Norwich University

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Norwich University – The Military College of Vermont
NorwichLogo.jpg
MottoI Will Try
Established1819
TypePrivate military college
Endowment$175,806,000[1]
PresidentDr. Richard W. Schneider, RADM USCGR (Ret.)
Academic staff112
Undergraduates2,100+
Postgraduates1,300
LocationNorthfield, Vermont, USA
CampusRural,
1200 acres (420 hectares)
ColorsMaroon & Gold          
AthleticsNCAA Division III
Great Northeast Athletic Conference
18 sports teams
MascotOld Sarge
Websitewww.Norwich.edu
 
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Norwich University – The Military College of Vermont
NorwichLogo.jpg
MottoI Will Try
Established1819
TypePrivate military college
Endowment$175,806,000[1]
PresidentDr. Richard W. Schneider, RADM USCGR (Ret.)
Academic staff112
Undergraduates2,100+
Postgraduates1,300
LocationNorthfield, Vermont, USA
CampusRural,
1200 acres (420 hectares)
ColorsMaroon & Gold          
AthleticsNCAA Division III
Great Northeast Athletic Conference
18 sports teams
MascotOld Sarge
Websitewww.Norwich.edu

Norwich University – The Military College of Vermont is a private university located in Northfield, Vermont (USA). It is the oldest private military college in the United States. The university was founded in 1819 at Norwich, Vermont, as the American Literary, Scientific and Military Academy. It is the oldest of six senior military colleges, and is recognized by the United States Department of Defense as the "Birthplace of ROTC" (Reserve Officers' Training Corps).[2] Norwich University's population is almost completely a Corps of Cadets[3] but also includes a small traditional student body.[4]

History[edit]

Partridge and his military academy[edit]

The university was founded in 1819 at Norwich, Vermont by military educator and former superintendent of West Point, Captain Alden B. Partridge. Partridge believed in the "American System of Education," a traditional liberal arts curriculum with instruction in civil engineering (the first in the nation)[citation needed] and military science. After leaving West Point because of congressional disapproval of his system, he returned to his native state of Vermont to create the American Literary, Scientific and Military Academy. Partridge, in founding the academy, rebelled against the reforms of Sylvanus Thayer to prevent the rise of what he saw as the greatest threat to the security of the young republic: an Aristocratic officer class. He believed that a well-trained militia was an urgent necessity and developed the American system around that idea. His academy became the inspiration for a number of military colleges throughout the nation, including both the Virginia Military Institute and The Citadel, and later the land grant colleges created through the Morrill Act of 1862.[5]

Partridge was the founding father of ROTC and The Citizen-Soldier concept.[citation needed][6]

All entering freshman entering the Corps of Cadets are called "Rooks" and their first year at Norwich is called "Rookdom". The institution of "Rookdom" consists of two three-month processes that mold civilians into Norwich Cadets: Rook Basic Training and Basic Leadership Training. Culmination of Rook Basic Training marks the halfway point toward Recognition and occurs before Thanksgiving break, after which Rooks are awarded privileges. Recognition into the Corps of Cadets typically occurs around the twenty-third week.[citation needed]

Partridge's educational beliefs were considered radical at the time, and this led to his conflicting views with the federal government while he was the superintendent of West Point. Upon creation of his own school, he immediately incorporated classes of agriculture and modern languages in addition to the sciences, liberal arts, and various military subjects. Field exercises, for which Partridge borrowed cannon and muskets from the federal and state governments, supplemented classroom instruction and added an element of realism to the college’s program of well-rounded military education.[citation needed]

Partridge founded six other military institutions during his quest to reform the fledgling United States military. They were the Virginia Literary, Scientific and Military Academy at Portsmouth, Virginia (1839–1846), Pennsylvania Literary, Scientific, and Military Academy at Bristol, Pennsylvania (1842–1845), Pennsylvania Military Institute at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (1845–1848), Wilmington Literary, Scientific and Military Academy at Wilmington, Delaware (1846–1848), the Scientific and Military Collegiate Institute at Reading, Pennsylvania (1850–1854), Gymnasium and Military Institute at Pembroke, New Hampshire (1850–1853) and the National Scientific and Military Academy at Brandywine Springs, Delaware (1853).[7]

Fire and hardship: the 19th century[edit]

