Northwest Indiana

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Northwest Indiana
Map of Northwest Indiana

Common name: The Region
Largest city
Other cities
Hammond
 - Gary
 - Portage
 - Michigan City
 - Valparaiso
Counties  - Jasper
 - Lake
 - LaPorte
 - Newton
 - Porter
 
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Northwest Indiana
Map of Northwest Indiana

Common name: The Region
Largest city
Other cities
Hammond
 - Gary
 - Portage
 - Michigan City
 - Valparaiso
Counties  - Jasper
 - Lake
 - LaPorte
 - Newton
 - Porter

Northwest Indiana comprises Lake, Porter, LaPorte, Newton and Jasper counties in Indiana. This region neighbors Lake Michigan and is part of the Chicago metropolitan area. According to the 2010 Census, Northwest Indiana has a population of 819,537 and is the state's second largest urban area after the Indianapolis Metropolitan Area. It is also the home of the Indiana Dunes, parts of which have been preserved through conservation efforts.[1][2][3] The town of Ogden Dunes houses the Hour Glass, a museum showcasing the ecological and conservation efforts of O. D. Frank.[3]

The region's largest city is Hammond, followed closely by Gary. Other municipalities in Northwest Indiana include Chesterton, Crown Point, Demotte, Dyer, East Chicago, Griffith, Highland, Hebron, Hobart, Kentland, Lake Station, La Porte, Merrillville, Michigan City, Munster, Portage, Rensselaer, Schererville, St. John, Valparaiso, and Winfield.

Overview[edit]

The counties of Jasper, Lake, LaPorte, Newton and Porter are included in the Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City Combined Statistical Area, the broadest of the census-derived Metropolitan definitions. Unlike the majority of Indiana, which operates on Eastern Standard Time, these counties are among six in Northern Indiana that are in the Central Time Zone (the other being Starke). This reflects their close economic integration in the Chicago metropolitan area. Northwest Indiana, along with the Illinois counties of Cook (southern), Will, Kankakee and Iroquois, are often referred to as Illiana (pronounced "Il-ee-AN-a") by the local media.

Three counties — Lake, Porter and LaPorte — are served by the Northwestern Indiana Regional Planning Commission metropolitan planning organization.[4] Northwest Indiana is the home of Marktown, Clayton Mark's planned worker community.[5]

The urban areas of Lake County and the contiguous urbanized part of Porter County are sometimes referred to as "The Region;" or colloquially, humorously, or even pejoratively, "Da Region."[citation needed]

Geography[edit]

The Long Stairs up the dune at West Beach on the Succession Trail

The Lake Michigan shore is a major attraction. Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, which stretches from Gary to Michigan City, is a well-preserved stretch of sand dunes, beaches, grasslands, and forests, as well as several historical homes and buildings.

The terrain of Northwest Indiana varies from very steep and rugged at the dunes, to rolling in the moraines, and to pancake flat in the river valleys. It was shaped by glacial activity and Lake Michigan. The main geographical features of Northwest Indiana include the Valparaiso Moraine, Tinley Moraine, Lake Border Moraine, Iroquois Moraine, Calumet Shoreline, Glenwood Shoreline, Tolleston shorelines, and the Kankakee Outwash Plain.[6]

Chicago Lake Plain[edit]

The Chicago Lake Plain covers the relatively flat northern quarter of Northwest Indiana north of the moraines. Initially, the plain was flat, composed of glacio-lacustrine deposits. These formed under the waters of glacial Lake Michigan. The lake formed from the melting glaciers north of the Valparaiso Moraine. Eventually the lake overflowed a low spot on the moraine at the Chicago Outlet near the southwest suburbs. This lowered the lake level to current day Lake Michigan levels (Horsley, 1986).[7] As the lake shrunk, it left a series of sand ridges where its ancient beaches were. Along the Lake Michigan shoreline, the prevailing winds have built a series of dune ridges, breaking up the original flat surface of the Lake Plain.

Wheaton Morainal Plain[edit]

Physiography of the Upper Illinois River Basin

South of the Chicago Lake Plain in the central parts of Lake and Porter County and northern LaPorte county is the hilly Wheaton Morainal Plain. The Wheaton Morainal Plain consist of the Valparaiso Moraine and Tinley Moraine, paralleling the Lake Michigan Shoreline. The plain consist of rolling Wisconsinan-age moraines. The Morainal Plain is clayey till, and sandy and loamy till, with areas of sand and gravel. Other deposits include lake clay, silt, and alluvium. Deposits are between 50 and 200 ft thick, with many southern areas have over 200 ft of till. (Mades, 1987).[8]

Kankakee Outwash Plain[edit]

The Kankakee Outwash Plain (southern Lake, Porter, and LaPorte counties) is a flat outwash plain formed by the melting glacier, which was stopped at the Valparaiso Moraine. (Mickelson and others, 1984). Deposits are predominately sand and gravel, but also include alluvium and fill materials. Deposits average less than 200 ft thick; in the lowlands they can be less than 50 ft thick, while in the upland they can be more than 200 ft thick. Local elevation changes are less than 100 ft.[8] and include many scattered sand dunes.

Bloomington Ridged Plain[edit]

The Bloomington Ridged Plain covers only the most southern part of Northwest Indiana in the valley of the Iroquois River in southern Newton and Jasper counties. This area consists of low and rolling hills, i.e., moraines like the Iroquois Moraine with less than 300 ft changes in elevation. The soils are loamy till, lake clay and silt. Unlike the northern half of Northwest Indiana, the Huron-Erie glacial lobe left these deposits in it northeastward retreat. Deposits are less than 200 ft thick; with some of more than 400 feet thick.[9]

Economy[edit]

The northern portion of Northwest Indiana is noted for its heavy industry. Gary, Portage, Burns Harbor and East Chicago are home to major steel mills, including the largest North American facilities for both U.S. Steel (Gary Works) and ArcelorMittal (Indiana Harbor). Whiting and Hammond are home to the largest oil refinery in the Midwestern U.S., operated by BP. Other industrial outputs include fabricated metals, transportation equipment, and food products.

