Oath of office of the President of the United States

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President Ronald Reagan being administered the oath of office by Chief Justice Warren E. Burger on January 21, 1985.

The oath of office of the President of the United States is an oath or affirmation required by the United States Constitution before the President begins the execution of the office. The wording is specified in Article Two, Section One, Clause Eight:

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:— “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Administrator of the oath[edit]

While the Constitution does not mandate that anyone in particular should administer the oath, the oath is typically administered by the Chief Justice, but sometimes by another federal or state judge (George Washington was first sworn in by Robert Livingston, the chancellor of the State of New York in 1789, while Calvin Coolidge was first sworn in by his father, a Justice of the Peace and a Vermont notary public in 1923). By convention, incoming Presidents raise their right hand and place the left on a Bible or other book while taking the oath of office.

William R. King is the only executive official sworn into office on foreign soil. By special act of Congress, he was allowed to take his oath of the office of the Vice President on March 24, 1853 in Cuba, where he had gone because of his poor health.[1] He died 25 days later.

From 1789 through 2013, the swearing-in has been administered by 15 Chief Justices, one Associate Justice, three federal judges, two New York state judges, and one notary public. To date the only person to swear in a president who was not a judge was John Calvin Coolidge, Sr., Calvin Coolidge's father, a notary whose home the then-Vice President was visiting in 1923 when he learned of the death of President Warren G. Harding.

Sarah T. Hughes is the only woman to administer the oath of office. She was a U.S. District Court judge who swore Lyndon B. Johnson into office on Air Force One after John F. Kennedy's assassination.

Option of taking an oath or an affirmation[edit]

The Constitutional language gives the option to "affirm" instead of "swear". While the reasons for this are not documented, it may relate to certain Christians, including Quakers, who apply this scripture literally: "But above all things, my brethren, swear not, neither by heaven, neither by the earth, neither by any other oath: but let your yea be yea; and your nay, nay; lest ye fall into condemnation" (James 5:12, KJV).[2] Franklin Pierce was the only president known to use the word "affirm" rather than "swear." Herbert Hoover is often listed to have used "affirm" as well, owing to his being a Quaker, but a newsreel taken of the ceremony indicates that the words used were "solemnly swear."[3] Richard Nixon, who was also a Quaker, also swore, rather than affirm.[4][5]

Forms of administering the oath[edit]

There have been two forms of administering, and taking, the oath of office.

Under the first form, now in disuse, the administrator articulated the constitutional oath in the form of a question, and modifying the wording from the first to the second person, as in, "Do you George Washington solemnly swear ..." and then requested an affirmation. At that point a response of "I do" or "I swear" completed the oath.[citation needed]

It is believed that this was the common procedure at least until the early 20th century. In 1881, the New York Times article covering the swearing in of Chester A. Arthur, reported that he responded to the question of accepting the oath with the words, "I will, so help me God."[6] In 1929, Time magazine reported that the Chief Justice began the oath uttering, "You, Herbert Hoover, do you solemnly swear ...",[7] Hoover replied with a simple "I do".

Under the second, and current form, the administrator articulates the oath in the affirmative, and in the first person, so that the President takes the oath by repeating it verbatim.[citation needed]

Many times the President-elect's name is added after the "I"; for example, "I, Franklin D. Roosevelt, do ... " Lyndon B. Johnson did not add his name when swearing his first oath of office after Kennedy's death since he was never asked to say his name; there is evidence that in all other inaugurations since Franklin D. Roosevelt's first, the name of the president was added to the oath.[citation needed]

Use of Bibles[edit]

Theodore Roosevelt did not use a Bible when taking the oath in 1901. Barack Obama, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Harry S. Truman, and Richard Nixon (also a Quaker) swore the oath on two Bibles. John Quincy Adams swore on a book of law, with the intention that he was swearing on the constitution.[8] Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in on a Roman Catholic missal on Air Force One. Washington kissed the Bible afterwards,[9] and subsequent presidents followed suit, up to and including Harry Truman,[10] but Dwight D. Eisenhower broke that tradition by saying his own prayer instead of kissing the Bible.[11]

Oath mishaps[edit]

President Barack Obama being administered the oath of office by Chief Justice John Roberts for the second time, on January 21, 2009.

