Oath of the Horatii

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Oath of the Horatii
Jacques-Louis David - Oath of the Horatii - Google Art Project.jpg
ArtistJacques-Louis David
Year1784
TypeOil on canvas
Dimensions326 cm × 420 cm (128 in × 170 in)
LocationLouvre, Paris
 
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Oath of the Horatii
Jacques-Louis David - Oath of the Horatii - Google Art Project.jpg
ArtistJacques-Louis David
Year1784
TypeOil on canvas
Dimensions326 cm × 420 cm (128 in × 170 in)
LocationLouvre, Paris

Oath of the Horatii (French: Le Serment des Horaces), is a large painting by the French artist Jacques-Louis David painted in 1784 and now on display in the Louvre in Paris. The painting immediately became a huge success with critics and the public, and remains one of the best known painting in the Neoclassical style.

It depicts a scene from a Roman legend about a dispute between two warring cities; Rome and Alba Longa, when three brothers from a Roman family, the Horatii, agree to end the war by fighting three brothers from a family of Alba Longa, the Curiatii. The three brothers, all of whom appear willing to sacrifice their lives for the good of Rome, are shown saluting their father who holds their swords out for them.[1] The principal sources for the story behind David's Oath are the first book of Livy (sections 24-6) which was elaborated by Dionysius in book 3 of his Roman Antiquities.[2] However, the moment depicted in David's painting is his own invention.[3]

It grew to be considered a paradigm of neoclassical art. The painting increased David's fame, allowing him to take on his own students.[4]

Commissioning the work[edit]

In 1774, David won the Prix de Rome with his work Érasistrate découvrant la cause de la maladie d’Antiochius. This allowed him to stay five years(1775–1780) in Rome as a student from the French government. Upon his return to Paris he exhibited his work, which Diderot worshipped; the success was so resounding that King Louis XVI of France allowed him to stay in the Louvre, a very ancient privilege desired by artists. There he met Pecoul, contractor for the actual buildings, and Pecoul's daughter, whom he married. The king made him work on the Oath of the Horatii, with the intention that it be an allegory about loyalty to the state and therefore to the king. As the French Revolution approached, paintings increasingly referred to the loyalty to the state rather than the family or the church. Although this picture was made nearly five years before the Revolution, the Oath of the Horatii reflects the feelings and aspirations of the period.

In 1789, David painted The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons, a picture that was also a royal commission. Ironically, shortly after, the king would go up to the scaffold also accused of treason, as the sons of Brutus, and with the vote of the artist in the National Assembly, which supported the execution of Louis XVI.

Symbolic theme[edit]

Study for Camilla, black chalk and white highlights

The painting depicts the Roman Horatius family, who, according to Titus Livius' Ab Urbe Condita (From the Founding of the City) had been chosen for a ritual duel against three members of the Curiatii, a family from Alba Longa, in order to settle disputes between the Romans and the latter city. As revolution in France loomed, paintings urging loyalty to the state rather than to clan or clergy abounded. Although it was painted nearly five years before the revolution in France, the Oath of the Horatii became one of the defining images of the time.

In the painting, the three brothers express their loyalty and solidarity with Rome before battle, wholly supported by their father. These are men willing to lay down their lives out of patriotic duty. With their resolute gaze and taut, outstretched limbs, they are citadels of patriotism. They are symbols of the highest virtues of Rome. Their clarity of purpose, mirrored by David's simple yet powerful use of tonal contrasts, lends the painting, and its message about the nobility of patriotic sacrifice, an electric intensity. This is all in contrast to the tender-hearted women who lie weeping and mourning, awaiting the results of the fighting.

The mother and sisters are shown clothed in silken garments seemingly melting into tender expressions of sorrow. Their despair is partly due to the fact that one sister was engaged to one of the Curiatii and another is a sister of the Curiatii, married to one of the Horatii. Upon defeat of the Curiatii, the remaining Horatius journeyed home to find his sister cursing Rome over the death of her fiancé. He killed her, horrified that Rome was being cursed. Originally David had intended to depict this episode, and a drawing survives showing the surviving Horatius raising his sword, with his sister lying dead. David later decided that this subject was too gruesome a way of sending the message of public duty overcoming private feeling, but his next major painting depicted a similar scene - Lucius Junius Brutus brooding as the bodies of his sons, whose executions for treason he had ordered, are returned home.

The painting shows the three brothers on the left, the Horatii father in the center, and the three women along with two children on the right. The Horatii brothers are depicted swearing upon (saluting) their swords as they take their oath. The men show no sense of emotion. Even the father, who holds up three swords, shows no emotion. On the right, three women are weeping—one in the back and two up closer. The woman dressed in the white is a Horatius weeping for both her Curiatii fiancé and her brother; the one dressed in brown is a Curiatius who weeps for her Horatii husband and her brother. The background woman in black holds two children—one of whom is the child of a Horatius male and his Curiatii wife. The younger daughter hides her face in her nanny’s dress as the son refuses to have his eyes shielded.

According to Thomas Le Claire:

This painting occupies an extremely important place in the body of David’s work and in the history of French painting. The story was taken from Livy. We are in the period of the wars between Rome and Alba, in 669 B.C. It has been decided that the dispute between the two cities must be settled by an unusual form of combat to be fought by two groups of three champions each. The two groups are the three Horatii brothers and the three Curiatii brothers. The drama lay in the fact that one of the sisters of the Curiatii, Sabina, is married to one of the Horatii, while one of the sisters of the Horatii, Camilla, is betrothed to one of the Curiatii. Despite the ties between the two families, the Horatii's father exhorts his sons to fight the Curiatii and they obey, despite the lamentations of the women.[5]

Compositional technique[edit]

Schematic showing the convergence of many elements in the composition at the central point

This painting shows the neoclassical art style,[4] and employs various techniques that were typical of it:

Comparisons[edit]

Reception[edit]

When the royalty, churchmen, and aristocrats went to view the painting, they eulogised it; the Pope himself expressed his desire to view The Oath of the Horatii. David wanted the painting exhibited in the Salon, but it was delivered late, and his enemies at the Academy took advantage to exhibit it in a poor locale in the gallery. In the event, public dissatisfaction with the poor viewing conditions obliged the gallery to move the painting to a site proper for viewing the painting; moreover, David held The Oath of the Horatii on exhibit for some extra weeks, to permit reporters to write about all of the paintings exhibited, not just his.

References[edit]

External video
David's Oath of the Horatii, Smarthistory[6]
  1. ^ Roth, Michael (1994). "Facing the Patriarch in Early Davidian Painting". Rediscovering history: culture, politics, and the psyche. Stanford University Press. p. 308. ISBN 9780804723138. 
  2. ^ Marvin, Roberta Montemorra; Downing A. Thomas (2006). "Roman Republicanism and Operatic Heroines". Operatic migrations: transforming works and crossing boundaries (illustrated ed.). Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 102–103. ISBN 9780754650980. 
  3. ^ Winkler, Martin M. (2009). The Roman Salute: Cinema, History, Ideology. Columbus: Ohio State University Press,. pp. 42–56. ISBN 9780814208649. 
  4. ^ a b c Jacques-Louis David: The Oath of the Horatii (from the Boston College website. Retrieved 2008-01-10.)
  5. ^ Master Drawings - Recent Acquisitions - Le Claire, Thomas - Kunsthandel XVII
  6. ^ "David's Oath of the Horatii". Smarthistory at Khan Academy. Retrieved January 31, 2013.