In 1825 the academy moved to Middletown, Connecticut, to provide better naval training to the school's growing corps of cadets. In 1829, the state of Connecticut declined to grant Captain Partridge a charter and he moved the school back to Norwich (the Middletown campus became Wesleyan University in 1831). Beginning in 1826, the college offered the first program of courses in civil engineering in the US. In 1834 Vermont granted a charter and recognized the institution as Norwich University. During the 1856 academic year, the first chapter of the Theta Chi Fraternity was founded by cadets Frederick Norton Freeman and Arthur Chase. With the beginning of the Civil War in 1861, Norwich cadets served as instructors of the state militias throughout the Northeast and the entire class of 1862 enlisted upon its graduation. Norwich turned out hundreds of officers and soldiers who served with the federal armies in the American Civil War, including four recipients of the Medal of Honor. One graduate led a corps, seven more headed divisions, 21 commanded brigades, 38 led regiments, and various alumni served in 131 different regimental organizations. In addition, these men were eyewitnesses to some of the war's most dramatic events, including the bloodiest day of the conflict at Antietam, the attack up Marye's Heights at Fredericksburg, and the repulse of Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg. Seven hundred and fifty Norwich men served in the Civil War, of whom sixty fought for the Confederacy.[8] Because of the university's participation in the struggle, the number of students dwindled to seven in the class of 1864 alone.

The Confederate raid on St. Albans, Vermont precipitated fear that Newport, Vermont was an imminent target. The Corps of Cadets quickly boarded an express train for Newport, the same day, October 19, 1864, to the great relief of the inhabitants.[9]

After a catastrophic fire in 1866 which devastated the Old South Barracks and the entire Military Academy, the town of Northfield welcomed the struggling school. The Civil War, the fire, and the uncertainty regarding the continuation of the University seriously lowered the attendance, and the school opened in the fall of 1866 with only 19 students. The 1870s and 1880s saw many financially turbulent times for the institution and the renaming of the school to Lewis College in 1880. In 1881 the student body was reduced to only a dozen men. Later, by 1884, the Vermont Legislature had the name of the school changed back to Norwich. In the 1890s the United States Army and Norwich expanded their collaboration, including the two-year appointment of career officer Jesse McI. Carter as an instructor and Commandant of Cadets. In 1898 the university was designated as the Military College of the State of Vermont.

War and expansion: the 20th century[edit]

As part of the Vermont National Guard, the school's Corps of Cadets was mobilized as a squadron of cavalry in the First Vermont Regiment to assist in General John J. Pershing's Mexican Expedition. This greatly disrupted the academic year and in 1916 the War Department designated Norwich as the first site for a Senior ROTC cavalry unit; also in 1916, the first African-American, Harold "Doc" Martin (NU 1920), matriculated. Classes graduated early for both the First and Second World Wars and many Norwich-made officers saw service in all theaters of both conflicts. Professional education offered at Norwich also changed and adapted with the advance of technology. Military flight training began in 1939 and from 1946 to 1947, horse cavalry was completely phased out in favor of armored cavalry.[citation needed]

Graduates returning from European and Pacific fields of battle found a university very different from the one they had left behind. From the late 1940s to the 1960s, Norwich was greatly expanded and added a number of new opportunities. In 1947, the Army Department created a new program uniquely suited to Vermont's harsh climate: a mountain and cold weather warfare unit. Air Force and Navy ROTC programs were established in 1972 and 1984 respectively. During the 1974 school year, the university admitted women into the Corps of Cadets, two years before the federal service academies. Although unpopular at the time, Norwich University began a social trend that would move the country closer in gender equality. The 1972 merger and 1993 integration with Vermont College added two groups to "the Hill," women and civilian students. Norwich later sold its Vermont College campus and non-traditional degree programs to the Union Institute and University in 2001.[10] Vermont College's arts programs were spun off as the once again independent Vermont College of Fine Arts in 2008.