Retaking the oath of office[edit]

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Obama takes the Oath of office of the President of the United States during his inauguration on January 20, 2009. (Duration: 45 seconds)

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Obama retakes the Oath of office of the President of the United States at 19:35 EST, January 21, 2009 (00:35 UTC, January 22, 2009) (Duration: 54 seconds).

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Seven presidents have repeated their oath of office, for different reasons:

"So help me God"[edit]

It is uncertain how many Presidents used a Bible or added the words "So help me God" at the end of the oath, or in their acceptance of the oath, as neither is required by law; unlike many other federal oaths which do include the phrase "So help me God."[31] There is currently debate as to whether or not George Washington, the first president, added the phrase to his acceptance of the oath. No contemporary sources mention Washington as adding a religious codicil to his acceptance.[32]

The historical debate over who first used "So help me God," is marred by ignoring the two forms of giving the oath. The first, now in disuse, is when the administrator articulates the constitutional oath in the form of a question, as in, "Do you George Washington solemnly swear...", requesting an affirmation. At that point a response of "I do" or "I swear" completes the oath. Without verbatim transcripts, the scant existing evidence shows this was the common procedure at least until the early 20th century. In 1865 the Sacramento Daily Union covered the second inauguration of Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln finished his oath with "So help me God," and he kissed the bible.[33] In 1881, the New York Times article covering the swearing in of Chester A. Arthur, reported that he responded to the question of accepting the oath with the words, "I will, so help me God".[6] In 1929, Time magazine reported that the Chief Justice began the oath uttering, "You, Herbert Hoover, do you solemnly swear..."[7] Hoover replied with a simple "I do".

A Federal lawsuit filed in the District of Columbia by Michael Newdow on December 30, 2008 contended the second, current form of administration, where both the Chief Justice and the President articulate the oath, appending "So help me God", to be a breach of the Constitutional instructions. The suit distinguishes between the words spoken by the administrator, which must conform to the exact 35 words of the Constitution, and the President, who has a right to add a personal prayer, such as "So help me God."[34]

Chief Justice Roberts' reply was that his "prompting" for these four extra-constitutional words were to be recited "after" the oath of office, and not as a part of the oath as claimed in the suit. After rendering the oath to President Barack Obama, Roberts prompted with a question "So help you God?", to which the President responded, "So help me God."[35]

The first Congress explicitly prescribed the phrase "So help me God" in oaths under the Judiciary Act of 1789 for all U.S. judges and officers other than the President. It was prescribed even earlier under the various first state constitutions[36] as well as by the Second Continental Congress in 1776.[37][38] Although the phrase is mandatory in these oaths, the said Act also allows for the option that the phrase be omitted by the officer, in which case it would be called an affirmation instead of an oath: "Which words, so help me God, shall be omitted in all cases where an affirmation is admitted instead of an oath."[39] In contrast, the oath of the President is the only oath specified in the Constitution. It does not include the closing phrase "So help me God", and it also allows for the optional form of an affirmation which is not considered an oath. In practice, however, most Presidents, at least during the last century, have opted to take the oath (rather than an affirmation), to use a Bible to do so, and also to close the oath with the customary phrase.

The earliest known source indicating Washington added "So help me God" to his acceptance, not to the oath, is attributed to Washington Irving, aged six at the time of the inauguration, and first appears 65 years after the event.[40]

The only contemporary account that repeats the oath in full, a report from the French consul, Comte de Moustier, states only the constitutional oath,[41] without reference to Washington's adding "So Help Me God" to his acceptance.

Evidence is lacking to support the claim that Presidents between Washington and Abraham Lincoln used the phrase "So help me God." A contemporaneous newspaper account of Lincoln's 1865 inauguration states that Lincoln appended the phrase "So help me God" to the oath.[42] This newspaper report is followed by another account, provided later in the same year after Lincoln's death (April 15, 1865), that Lincoln said "So help me God" during his oath.[43] The evidence pertaining to the 1865 inauguration is much stronger than that pertaining to Lincoln's 1861 use of the phrase. Several sources claim that Lincoln said "So help me God" at his 1861 inauguration, yet these sources were not contemporaneous to the event.[44][45] During the speech, Lincoln stated that his oath was "registered in Heaven",[46] something some have taken as indicating he likely uttered the phrase "So help me God." Conversely, there was a claim made by A.M. Milligan (a Presbyterian minister who advocated for an official Christian U.S. government) that letters were sent to Abraham Lincoln asking him to swear to God during his inaugurations, and Lincoln allegedly wrote back saying that God's name was not in the Constitution, and he could not depart from the letter of that instrument.[47][48]

