Office of the United States Trade Representative

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Office of the United States Trade Representative
US-TradeRepresentative-Seal.svg
Seal of the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative
Flag of the United States Trade Representative.svg
Flag of the U.S. Trade Representative
Agency overview
Formed1962
Preceding AgencyOffice of the Special Trade Representative
HeadquartersWinder Building 600 17th St. NW Washington, D.C.
Employees200
Agency executivesMichael Froman, U.S. Trade Representative
Miriam Sapiro, Deputy U.S. Trade Representative
Michael Punke, Deputy U.S. Trade Representative (Geneva)
Parent agencyExecutive Office of the President of the United States
Websitewww.ustr.gov
 
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Office of the United States Trade Representative
US-TradeRepresentative-Seal.svg
Seal of the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative
Flag of the United States Trade Representative.svg
Flag of the U.S. Trade Representative
Agency overview
Formed1962
Preceding AgencyOffice of the Special Trade Representative
HeadquartersWinder Building 600 17th St. NW Washington, D.C.
Employees200
Agency executivesMichael Froman, U.S. Trade Representative
Miriam Sapiro, Deputy U.S. Trade Representative
Michael Punke, Deputy U.S. Trade Representative (Geneva)
Parent agencyExecutive Office of the President of the United States
Websitewww.ustr.gov
  Priority Foreign Country
  Priority Watch List
  Watch List
  Section 306 Monitoring
  Out-of-Cycle Review/Status Pending

The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) is the United States government agency responsible for developing and recommending United States trade policy to the president of the United States, conducting trade negotiations at bilateral and multilateral levels, and coordinating trade policy within the government through the interagency Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) and Trade Policy Review Group (TPRG).

Established as the Office of the Special Trade Representative (STR) under the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, the USTR is part of the Executive Office of the President. With over 200 employees, the USTR has offices in Geneva, Switzerland, and Brussels, Belgium. On May 2, 2013, President Obama nominated Michael Froman to succeed Ambassador Ron Kirk as the U.S. Trade Representative.[1] The United States Senate confirmed Froman on June 19, 2013, and he was sworn into office on June 21, 2013.[2][3]

On October 11, 2012, the Washington International Trade Association (WITA) hosted a reception in celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the Office of the United States Trade Representative. The event was held 50 years to the day that President John F. Kennedy signed the Executive Order creating the Office of the Special Trade Representative on October 11, 1962.

Staff[edit]

The head of the office holds the title of United States Trade Representative (USTR), which is a Cabinet-level position, though not technically within the Cabinet, as is the case with office heads not of US Departments but rather of offices contained within the Executive Office of the President. To fill the post, the President nominates someone for the position, and the appointment is then approved or rejected by a simple majority of the Senate. The United States Trade Representative and Deputy United States Trade Representatives (DUSTR) carry the title of Ambassador.

Michael Froman is the current US Trade Representative, with Michael Punke and Miriam Sapiro serving as Deputy US Trade Representatives. Ambassador Punke also concurrently serves as the U.S. Ambassador to the World Trade Organization (WTO).

National Trade Estimate[edit]

Officially called the National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers (NTE), the report is an annual series that surveys prepared by the USTR, which reports significant foreign barriers to U.S. exports. The NTE provides, where feasible, quantitative estimates of the impact of these foreign practices on the value of U.S. exports. Information is also included on actions taken to eliminate barriers.[4]

The Special 301 Report[edit]

Main article: Special 301 Report

The Special 301 Report is prepared annually by the USTR under Section 182 as amended of the Trade Act of 1974. The Act states that the USTR must on an annual basis, by April of each year:

"identify those foreign countries that deny adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights, or deny fair and equitable markets access to United States persons that rely upon intellectual property protection, and those foreign countries identified under" this "paragraph that are determined by the Trade Representative to be priority foreign countries". The Act defines "priority foreign countries" as "those foreign countries that have the most onerous or egregious acts, policies, or practices that deny adequate and effective intellectual property rights, or deny fair and equitable market access to United States persons that rely upon intellectual property protection, whose acts, policies, or practices described in" this "paragraph have the greatest adverse impact (actual or potential) on the relevant United States products, and that are not entering into good faith negotiations, or making significant progress in bilateral or multilateral negotiations to provide adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights".[5]

The Uruguay Round Agreement Act furthermore states that countries may be identified under Special 301 "taking into account the history of intellectual property laws and practices of the foreign country, including any previous identifications" and "the history of efforts of the United States, and the response of the foreign country, to achieve adequate and effective protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights". It also states that compliance with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights does not include a country from being identified as denying "adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights".[6]

List of United States Trade Representatives[edit]

ImageTrade RepresentativeFromToHome StateAppointed by
Christian Archibald Herter (politician).jpgChristian Herter19621966MassachusettsJohn F. Kennedy
William M. Roth19671969CaliforniaLyndon B. Johnson
Carl J. Gilbert19691971MassachusettsRichard Nixon
William D. Eberle19711975IdahoRichard Nixon
FrederickBailyDent.jpgFrederick B. Dent19751977South CarolinaGerald Ford
RobertStrauss.jpgRobert S. Strauss19771979TexasJimmy Carter
ReubinAskew.JPGReubin Askew19791981FloridaJimmy Carter
Bill brock.jpgBill Brock19811985TennesseeRonald Reagan
Clayton Keith Yeutter, 1990-04-24.jpgClayton K. Yeutter19851989NebraskaRonald Reagan
Carla A. Hills official portrait.jpgCarla A. Hills19891993CaliforniaGeorge H. W. Bush
MichaelKantor.jpgMickey Kantor19931997TennesseeBill Clinton
Charlene Barshefsky official portrait.jpgCharlene Barshefsky19972001District of ColumbiaBill Clinton
Zoellick, Robert (official portrait 2008).jpgRobert Zoellick20012005VirginiaGeorge W. Bush
Rob Portman official photo.jpgRob Portman20052006OhioGeorge W. Bush
Susan Schwab, USTR official photo.jpgSusan Schwab20062009MarylandGeorge W. Bush
Ron Kirk official portrait.jpgRon Kirk20092013TexasBarack Obama
DemetriosMarantis.jpgDemetrios Marantis
Acting
20132013New YorkBarack Obama
Miriam Sapiro official portrait.jpgMiriam Sapiro
Acting
20132013New YorkBarack Obama
Michael Froman official portrait.jpgMichael Froman2013presentCaliforniaBarack Obama

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Obama taps Penny Pritzker, Mike Froman for top economic jobs. CBS News (2013-05-02). Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  2. ^ Senate confirms Michael Froman as trade chief – Politics standard used in IRS cases – Lawmakers urge changes to IRS accounting rule - POLITICO Morning Tax. Politico.Com (2013-06-27). Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  3. ^ Statement by United States Trade Representative Michael Froman | Office of the United States Trade Representative. Ustr.gov. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  4. ^ Office of the United States Trade Representative. "Reports and Publications". Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  5. ^ Masterson, John T. (2004). International trademarks and copyright: enforcement and management. American Bar Association. ISBN 978-1-59031-359-6. 
  6. ^ Masterson, John T. (2004). International trademarks and copyright: enforcement and management. American Bar Association. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-1-59031-359-6. 

External links[edit]