Prior to the 2009–2010 school year companies consisted of one upperclassmen platoon and one freshmen platoon, with each platoon consisting of three squads. The companies in the original company system were Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Kilo, Band, Drill Company, Cavalry Troop and Artillery. The companies Alpha through Kilo were known as "line companies", and were part of Battalions 1, 2 and 3. Band, Drill Company, Cavalry Troop and Artillery were placed in Provisional Battalion.[citation needed] Under this traditional system a cadet could spend his entire time at the school in one company. While this had the benefit of creating unique cultures and traditions in each company, and strengthened the bond each cadet had with his/her fellow "Rook Buddies" and the Corps and school at large, sometimes long-standing company traditions would lead to fraternity-like hazing and eventually challenge the authority of the Corps chain of command.[citation needed]

In 2009, the Provision Artillery Battalion was deactivated.[11]

Hazing[edit]

In the nineteenth century, hazing of undergraduates by upper classmen was normal in all military schools and many non-military ones as well. Hazing diminished in the early 20th century. By the late 20th century, it became not only counter to university rules but illegal as well. Nevertheless, there have been several instances of hazing in 1990, 1995.[12]

Campus[edit]

Norwich University campus in Northfield

Academic buildings[edit]

Ainsworth Hall[edit]

In 1910 Ainsworth Hall was constructed for the United States Weather Bureau as its central Vermont station. Later returned to the university in 1948, it served as the Administrative Headquarters of the campus. By 1955, growth of the University forced the relocation of the Administration back up the hill to Dewey Hall. When also in 1955 construction began on Webb Hall to the immediate west of the building, the infirmary moved into the now empty structure. Due to expansion of the university in the 1960s and 1970s the building was converted into the home of the Division of Social Sciences. The building is named for Mrs. Laura Ainsworth, widow of Captain James E. Ainsworth (NU 1853), who in 1915 worked to bring an infirmary to campus.

Chaplin Hall[edit]

Chaplin Hall, originally Carnegie Hall, was built in 1907. The School of Architecture & Art is located there. Paid for by Andrew Carnegie, the building served as the university's library until 1993 with the construction of Kreitzberg Library. When the library was renovated in 1952, from the contributions of trustee Henry P. Chaplin, it was rededicated as the Henry Prescott Chaplin Memorial Library. Until 1941 and the addition of Partridge Hall to the growing campus, Chaplin Hall also provided the classrooms and offices for the Department of Electrical Engineering.

Communications Building[edit]

This building, on the site of the first building in Center Northfield, contains the offices and classrooms of the Communications Department. The offices for the school newspaper Guidon and the studios for both the university's radio station WNUB-FM are also located in this building. The building was purchased by the university in 1973 and restored in 1988.

Dewey Hall[edit]

Named for Admiral of the Navy George Dewey (NU 1852–1854), and completed in 1902, Dewey Hall is one of the oldest buildings in the Northfield campus. It was originally two stories high with the lower floor occupied by offices of the university's administration, the library and museum. Office space for trustees and faculty, a chapel with a seating of five hundred and the United States Weather Bureau were located on the second floor. With the departure of the Weather Bureau in 1909 and the completion of the then new Carnegie Library in 1907 the Hall was primarily used by the Military Department. In October 1925 a fire gutted the building which led to its reconstruction as a three story structure. Dewey Hall currently houses the Division of Business & Management and a computer lab.

Hollis House[edit]

Hollis House is today the location of a number of classrooms and offices of the Division of Humanities. Built in 1852, the building was until 1909 the house of a number of prominent residents of Northfield. When sold that year to the university, it became part of the US Weather Bureau's station collocated on campus. The building was later named for David B. "Dixie" Hollis (NU 1922) who upon his death in 1993 gave what was then the largest donation in the university's history: $7 million.

Engineering, Math and Science Complex[edit]

The Engineering, Math and Science Complex houses the David Crawford School of Engineering as well as the departments of Geology, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Mathematics and Sports Medicine. An addition of Nursing was completed in 2011. The complex (known a the "U" building) is composed of six sections: Juckett, Partridge and Tompkins Halls; the Science Building, Bartolleto Hall and the Cabot Annex. The complex was completed in 1997 and replaced a previous set of 1940s- and 1950s-era facilities. The Engineering, Math and Science Complex also contains the university's Computer Services office and the majority of the campus' independent computer labs.