Other than the president of the U.S., many politicians (including Jefferson Davis, sworn in as president of the Confederate States of America in 1861) used the phrase "So help me God" when taking their oaths.[49] Likewise, all federal judges and executive officers were required as early as 1789 by statute to include the phrase unless they affirmed, in which case the phrase must be omitted.[50]

Given that nearly every President-elect since President Franklin D. Roosevelt has recited the codicil, it is likely that the majority of presidents-elect have uttered the phrase[51] (as well as some vice presidents, while taking their oaths). However, as President Theodore Roosevelt chose to conclude his oath with the phrase "And thus I swear," it seems that this current of tradition was not overwhelmingly strong even as recently as the turn of the twentieth century. Only Franklin Pierce has chosen to affirm rather than swear.[52] It is often asserted that Herbert Hoover also affirmed, because he was a Quaker, but newspaper reports before his inauguration state his intention to swear rather than affirm.[53]

List of oath takings[edit]

Map showing locations where the oath of office was first taken, marked with a green 'O' (or a green dot for normal transitions). Locations where presidencies ended are marked with a red 'X' (or a red dot for normal transitions). The nine sets of names shown in black are the ones in which transition took place prior to completion of the term, with four due to death by illness, four due to assassination (names underlined in grey), and one resignation (noted by a superscript 'R'). Inset at the bottom of the map is a crop from the Constitution (see full page) that specifies the oath.

The oath of office of the President of the United States has been taken on 73 occasions by 43 people.

