville topographic map
40°25′20″N 81°24′17″W / 40.42222°N 81.40472°W / 40.42222; -81.40472 ("GNIS-OEC-1 New Philadelphia topo")[24]0 feet (0 m)GNISGNIS 1 New Philadelphia topographic map
Columbus Feeder East GuardLock
Columbus Feeder West GuardLock
226South 31Ashville Campbells MillLock
237South 32AqueductLockScioto River, West of Circleville
237Circleville FeederLockSpunkytown
238South 33LockWayne Township
238South 34LockWayne Township
South 35LockChillicothe, Ohio
256South 36LockChillicothe, Ohio
258South 37LockChillicothe, Ohioparking lot
South 38Fifth StreetLockChillicothe, Ohio
261South 39Upper LunbeckLock
261South 40Lower LunbeckLockScioto TownshipPickawaynear Renick Lane 601
South 41TomlinsonsLock3 Locks Road, South of Chillicothe
South 42TomlinsonsLock
South 43TomlinsonsLock
Tomlinsons Dam and Feeder GuardLock
South 44WaverlyLock
280South 45U Pee PeeLock
280South 46L Pee PeeLock
291South 47HowardsLocknear Robers 18 mi (29 km) Lock Farm
South 48Herod'sLock
South 49Rushs Brush CreekLock
South 50Union MillsLock
South 51Union Mills MossLocknear Ohio State Route 239
South 52Union MillsLock
305South 53ElbowLock
South 54LockPortsmouthScioto County
308South 55LockScioto Countynear Old River Road, Portsmouth/Alexandria

Travels through Cuyahoga, Summit, Stark, Licking, Franklin, Fairfield, Pickaway, and Scioto counties.[24]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

^ A: In 2007-2008-? Tinkers Creek Aqueduct is undergoing renovation following flood damage from Tinkers Creek (Cuyahoga River) and Cuyahoga River
^ B: Ohio and Erie Canal Towpath Trail miles are measured from its original connection with Lake Erie at Lock 44 on the Cuyahoga River, and marked with a 3.3 feet (1.0 m)-tall sandstone obelisk at each mile mark.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Mendinghall, Joseph S. (February 28, 1975). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Ohio and Erie Canal". National Park Service. 
  2. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2007-01-23. 
  3. ^ a b "Ohio and Erie Canal". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-06-20. 
  4. ^ "History Ohio's Canals.". Ohio Department of Natural Resources. 
  5. ^ Hagerty, J.E., McClelland C.P. and Huntington, C.C., History of the Ohio Canals, Their construction, cost, use and partial abandonment, Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, Columbus, OH 1905
  6. ^ Ohio & Erie, Miami & Erie Canal Plat Maps Main Page
  7. ^ Ehmann P&O
  8. ^ http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities.com/heartland/prairie/6687/pennohio.htm&date=2009-10-25+23:48:48
  9. ^ a b c "Captain Pearl R. Nye: Life on the Ohio and Erie Canal". Retrieved 2007-04-21.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  10. ^ by Jack Gieck; with an introduction by George W. Knepper (1988). A photo album of Ohio's canal era, 1825-1913. [Kent, Ohio]: Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-353-2. 
  11. ^ "Biography of James Garfield". The White House. Retrieved 2006-03-14. 
  12. ^ "James A. Garfield". American Presidents: Life Portraits. Retrieved 2006-03-14. 
  13. ^ Historic Canal System Current Status - Year 2000 Map
  14. ^ "Canals of Ohio 1825-1913 map" (JPEG). The Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio; National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. 
  15. ^ "Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal (historical)". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  16. ^ a b "Sandy Beaver Canal". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  17. ^ a b "Sandy Beaver Canal". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  18. ^ a b "Walhonding Canal". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  19. ^ "Ohio and Erie Canal". Cleveland Memory, Cleveland State University Libraries. 
  20. ^ Lock 44 manually plotted in Google Earth
  21. ^ "Ohio and Erie Canal and Towpath Trail, Part 2". NorthEastOhio-RoadRunner. 
  22. ^ "Ohio and Erie Canal and Towpath Trail, Part 3". NorthEastOhio-RoadRunner. 
  23. ^ Mill Creek Aqueduct manually plotted in Google Earth
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Ohio Canal". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  25. ^ Eleven Mile Lock 39 manually plotted in Google Earth
  26. ^ "Eleven Mile Lock 39 topographic map". USGS via Microsoft Research Maps. 
  27. ^ Twelve Mile Lock 38 manually plotted in Google Earth
  28. ^ "Twelve Mile Lock 38 topographic map". USGS via Microsoft Research Maps. 
  29. ^ a b "Tinkers Creek Aqueduct". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  30. ^ Fourteen Mile Lock 37 manually plotted in Google Earth
  31. ^ "Fourteen Mile Lock 37 topographic map". USGS via Microsoft Research Maps. 
  32. ^ Pinery Dam and Feeder Lock 36 manually plotted in Google Earth
  33. ^ Pinery Dam and Feeder Lock 36 topographic map
  34. ^ Kettlewell Whiskey Lock 35 manually plotted in Google Earth
  35. ^ Whiskey Lock 35 topographic map
  36. ^ Red Lock 34 manually plotted in Google Earth
  37. ^ Red Lock 34 topographic map
  38. ^ "Red Lock (historical)". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  39. ^ Wallace Lock 33 manually plotted in Google Earth
  40. ^ Wallace Lock 33 topographic map
  41. ^ "Wallace Lock (historical)". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  42. ^ a b "Boston Lock". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  43. ^ Lonesome Lock 31 manually plotted in Google Earth
  44. ^ "Lonesome Lock 31 topographic map". USGS via Microsoft Research Maps. 
  45. ^ "Lonesome Lock (historical)". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  46. ^ Peninsula Feeder Lock 30 manually plotted in Google Earth
  47. ^ "Peninsula Feeder Lock 30 topographic map". USGS via Microsoft Research Maps. 
  48. ^ Peninsula Lock 29 manually plotted in Google Earth
  49. ^ "Peninsula Lock 29 topographic map". USGS via Microsoft Research Maps. 
  50. ^ Peninsula Aqueduct manually plotted in Google Earth
  51. ^ "Peninsula Aqueduct topographic map". USGS via Microsoft Research Maps. 
  52. ^ a b "Deep Lock (historical)". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03.  Deep Lock manually plotted in Google Earth
  53. ^ "Deep Lock 28 topographic map". USGS via Microsoft Research Maps. 
  54. ^ Johnny Cake Lock 27 manually plotted in Google Earth
  55. ^ "Johnny Cake Lock 27 topographic map". USGS via Microsoft Research Maps. 
  56. ^ a b "Furnace Run Aqueduct". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  57. ^ a b "Pancake Lock (historical)". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  58. ^ Pancake Lock 26 manually plotted in Google Earth
  59. ^ Mudcatcher Lock 25 manually plotted in Google Earth
  60. ^ Mudcatcher Lock 25 topographic map
  61. ^ Niles Lock 24 manually plotted in Google Earth
  62. ^ Niles Lock 24 topographic map

General References[edit]

External links[edit]