Kreitzberg Library[edit]

Kreitzberg Library is named in recognition of Barbara and Chairman of the Board of Trustees Fred Kreitzberg (NU 1957).[13] The library has a catalogue of more than 240,000 books, about 45,000 electronic journals, and a collection of federal government publications. The Norwich University Archives and Special Collections houses rare books and unique source materials relating to military history, the history of Vermont, and the history of the university. The 58,000-square-foot (5,400 m2) library was designed by Perry, Dean, Rogers & Partners and was completed in 1993 at a cost of $8.1 million.

Webb Hall[edit]

Webb Hall was completed in 1960 and originally housed the English, Modern Languages, Social Sciences, Business Administration and the Psychology and Education departments. The Division of Humanities and Education program are located in this building. Twenty one classrooms, three seminar rooms and a computer lab are available.

Dole Auditorium, which can seat over four hundred people, is located in Webb Hall. The building is named after J. Watson Webb, a Norwich trustee.[citation needed] The auditorium honors Charles Dole (NU 1869), who served in his career at the university as an instructor in mathematics and Latin, a professor of history and rhetoric, the commandant of cadets and acting president of the university from 1895 to 1896.

Cadet barracks[edit]

Residence halls[edit]

Athletic buildings[edit]

Andrews Hall

Andrews Hall, built in 1980, houses the Department of Athletics. In addition, it has basketball and racquetball courts and the equipment and athletic training rooms for the university's varsity and intramural teams. The Athletic Hall of Fame is also located in Andrews Hall. The facility honors trustee Paul R. Andrews (NU 1930).

Kreitzberg Arena

Kreitzberg Arena is home to the men’s and women’s varsity ice hockey teams, as well as the school’s club team.

Plumley Armory

The armory, built in 1928, is named to honor a notable 1896 graduate of the university, Charles A. Plumley. Plumley served as the president of the university from 1930 to 1934 when he was elected to Congress as Vermont's sole representative from 1934 to 1951. The main floor of the building provides seating space for 4,000 in an area as large as three basketball courts. There is an elevated running track as well as locker rooms, training rooms, and Navy ROTC offices in the basement. Connected to the armory is Goodyear Pool. Built in 1962, the pool is a 25 x 14 yard 5 lane facility that is open to all university members.

Sabine Field
Sabine Field

Dedicated in 1921, Sabine Field is currently home to the university football and cross country teams. Sabine field is slated for a complete renovation. The renovation will include the installation of all-weather turf, stadium lighting, new bleachers, and a state-of-the-art press box. It is designed so that lacrosse, soccer, and rugby will also be able to use the field.

Shapiro Field House

Shapiro Field House, built in 1987 and named for trustee Jacob Shapiro (NU 1936), houses a multipurpose arena that has a 200-meter indoor running track, four tennis courts, and a climbing wall. It is also used for morning PT (Physical Training), athletic practices, Commencement, concerts and other university functions.

Other buildings[edit]

The Harmon Memorial

The Harmon Memorial is a tribute to Major General Ernest Harmon, who attended Norwich University from 1912 to 1913 and was later president from 1950 to 1968. Recorded on the memorial, by year of death, are the names of alumni, faculty, staff, and friends of Norwich University that have made a "significant contribution" to the university.

Harmon Hall & Wise Campus Center

Harmon Hall opened in 1955 and later enlarged in 1958. Since then, it has served as the focal point for student life and activities. The campus mess hall, bookstore, post office, and The Mill (a snack bar open to Corps upperclassmen and civilians) are located on the lower two floors. The Foreign Student Office, Student Activities, Yearbook Office, Music Program offices, a game room, and a lounge were located on the top floor. This floor originally housed the departments of English, History, and Modern Languages until they were moved to Webb Hall in 1960. Harmon Hall was renovated in 2007. The addition onto Harmon Hall is named the Wise Campus Center.

Jackman Hall

Norwich University moved to Northfield from Norwich, Vermont, in 1866 when the South Barracks at the older location were destroyed by fire. Old Jackman Hall was the first building to be constructed at the new central Vermont site. The building was erected in 1868, and named Jackman Hall in 1907 to honor Brigadier General Alonzo Jackman (NU 1836) a faculty member, creator of the trans-Atlantic telegraph cable system and commander of the Vermont Brigade during the Civil War. From its construction till 1905 the building served as housing for cadets. In the mid-1950s Jackman Hall was extensively remodeled and modernized, however, it became apparent that the almost century-old barracks were too costly to maintain. It was decided that rather than pay for near continual upkeep to build a new hall on the same site. As many newer barracks had been built since its original construction it was decided that the new Jackman Hall would serve as the primary administration building. Currently the Army and Air Force ROTC departments are housed in Jackman, as well.

