Novarupta

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Novarupta
Novarupta.jpg
Novarupta's lava dome in July 1987.
Elevation2,759 ft (841 m)[1]
Location
LocationKatmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska, U.S.
RangeAleutian Range
Coordinates58°16′0″N 155°9′24″W / 58.26667°N 155.15667°W / 58.26667; -155.15667Coordinates: 58°16′0″N 155°9′24″W / 58.26667°N 155.15667°W / 58.26667; -155.15667[1]
Topo mapUSGS Mount Katmai B-4
Geology
TypeCaldera[1] with lava dome
Volcanic arc/beltAleutian Arc
Last eruptionJune to October 1912[1]
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Novarupta
Novarupta.jpg
Novarupta's lava dome in July 1987.
Elevation2,759 ft (841 m)[1]
Location
LocationKatmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska, U.S.
RangeAleutian Range
Coordinates58°16′0″N 155°9′24″W / 58.26667°N 155.15667°W / 58.26667; -155.15667Coordinates: 58°16′0″N 155°9′24″W / 58.26667°N 155.15667°W / 58.26667; -155.15667[1]
Topo mapUSGS Mount Katmai B-4
Geology
TypeCaldera[1] with lava dome
Volcanic arc/beltAleutian Arc
Last eruptionJune to October 1912[1]

Novarupta (Russian: Вулкан Новарупта, literally "new eruption") is a new volcano that was created in 1912, located on the Alaska Peninsula in Katmai National Park and Preserve, about 290 miles (470 km) southwest of Anchorage. Formed during the largest pre-Pinatubo volcanic eruption of the 20th century, Novarupta released 30 times the volume of magma of the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens.

Map showing volcanoes of Alaska.


Eruption of 1912[edit]

1912 eruption of Novarupta
VolcanoNovarupta
DateJune 6–8, 1912
TypeUltra Plinian
LocationAleutian Range, Alaska
58°16′0″N 155°9′24″W / 58.26667°N 155.15667°W / 58.26667; -155.15667
VEI6.2

The eruption of Novarupta within the Aleutian Range began on June 6, 1912, and culminated in a series of violent eruptions from the original Novarupta volcano. Rated a 6 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index,[2] the 60 hour-long eruption expelled 13 to 15 cubic kilometers (3.1 to 3.6 cu mi) of magma, 30 times as much as the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens.[3][4][5] The erupted magma of rhyolitic, dacitic, and andesitic composition[6] resulted in more than 17 cubic kilometers (4.1 cu mi) of air fall tuff and approximately 11 cubic kilometers (2.6 cu mi) of pyroclastic ash-flow tuff.[7] During the 20th century, only the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines was of a similar magnitude; Pinatubo ejected 11 cubic kilometers (2.6 cu mi) of tephra.[8] At least two larger eruptions occurred in the 19th century: the 1815 eruption of Tambora (150 km3 (36.0 cu mi) of tephra)[9] and the 1883 eruption of Indonesia's Krakatoa (20 km3 (4.8 cu mi) of tephra).[10]

Eruption of such a large quantity of magma from underneath the Mount Katmai area resulted in the formation of a 2-kilometer (1.2 mi) wide, funnel-shaped vent and the collapse of Mount Katmai's summit, creating a 600-meter (2,000 ft) deep,[3] 3 by 4 km (1.9 by 2.5 mi) caldera.[11]

The eruption ended with the extrusion of a lava dome of rhyolite[6] that plugged the vent. The 295-foot (90 m) high and 1,180-foot (360 m) wide dome and the caldera it created form what is now referred to as Novarupta.[12]

Despite the magnitude of the eruption, no deaths directly resulted.[13][14]

Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes[edit]

Colorful ash in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes

Pyroclastic ash flow from the eruption formed the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, named by botanist Robert F. Griggs, who explored the volcano's aftermath for the National Geographic Society in 1916.[13][15]

The eruption forming of the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes is one of the few in recorded history to have produced welded tuff, producing numerous fumaroles that persisted for 15 years.[16]

Katmai National Park[edit]

Established as a National Park & Preserve in 1980, Katmai is located on the Alaska Peninsula, across from Kodiak Island, with headquarters in nearby King Salmon, about 290 mi (470 km) southwest of Anchorage. The area was originally designated a National Monument in 1918 to protect the area around the 1912 eruption of Novarupta and the 40-square-mile (104 km2), 100-to-700-foot (30 to 210 m) deep, pyroclastic flow of the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Novarupta". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1102-18-. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  2. ^ Simkin, Tom; Lee Siebert (1994). Volcanoes of the World. Tucson, Arizona: Geoscience Press, Inc. p. 117. ISBN 0-945005-12-1. 
  3. ^ a b Brantley, Steven R. (1999-01-04). Volcanoes of the United States. Online Version 1.1. United States Geological Survey. p. 30. ISBN 0-16-045054-3. OCLC 156941033 30835169 44858915. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  4. ^ Judy Fierstein; Wes Hildreth; James W. Hendley II; Peter H. Stauffer (1998). Can Another Great Volcanic Eruption Happen in Alaska? – U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 075-98. Version 1.0. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-09-10. 
  5. ^ Fierstein, Judy; Wes Hildreth (2004-12-11). "The plinian eruptions of 1912 at Novarupta, Katmai National Park, Alaska". Bulletin of Volcanology (Springer) 54 (8): 646–684. Bibcode:1992BVol...54..646F. doi:10.1007/BF00430778. 
  6. ^ a b Wood, C.A. and Kienle, J. (editors) (1990) Volcanoes of North America: United States and Canada, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-36469-8, page 70.
  7. ^ Judy Fierstein; Wes Hildreth (2001). Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for the Katmai volcanic cluster, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report OF 00–0489 (PDF). United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-09-09. 
  8. ^ "Pinatubo: Eruptive History". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0703-083%26volpage%3Derupt. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  9. ^ "Tambora". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0604-04%3D. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  10. ^ "Krakatau: Eruptive History". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0602-00%3D%26volpage%3Derupt. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  11. ^ "Katmai". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1102-17-. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  12. ^ Rosi, Mauro; Paolo Papale; Luca Lupi; Marco Stoppato (2003-03-01). Volcanoes. Firefly Books. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-55297-683-8. OCLC 53901499. 
  13. ^ a b Griggs, Robert F. (1922). The Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes. National Geographic Society. p. 192. 
  14. ^ "Novarupta – Historic eruptions". Alaska Volcano Observatory. 2012-11-06. Retrieved 2012-12-19. 
  15. ^ Clemens, Janet; Frank Norris (1999). Building in an Ashen Land – Historic Resource Study of Katmai National Park and Preserve. Anchorage, Alaska: National Park Service, Alaska Support Office. Chapter 4. 
  16. ^ Hildreth, Wes (October 1983). "The compositionally zoned eruption of 1912 in the Valley of Ten Thousand smokes, Katmai National Park, Alaska". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research (Elsevier) 18 (1–4): 1–56. Bibcode:1983JVGR...18....1H. doi:10.1016/0377-0273(83)90003-3. Retrieved 2008-09-24. 
  17. ^ "Katmai National Park & Preserve". Katmai National Park & Preserve. National Park Service. 2008-06-29. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 

External links[edit]