DatePresidentTypeLocationAdministered by[a]Notes
Thursday, April 30, 1789George WashingtonPublicBalcony of Federal Hall
New York, New York
Robert Livingston
Chancellor of New York
Monday, March 4, 1793George WashingtonPublicSenate Chamber, Congress Hall
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
William Cushing
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
Saturday, March 4, 1797John AdamsPublicHouse Chamber, Congress Hall
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Oliver Ellsworth
Wednesday, March 4, 1801Thomas JeffersonPublicSenate Chamber, United States CapitolJohn Marshall
Monday, March 4, 1805Thomas JeffersonPublicSenate Chamber, United States CapitolJohn Marshall
Saturday, March 4, 1809James MadisonPublicHouse Chamber, United States CapitolJohn Marshall
Thursday, March 4, 1813James MadisonPublicHouse Chamber, United States CapitolJohn Marshall
Tuesday, March 4, 1817James MonroePublicIn front of Old Brick Capitol
(1st & A Sts., N.E.)
John Marshall
Monday, March 5, 1821James MonroePublicHouse Chamber, United States CapitolJohn Marshall
Friday, March 4, 1825John Quincy AdamsPublicHouse Chamber, United States CapitolJohn Marshall
Wednesday, March 4, 1829Andrew JacksonPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolJohn Marshall
Monday, March 4, 1833Andrew JacksonPublicHouse Chamber, United States CapitolJohn Marshall
Saturday, March 4, 1837Martin Van BurenPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolRoger B. Taney
Thursday, March 4, 1841William H. HarrisonPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolRoger B. Taney
Tuesday, April 6, 1841John TylerPrivateBrown's Hotel
6th St. & Pennsylvania Ave., N.W.
Washington, D.C.
William Cranch
Chief Judge, U.S. Circuit Court of the District of Columbia
Tuesday, March 4, 1845James K. PolkPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolRoger B. Taney
Monday, March 5, 1849Zachary TaylorPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolRoger B. Taney
Wednesday, July 10, 1850Millard FillmorePublicHouse Chamber, United States CapitolWilliam Cranch
Chief Judge, U.S. Circuit Court of the District of Columbia
Friday, March 4, 1853Franklin PiercePublicEast Portico, United States CapitolRoger B. TaneyOnly person known to have used "Affirm" rather than "Swear"
Wednesday, March 4, 1857James BuchananPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolRoger B. Taney
Monday, March 4, 1861Abraham LincolnPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolRoger B. Taney
Saturday, March 4, 1865Abraham LincolnPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolSalmon P. Chase
Saturday, April 15, 1865Andrew JohnsonPrivateKirkwood Hotel, 12th St. & Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C.Salmon P. Chase
Thursday, March 4, 1869Ulysses S. GrantPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolSalmon P. Chase
Tuesday, March 4, 1873Ulysses S. GrantPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolSalmon P. Chase
Saturday, March 3, 1877Rutherford B. HayesPrivateRed Room, White HouseMorrison R. Waite
Monday, March 5, 1877Rutherford B. HayesPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolMorrison R. Waite
Friday, March 4, 1881James A. GarfieldPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolMorrison R. Waite
Tuesday, September 20, 1881Chester A. ArthurPrivateFront Parlor, Arthur Residence, 123 Lexington Avenue
New York, New York
John R. Brady
Judge, New York Supreme Court
Thursday, September 22, 1881Chester A. ArthurPublicThe Vice President's Room, United States CapitolMorrison R. Waite
Wednesday, March 4, 1885Grover ClevelandPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolMorrison R. Waite
Monday, March 4, 1889Benjamin HarrisonPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolMelville W. Fuller
Saturday, March 4, 1893Grover ClevelandPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolMelville W. Fuller
Thursday, March 4, 1897William McKinleyPublicFront of Original Senate Wing, United States CapitolMelville W. Fuller
Monday, March 4, 1901William McKinleyPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolMelville W. Fuller
Saturday, September 14, 1901Theodore RooseveltPrivateFront Library, Ansley Wilcox House
Buffalo, New York
John R. Hazel
Judge, United States District Court for the Western District of New York
Saturday, March 4, 1905Theodore RooseveltPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolMelville W. Fuller
Thursday, March 4, 1909William Howard TaftPublicSenate Chamber, United States CapitolMelville W. Fuller
Tuesday, March 4, 1913Woodrow WilsonPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolEdward D. White
Sunday, March 4, 1917Woodrow WilsonPrivateThe President's Room, United States CapitolEdward D. WhiteFirst oath taken on a Sunday
Monday, March 5, 1917Woodrow WilsonPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolEdward D. White
Friday, March 4, 1921Warren G. HardingPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolEdward D. White
Friday, August 3, 1923Calvin CoolidgePrivateParlor, John Coolidge Residence
Plymouth, Vermont
John C. Coolidge
Notary Public (his father)
Tuesday, August 21, 1923Calvin CoolidgePrivateWillard Hotel,
Washington, D.C.
Adolph A. Hoehling, Jr.
Judge, U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia [54]
Wednesday, March 4, 1925Calvin CoolidgePublicEast Portico, United States CapitolWilliam H. TaftFirst oath to be nationally broadcast via radio[55]