White Chapel

Constructed by a gift from Eugene L. White (NU 1914), a trustee, the chapel was completed in 1941. Originally designed as a multi-purpose building, then White Hall has served as a mess hall with a dining room, lunch room, kitchen, a college store and a recreational room. White Hall was converted to the university's first single-purpose chapel after Harmon Hall was opened in 1955. There are two bronze plaques on the walls that honor the Norwich war dead. Weekly services include Catholic Mass on Wednesday and Sunday, non-denominational service on Sunday, and Islamic prayer on Friday.

Sullivan Museum and History Center

One of the newer buildings on the campus, the Sullivan Museum was opened January 22, 2007. The building is named after General Gordon R. Sullivan (ret.), Norwich class of 1959 and former U.S. Army Chief of Staff. The Sullivan Museum houses state of the art conservation, storage, and display facilities for the wide variety of Norwich University artifacts and memorabilia. Items currently displayed cover a wide spectrum of Norwich history, including uniforms worn by Alden Partridge and Alonzo Jackman to pieces from more recent history.

Students and organization[edit]

The university has approximately a total of 3,400 students, 2,100 undergraduate students/ 1300 graduate students, 112 full-time faculty (approximately 80% hold a doctorate), and a fluctuating number of adjunct professors. The student/faculty ratio is 14:1 and a male/female ratio is 7:1. The freshman retention rate is 80%. The student body comprises students from over 45 different states and 20 countries.

As of 2011, 72.9 percent of full-time undergraduates receive some kind of need-based financial aid and the average need-based scholarship or grant award is $18,150.

The university offers a number of student services including nonremedial tutoring, placement service, health service, and health insurance. Norwich University also offers campus safety and security services like 24-hour foot and vehicle patrols, 24-hour emergency telephones, and lighted pathways/sidewalks. 42% of students have cars on campus and 83% of students live on campus. Alcohol is not permitted for students of legal age at Norwich University with exception of Partridge’s Pub. More than 90% are involved in activities outside the classroom.

Norwich University has two different on-campus resident programs: the traditional Corps of Cadets and a non-military student body. 40% of applicants to Norwich are accepted yearly.[citation needed]

Corps of Cadets[edit]

Cadet officers and non-commissioned officers command the Corps of Cadets. As leaders, they are responsible for the day-to-day administration, operation, training and discipline of the Corps. Norwich is one of several senior military colleges in the country whose cadets are entrusted with that authority. The Corps is structured as a regiment commanded by a cadet colonel (C/COL) with five battalions each commanded by a cadet lieutenant colonel (C/LTC) and a Headquarters company commanded by a cadet major. 1st, 2nd, and provisional battalions are composed of companies of upperclassmen commanded by a cadet captain with two platoons per company. 3rd and 4th Battalion are freshman training battalions and are composed of three companies of three platoons each.

This structure was put in place for the 2009–2010 school year, replacing the more traditional "Original Company" system.

New Corps structure (Fall 2009 onwards):

Headquarters1st Battalion2nd Battalion3rd Battalion4th BattalionProvisional Battalion
Headquarters Company (HHC)AlphaDeltaCadet Training Company 13-1 (CTC 1)Cadet Training Company 13-4 (CTC 4)Regimental Band [15]
BravoEchoCadet Training Company 13-2 (CTC 2)Cadet Training Company 13-5 (CTC 5)Drill[16]
CharlieFoxtrotCadet Training Company 13-3 (CTC 3)Cadet Training Company 13-6 (CTC 6)Cavalry Troop[17]

Norwich University Corps of Cadets rank insignia follows West Point with the use of chevrons to show all cadet ranks in lieu of chevrons, disks & lozenges. As of the 2010 academic year, the rank structure has changed. Juniors and seniors are no longer permitted the rank of sergeant, but rather default to the rank of private if they hold no responsibilities in the Corps of Cadets. Likewise, sophomores no longer default to the rank of corporal unless they hold some sort of responsibility.

