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The Northern United States can be a geographic and/or historical term and definition.
Geographically, term includes the U.S. states and regions of the United States that are located across the northernmost part of the country. It includes, but is not limited to, states along the Canada–United States border.
The United States Census Bureau divides some of the northernmost United States into the Midwest Region and the Northeast Region. The Census Bureau also includes the northernmost states of the Northwestern United States, that are , within the West Region.
During the American Civil War, the Northern United States was composed of the U.S. states that remained in the United States of America, the Union states. In this context, "The North" is synonymous with the Union. In this context, "The South" is composed of the states that seceded from the U.S. to form the Confederate States of America.
However, which states comprised "The North" in this context can be the subject of historical disagreement. Some slave-holding states that remained in the Union, including Maryland below the Mason–Dixon line, may be excluded. Some of the Union states were not geographically located in the north, but may be included.