Monday, March 4, 1929Herbert HooverPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolWilliam H. Taft
Saturday, March 4, 1933Franklin D. RooseveltPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolCharles E. Hughes
Wednesday, January 20, 1937Franklin D. RooseveltPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolCharles E. Hughes
Monday, January 20, 1941Franklin D. RooseveltPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolCharles E. Hughes
Saturday, January 20, 1945Franklin D. RooseveltPublicSouth Portico, White HouseHarlan F. Stone
Thursday, April 12, 1945Harry S. TrumanPrivateCabinet Room, White HouseHarlan F. Stone
Thursday, January 20, 1949Harry S. TrumanPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolFrederick M. VinsonFirst oath to be televised[51]
Tuesday, January 20, 1953Dwight D. EisenhowerPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolFrederick M. Vinson
Sunday, January 20, 1957Dwight D. EisenhowerPrivateEast Room, White HouseEarl Warren
Monday, January 21, 1957Dwight D. EisenhowerPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolEarl Warren
Friday, January 20, 1961John F. KennedyPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolEarl WarrenFirst oath to be televised in color [56]
Friday, November 22, 1963Lyndon B. JohnsonPrivateConference Room, Air Force One[57]
Love Field, Dallas, Texas
Sarah T. Hughes
Judge, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Texas
Photographed and audio recorded
First time the oath is administered by a woman
Wednesday, January 20, 1965Lyndon B. JohnsonPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolEarl Warren
Monday, January 20, 1969Richard NixonPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolEarl Warren
Saturday, January 20, 1973Richard NixonPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolWarren E. Burger
Friday, August 9, 1974Gerald FordPrivateEast Room, White HouseWarren E. Burger
Thursday, January 20, 1977Jimmy CarterPublicEast Portico, United States CapitolWarren E. Burger
Tuesday, January 20, 1981Ronald ReaganPublicWest Front, United States CapitolWarren E. Burger
Sunday, January 20, 1985Ronald ReaganPrivateNorth Entrance Hall, White HouseWarren E. BurgerTelevised
Monday, January 21, 1985Ronald ReaganPublicRotunda, United States CapitolWarren E. BurgerHeld inside due to severe cold
Friday, January 20, 1989George H. W. BushPublicWest Front, United States CapitolWilliam Rehnquist
Wednesday, January 20, 1993Bill ClintonPublicWest Front, United States CapitolWilliam Rehnquist
Monday, January 20, 1997Bill ClintonPublicWest Front, United States CapitolWilliam Rehnquist
Saturday, January 20, 2001George W. BushPublicWest Front, United States CapitolWilliam Rehnquist
Thursday, January 20, 2005George W. BushPublicWest Front, United States CapitolWilliam Rehnquist
Tuesday, January 20, 2009Barack ObamaPublicWest Front, United States CapitolJohn G. Roberts
Wednesday, January 21, 2009Barack ObamaPrivateMap Room, White HouseJohn G. RobertsPhotographed and audio recorded[58]
Sunday, January 20, 2013Barack ObamaPrivateBlue Room, White House[59]John G. RobertsTelevised[60] and live-streamed[61]
Monday, January 21, 2013Barack ObamaPublicWest Front, United States CapitolJohn G. RobertsTelevised and live-streamed[62]
ZZZDateZZZPresidentZZZTypeZZZLocationZZZAdministered by[a]ZZZNotes
  1. ^ a b Unless otherwise indicated, individual named is the Chief Justice of the United States.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774 - 1875
  2. ^ http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=99539230
  3. ^ Bendat, Jim (2012). Democracy's Big Day: The Inauguration of Our President, 1789-2013. iUniverse. pp. xi, 28, 36. ISBN 978-1-935278-47-4. 
  4. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dZ7oO2G4Brg
  5. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vgFI5Q0kC8A
  6. ^ a b "The New Administration; President Arthur Formally Inaugurated". The New York Times. September 23, 1881. 
  7. ^ a b c d Time Magazine, Mar. 25, 1929]. Retrieved 2009-01-23.
  8. ^ Kennon, Donald (2005). "Presidential Inaugurations Past and Present". Retrieved 2006-12-06. 
  9. ^ Joint Congressional Committee on Inauguration Ceremonies website: "Inauguration of President George Washington, 1789". Retrieved 2009-02-16.
  10. ^ McCullough, David (1992). Truman. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 347, p. 729. ISBN 0-671-86920-5.  Harry Truman is a notable example, as he bent and kissed the Bible upon taking the oath for the first time, on April 12, 1945, as well as at his second inauguration.
  11. ^ "Inaugural fun facts - WTOL.com - Toledo's News Leader |". WTOL.com. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  12. ^ Agence France-Presse (2009-01-21). "Chief justice leads Obama to stumble presidential oath | ABS-CBN News | Latest Philippine Headlines, Breaking News, Video, Analysis, Features". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  13. ^ "No Problems With Today's Oath at the Supreme Court - The BLT: The Blog of Legal Times". Legaltimes.typepad.com. 2009-01-21. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  14. ^ McCullough, p. 347
  15. ^ "Lyndon B. Johnson Oath of Office, January 20, 1965". Retrieved 2009-02-01. 
  16. ^ Williams, Pete (January 20, 2009). "About That Oath Flub". MSNBC. Retrieved January 21, 2009. 