Ranks are as follows:

Special units

The college has several special units that are supervised by federal ROTC units. The Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (AROTC) detachment contains the Norwich Artillery Battery,[18] Norwich University Rangers,[19] and the Mountain Cold Weather Company. The Artillery Battery and Rangers are AROTC-specific while the Mountain Cold Weather Company[20] is open to all cadets. The AFROTC detachment sponsors the Air Force Special Operations Unit. The NROTC detachment sponsors a chapter of the Semper Fidelis Society and Golden Anchor Society.[clarification needed]

Academics[edit]

Norwich has 29 majors across six academic divisions with the most popular major being criminal justice.[citation needed]

Graduate program[edit]

The College of Graduate and Continuing Studies oversees the university's graduate programs. The majority of the graduate programs are conducted on a distance learning platform. The university offers accredited and highly recognized programs in a range of fields including diplomacy, military history, history, business administration, civil engineering, justice administration, public administration, information assurance, education, nursing, and organizational leadership.[21]

Norwich offers 9 online graduate programs, including a combined 5-year Master of Architecture program, and, since 2001, a National Security Agency-sponsored Centers of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Education.[22]

Athletics[edit]

Norwich offers 20 varsity sports, including baseball, basketball, cross country, football, rugby, soccer, and lacrosse. There are three club sports and intramurals.[citation needed] The Cadets compete at the NCAA Division III level and are affiliated in one of four conferences, mainly the Great Northeast Athletic Conference (GNAC).

The football program won the Eastern Collegiate Football Conference championship in 2009 with a 49-14 win over Mount Ida College in the conference title game.[23] In 2010, Norwich played host to Framingham State in the ECAC Northeast Bowl.[citation needed] Norwich again won the ECFC Championship in 2011, advancing to the NCAA Division III tournament, where they fell to Delaware Valley College in the first round. In 2012, Norwich played Endicott College in the ECAC North Atlantic Bowl, their fourth consecutive post-season appearance.

Women's lacrosse program gained varsity status in 2008. They have won 3 consecutive Great Northeast Athletic Conference Titles (2010, 2011, 2012), advancing to the NCAA Division III Tournament each time.[citation needed]

Rifle team won the national intercollegiate rifle championship in 1916 [24] and 1920.[25] It is no longer a sport at the school.

Rugby[edit]

Women's rugby has existed at Norwich since 1985 and gained a varsity status in 2008. They won the inaugural USA Rugby Collegiate Division II National Championship in the spring of 2012 and a USA Rugby Collegiate Division 1 National Sevens Title in the fall of 2011.[26]

Ice hockey[edit]

Men's ice hockey is nationally ranked and had its 100th season in 2009–10. The program has won ECAC East hockey championships in the regular season every year from 1998–2012.[27] Won the NCAA Division III title in 2000, 2003 and most recently won the 2010 NCAA Division III title, defeating St. Norbert College 2-1 in double overtime.[28]

Notable alumni[edit]

Military[edit]

138 graduates of Norwich University have served as general officers in the U.S. armed forces: 102 Army generals, 11 Air Force generals, 9 Marine Corps generals, and 16 Navy admirals. 26 graduates served as generals in foreign armies: 9 Royal Thai Army general, 1 Royal Thai Air Force general, and 16 Republic of China Army generals.[29][30]

Among the notable military graduates and former students of Norwich are:

Political[edit]

Business[edit]

Engineering and architecture[edit]

Athletes[edit]

Other notable alumni[edit]

References[edit]

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  4. ^ Traditional Students
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  69. ^ Gary E. Frank (2008-12-05). "Mixed martial arts champion Mike Brown found his path at Norwich". Norwich University Office of Communications. Retrieved 2009-03-05. 
  70. ^ http://www.nbcwashington.com/blogs/capital-games/Report-Capitals-Re--Sign-Keith-Aucoin-To-One-Year-Contract-163278026.html
  71. ^ http://sports.espn.go.com/nhl/players/profile?playerId=2059
  72. ^ New York Islanders – Team: Kurtis McLean Official Player Page
  73. ^ "Time 100:The most important people of the century". Time. June 14, 1999. Retrieved October 5, 2012. 

External links[edit]


Coordinates: 44°08′20″N 72°39′36″W / 44.13889°N 72.66000°W / 44.13889; -72.66000