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Obstetrics and gynaecology (or obstetrics and gynecology; often abbreviated to OB/GYN, OBG, O&G or Obs & Gynae) are the two surgical–medical specialties dealing with the female reproductive organs in their pregnant and non-pregnant state, respectively, and as such are often combined to form a single medical specialty and postgraduate training programme. This combined training prepares the practicing OB/GYN to be adept at the surgical management of the entire scope of clinical pathology involving female reproductive organs, and to provide care for both pregnant and non-pregnant patients. In veterinary medicine, theriogenology is the more commonly used term that also includes andrology.
The training for physicians in this field is quite long: in Australia, for example, the residency training period is among the longest at six years, matched only by neurosurgery and maxillofacial surgery. In the UK, training lasts seven years. In the United States, four years in residency are required for MDs and DOs. In India, post graduate training in obstetrics and gynaecology is in the form of a two-year diploma course (DGO) or a three-year (MD or MS). Some OB/GYN surgeons elect to do further subspecialty training in programmes known as fellowships after completing their residency training, although the majority choose to enter private or academic practice as general OB/GYNs. Fellowship training can range from one to four years in duration, and usually have a research component involved with the clinical and operative training.
All gynaecologists are trained obstetricians, although the reverse is not necessarily true. However, some OB/GYNs may choose to drop the obstetric component of their practice and focus solely on gynaecology, especially as they get older. This decision is often based on the double burden of very late hours and, depending on the country, high rates of litigation.
This combined training prepares the practicing OB/GYN to be adept at the surgical management of the entire scope of clinical pathology involving female reproductive organs, and to provide care for both pregnant and non-pregnant patient. A bachelors degree is the minimum formal education required.
Examples of subspecialty training available to physicians in the US are:
Of these, only the first four are truly recognized sub-specialties by the Accredited Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ABOG). The other subspecialties are recognized as informal concentrations of practice. To be recognized as a board-certified subspecialist by the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology or the American Osteopathic Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, a practitioner must have completed an ACGME or AOA-accredited residency and obtained a Certificate of Added Qualifications (CAQ) which requires an additional standardized examination.
Additionally, physicians of other specialties may become trained in Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO), a short certification that equips them to better manage emergent OB/GYN situations.
Academic journals in obstetrics and gynaecology include:
Journals whose scope specifically is within any of the subspecialties of obstetrics and gynaecology are listed in the main articles of these.
In addition, journals with more specific scope, yet not specific to any of the main subspecialties of obstetrics and gynaecology include:
From 2000 through 2004, American medical students were increasingly choosing not to specialize in obstetrics. This led to a critical shortage of obstetricians in some states and often fewer health care options for women — although it did not lead to higher average salaries. However, beginning in 2004, increasing state legislation mandating tort reform combined with the ACGME's decision to limit resident work hours led to a gradual resurgence in the number of medical students choosing OB/GYN as a specialty. In the medical residency match for 2007, only six spots in OB/GYN training programmes remained vacant throughout the entire United States; a record low number, and one that puts OB/GYN on par in terms of competitiveness with some surgical specialties.