  17. ^ "Barack Obama Oath of Office (Wikimedia Commons transcript)". Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  18. ^ "Obama retakes oath of office after Roberts' mistake". CNN. January 21, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2009. 
  19. ^ a b Obama is sworn in for second time, BBC News. Retrieved 22 January 2009.
  20. ^ Chester A. Arthur House
  21. ^ Inauguration of Chester Arthur
  22. ^ Calvin Coolidge
  23. ^ Fuess, Claude M., Calvin Coolidge: The Man from Vermont (1940), pgs. 310-315, ISBN 0-8371-9320-6.
  24. ^ Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center
  25. ^ New York Times
  26. ^ The Presidential Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower
  27. ^ Ronald Reagan: Second Inaugural Address
  28. ^ CNN: Audio of Obama's do-over.
  29. ^ "Obama retakes oath of office after Roberts' mistake". CNN. January 21, 2009. Retrieved January 21, 2009. 
  30. ^ "Obama Takes His Oath of Office Again". Washington Post. January 21, 2009. Retrieved January 21, 2009. 
  31. ^ "United States Code: Title 28,453. Oaths of justices and judges | LII / Legal Information Institute". Law.cornell.edu. 2010-01-21. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  32. ^ Peter R. Henriques, “So Help Me God”: A George Washington Myth that Should Be Discarded, hnn.us (1-12-2009).
  33. ^ Sacramento Daily Union, April 10, 1865; page 8, column 6
  34. ^ "Case 1:08-cv-02248-RBW Document 1" (PDF). www.restorethepledge.com. 2008-12-30. p. 25. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 
  35. ^ "Case 1:08-cv-02248-RBW Document 13-9" (PDF). www.restorethepledge.com. 2009-01-08. p. 25. Retrieved 2009-02-04. "Before the commencement of this lawsuit, the Chief Justice instructed me to ascertain from President-Elect Obama's representatives the President-Elect's wishes concerning the administration of the oath of office at the inauguration~including his wishes concerning the inclusion of the phrase "So help me God" after the conclusion of the constitutional oath" 
  36. ^ http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/con1777.htm
  37. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/intelligence/intelltech.html
  38. ^ http://www.history.army.mil/html/faq/oaths.html
  39. ^ Judiciary Act of 1789, Sec. 7. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
  40. ^ Griswold, Rufus W (1855) [1854]. The Republican court, or, American society in the days of Washington. New York: D. Appleton and Company. pp. 141–142. 
  41. ^ Documentary History of the First Federal Congress, Vol. 15, pages 404-405
  42. ^ Sacramento Daily Union, April 10, 1865; page 8, column 6.
  43. ^ Memorial record of the nation's ... - Google Books. Books.google.com. 1865. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  44. ^ Recollections of President Lincoln ... - Google Books. Books.google.com. 2006-08-10. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  45. ^ Anecdotal Lincoln - Google Books. Books.google.com. 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  46. ^ The Avalon Project : First Inaugural Address of Abraham Lincoln
  47. ^ Foster, James Mitchell (1894) [1894]. Christ the King. Boston: James H. Earle. p. 277.  In fact, Milligan did write to Lincoln, but his request was not that Lincoln add "so help me God" to the Oath, but rather that the name of Jesus Christ be added to the U.S. Constitution [1]
  48. ^ Foster, James Mitchell (1890). Reformation Principles Stated and Applied. Chicago and New York: F.H Revell. pp. 234–5. 
  49. ^ Official State Bible of Alabama
  50. ^ A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774 - 1875
  51. ^ a b "Inauguration of the President: Facts & Firsts". U.S. Senate. Retrieved December 13, 2008. 
  52. ^ "President Franklin Pierce, 1853". Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. Archived from the original on January 31, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-15. 
  53. ^ "Hoover Plans to Swear on Bible, Taking Oath". Washington Post. February 27, 1929. p. 5. 
  54. ^ The National Archives, Prologue Magazine Vol. 32 No. 4 (Winter 2000). Article "Abrupt Transition", by C.L. Arbelbide. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
  55. ^ http://www.inaugural.senate.gov/days-events/days-event/inaugural-address
  56. ^ Wolly, Brian (17 December 2008). "History & Archaeology: Inaugural Firsts - When was the first inaugural parade? Who had the longest inaugural address? A look at presidential inaugurations through time". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 26 January 2013. 
  57. ^ SAM 26000, this airplane's proper designation, is now at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio. Officially, "Air Force One" is an air traffic control call sign for any U.S. Air Force aircraft carrying the President, though it has informally been extended to the aircraft maintained for that purpose including SAM 26000.
  58. ^ The oath was retaken on January 21, 2009 due to a flaw in its recitation during the previous day's inaugural ceremonies. See: http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/01/21/obama.oath/index.html
  59. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/obama-private-oath-brief-family-195938699--election.html
  60. ^ http://www.politico.com/politico44/2013/01/white-house-provides-more-details-on-private-swearingin-154255.html
  61. ^ http://www.2013pic.org/weekend
  62. ^ http://www.2013pic.org/weekend

External links[edit]