Since the 1990s, casino gambling has become a significant component of Northwest Indiana's economy. Four casino boats with approximately 207,000 square feet (19,200 m2) of aggregate gaming space are located along Lake Michigan in Lake County. An additional 65,000 square feet (6,000 m2) of gaming space is located in Michigan City.[10]

Former Indiana Governor Mitch Daniels and the Indiana State Legislature formed the entity known as the Northwest Indiana Regional Development Authority (RDA) in 2006.[11] The RDA, a special-purpose district, is vested with both legal authority and tax dollars to invest in transportation and economic development throughout the region.

A number of Northwest Indiana's suburban communities serve as bedroom communities for Chicago.

Education[edit]

Colleges and universities located in Northwest Indiana include Calumet College of St. Joseph in Whiting, Indiana University Northwest (IU Northwest) in Gary, Purdue University Calumet in Hammond, Purdue University North Central in Westville, Valparaiso University in Valparaiso (the largest independent Lutheran University in the United States) and Saint Joseph's College in Rensselaer. These institutions offer a variety of degree programs in fields such as business administration, engineering and engineering technology, law, education, computing and information technology, and the liberal arts. Additionally, Northwest Indiana is proximate to numerous other universities elsewhere in Indiana and in the Chicago metropolitan area.[12]

Counties[edit]

Census Bureau population statistics[edit]

Census Area2010 Census2000 Census1990 Census1980 Census1970 Census1960 Census1950 Census
Jasper County, Indiana
33,478
30,043
24,960
26,138
20,429
18,842
17,031
Lake County, Indiana
496,005
484,564
475,594
522,965
546,253
513,269
368,152
LaPorte County, Indiana
111,467
110,106
107,066
108,632
105,342
95,111
76,808
Newton County, Indiana
14,244
14,566
13,551
14,844
11,606
11,502
11,006
Porter County, Indiana
164,343
146,798
128,932
119,816
87,114
60,279
40,076
Total
819,537
786,077
750,103
792,395
770,744
699,003
513,073

Transportation[edit]

Major airports[edit]

Commuter rail[edit]

South Shore Train at Dune Park Station

*South Shore Line connecting Chicago to South Bend, Indiana, passing through Gary and Michigan City

Highways[edit]

Area codes[edit]

Local media[edit]

Print[edit]

Broadcast[edit]

Notable people[edit]

Parks and Nature Areas[edit]

See also: Kankakee River

References[edit]

  1. ^ Smith, S. & Mark, S. (2006). Alice Gray, Dorothy Buell, and Naomi Svihla: Preservationists of Ogden Dunes. The South Shore Journal, 1. http://www.southshorejournal.org/index.php/issues/volume-1-2006/78-journals/vol-1-2006/117-alice-gray-dorothy-buell-and-naomi-svihla-preservationists-of-ogden-dunes
  2. ^ Smith, S. & Mark, S. (2009). The Historical Roots of the Nature Conservancy in the Northwest Indiana/Chicagoland Region: From Science to Preservation. The South Shore Journal, 3. http://www.southshorejournal.org/index.php/issues/volume-3-2009/83-journals/vol-3-2009/75-the-historical-roots-of-the-nature-conservancy-in-the-northwest-indianachicagoland-region-from-science-to-preservation
  3. ^ a b Smith, S. & Mark, S. (2007). The cultural impact of a museum in a small community: The Hour Glass of Ogden Dunes. The South Shore Journal, 2. http://www.southshorejournal.org/index.php/issues/volume-2-2007/82-journals/vol-2-2007/104-the-cultural-impact-of-a-museum-in-a-small-community-the-hour-glass-in-ogden-dunes
  4. ^ Welcome to the NIRPC Home Page
  5. ^ Smith, S. & Mark, S. (2011). Marktown: Clayton Mark's Planned Worker Community in Northwest Indiana. South Shore Journal, 4. http://www.southshorejournal.org/index.php/issues/volume-4-2011/82-marktown-clayton-marks-planned-worker-community-in-northwest-indiana
  6. ^ Environmental Geology of Lake and Porter Counties, Indiana An Aid to Planning; By Edwin J. Hartke, John R. Hill, and Mark Reshkin; Environmental Study 8 Department of Natural Resources Geological Survey Special Report 11
  7. ^ Environmental Setting of the Upper Illinois River Basin and Implications for Water Quality Water-Resources Investigations Report 98–4268; Terri L. Arnold, Daniel J. Sullivan, Mitchell A. Harris, Faith A. Fitzpatrick, Barbara C. Scudder, Peter M. Ruhl, Dorothea W. Hanchar, and Jana S. Stewart; U.S. Geologic Survey, Department of the Interior; Urbana, Illinois; 1999; pg 11
  8. ^ a b pg 12
  9. ^ pg 12, 18
  10. ^ South Shore Casinos - Official Northwest Indiana Travel Resource
  11. ^ RDA: Home
  12. ^ "America's Best Colleges 2007". U.S. News & World Report. http://www.usnews.com/usnews/edu/college/directory/brief/drglance_1842_brief.php. Retrieved 2006-11-25.
  13. ^ a b c d Streets of Northwest Indiana; Rand McNally, Chicago, Illinois, 2008
  14. ^ a b c d Indiana Atlas and Gazetter; DeLorme, Yarmouth, Vermont