North Carolina's 12th congressional district

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North Carolina's 12th congressional district
Current Representativevacant
Area827 mi²
Distribution88.5% urban, 11.5% rural
Population (2000)619,178
Median income$35,775
Ethnicity47.2% White, 44.6% Black, 2.1% Asian, 7.1% Hispanic, 0.4% Native American, 0.1% other
Occupation32.1% blue collar, 51.9% white collar, 16.0% gray collar
Cook PVID+23[1]
 
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North Carolina's 12th congressional district
Current Representativevacant
Area827 mi²
Distribution88.5% urban, 11.5% rural
Population (2000)619,178
Median income$35,775
Ethnicity47.2% White, 44.6% Black, 2.1% Asian, 7.1% Hispanic, 0.4% Native American, 0.1% other
Occupation32.1% blue collar, 51.9% white collar, 16.0% gray collar
Cook PVID+23[1]

North Carolina's 12th congressional district is located in central North Carolina and comprises portions of Charlotte, Winston-Salem, Greensboro, Lexington, Salisbury, Concord, and High Point. It is an example of gerrymandering.[2] It was one of two minority-majority Congressional districts created in the state in the 1990s. Since the 2010 census, it has a small plurality of whites.

North Carolina earlier had a twelfth seat in the House in the nineteenth century and in the mid-twentieth century (1943-1963).

The district from 2007 to 2013

Current district[edit]

The district was re-established after the 1990 United States Census, when North Carolina gained a district. It was drawn in 1992 as one of two black majority (minority-majority) districts, as blacks comprised 22% of the state's population.[3] With 64 percent African-American residents, it stretched from Gastonia to Durham. It was very long and so thin at some points that it was no wider than a highway lane, as it followed Interstate 85 almost exactly,[4][5] It was criticized as a gerrymandered district. When created in the 1990s, it was one of two minority-majority Congressional districts in the state, defined to provide African Americans an opportunity to elect a representative of their choice.

The Wall Street Journal called the district "political pornography." The United States Supreme Court ruled in Shaw v. Reno, 509 U.S. 630 (1993) that a racial gerrymander may, in some circumstances, violate the Equal Protection Clause. The state legislature had defended the two districts as based on demographics, with the 12th representing the interior Piedmont area and the 1st the Coastal Plain.[3] Subsequently, the district was redrawn several times and was adjudicated in the Supreme Court on two additional occasions.[3] The version created after the 2000 census was approved by the US Supreme Court in Hunt v. Cromartie. The current version, based on the 2010 census, has a small plurality of whites.

The district is currently vacant; Democrat Mel Watt, who had represented the district since its re-establishment in 1993, resigned in 2014 to head the Federal Housing Finance Agency. A special election will be held November 4, 2014 to replace Watt.

List of representatives[edit]

RepresentativePartyYearsElectoral history
District created March 4, 1803
Joseph WinstonDemocratic-RepublicanMarch 4, 1803 –
March 3, 1807
Meshack FranklinDemocratic-RepublicanMarch 4, 1807 –
March 3, 1813
Redistricted to the 13th district
Israel PickensDemocratic-RepublicanMarch 4, 1813 –
March 3, 1817
Redistricted from the 11th district
Felix WalkerDemocratic-RepublicanMarch 4, 1817 –
March 3, 1823
Robert B. VanceJacksonian D-RMarch 4, 1823 –
March 3, 1825
Samuel P. CarsonJacksonianMarch 4, 1825 –
March 3, 1833
James GrahamAnti-JacksonianMarch 4, 1833 –
March 3, 1837
Seat declared vacant March 29, 1836 - December 5, 1836
WhigMarch 4, 1837 –
March 4, 1843
District inactive March 3, 1843
District re-established January 3, 1943
Zebulon WeaverDemocraticJanuary 3, 1943 –
January 3, 1947
Redistricted from the 11th district
Monroe M. ReddenDemocraticJanuary 3, 1947 –
January 3, 1953
George A. ShufordDemocraticJanuary 3, 1953 –
January 3, 1959
David M. HallDemocraticJanuary 3, 1959 –
January 29, 1960
Died
VacantJanuary 29, 1960 –
June 25, 1960
Roy A. TaylorDemocraticJune 25, 1960 –
January 3, 1963
Redistricted to the 11th district
District inactive January 3, 1963
District re-established January 3, 1993
Mel WattDemocraticJanuary 3, 1993 –
January 6, 2014
Resigned to become head of the Federal Housing Finance Agency
VacantJanuary 6, 2014 –
Present
North Carolina's 12th congressional district special election, 2014

Election results[edit]

YearDemocraticRepublicanLibertarian
2002Melvin L. Watt: 98,821Jeff Kish: 49,588Carey Head: 2,830  
2004Melvin L. Watt: 154,908Ada M. Fisher: 76,898 
2006Melvin L. Watt: 71,345Ada M. Fisher: 35,127 
2008Melvin L. Watt: 215,908Ty Cobb, Jr.: 85,814 
2010Melvin L. Watt: 103,495Greg Dority: 55,315Lon Cecil: 3,197  
2012Melvin L. Watt: 247,591Jack Brosch: 63,317 

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Partisan Voting Index Districts of the 113th Congress: 2004 & 2008". The Cook Political Report. 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-10. 
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ a b c senate.leg.state.mn.us "North Carolina Redistricting Cases: the 1990s", National Conference of State Legislatures
  4. ^ politicsnj.com
  5. ^ "State Profile -- North Carolina". CNN. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 35°38′47″N 80°26′33″W / 35.64639°N 80.44250°W / 35.64639; -80.44250