Nor'easter

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Satellite image of the intense nor'easter responsible for the North American blizzard of 2006. Note the hurricane-like eye at the center.

A nor'easter (also northeaster; see below) is a type of macro-scale storm along the East Coast of the United States and Atlantic Canada, so named because the storm travels to the northeast from the south and the winds come from the northeast, especially in the coastal areas of New England and Atlantic Canada. This type of storm has characteristics similar to a hurricane. More specifically it describes a low-pressure area whose center of rotation is just off the East Coast and whose leading winds in the left forward quadrant rotate onto land from the northeast. The precipitation pattern is similar to that of other extratropical storms. Nor'easters also can cause coastal severe flooding, coastal erosion, hurricane force winds, blizzard conditions, these conditions are usually accompanied with heavy snow or rain depending on when the storm occurs. Nor'easters can occur at any time of the year but are known mostly for their presence in the winter season.[1] Nor'easters can be devastating and damaging, especially in the winter months, when most damage and deaths are cold-related, as nor'easters are known for bringing extremely cold air down from the Arctic air mass. Nor'easters thrive on the converging air masses; that is, the polar cold air mass and the warmer ocean water of the Gulf Stream.[2]

Contents

Geography and formation characteristics

Nor'easters form along the East Coast of the United States, usually in the months between October and April, although nor'easters can form any time of the year.[3] When a nor'easter starts forming in the Gulf of Mexico, moist air and high dew points feed into the developing storm. The storm will then reach the Atlantic Ocean and begin to strengthen. Some nor'easters will increase rapidly in intensity, sometimes becoming as strong as moderate hurricanes by feeding on the warm waters of the Gulf Stream.[4]

The sharp contrast in the cold Labrador current and the warm Gulf Stream, as well as the topographic nature of the Northeast, make the Mid-Atlantic and New England coast one of the most conducive areas in the world for nor'easter formation.[1] It is thought that nor'easters are caused by the Arctic oscillation, which is a band of air circulating at about 55°N. The Arctic oscillation has two phases: positive and negative. In the positive phase, the predominant phase for the past twenty years, the air moves quickly and acts almost like a dam in preventing the intrusion of Arctic air into the mid-latitude regions. In its negative phase, the air moves more slowly and is more subject to disruption. This allows cold Arctic air to penetrate into the mid-latitudes. There can be a fluctuation between positive phase and negative phase days over the course of a winter, and a correlation between negative phase days and nor'easters has been found.[1]

Formation

Most nor'easters start from a low-pressure system that forms in the south, most often the Gulf of Mexico, and are drawn across to the Northeast by the Jet Stream. The divergence or diffluence in the upper atmosphere caused by the Jet Stream removes and disperses the rising air at a faster rate than it is replaced at the surface, which, along with the Coriolis Force, creates and develops a storm. Their northeast track brings them up along the East Coast past the mid-Atlantic and New England coastal states. The counterclockwise flow around a low-pressure system brings the warm moist oceanic air over land. The warm moist air meets cold air carried southward by the trough. The low enhances the surrounding pressure gradient, which acts to spiral the very different air masses toward each other at an even faster rate. The greater the temperature differences between the two air masses the greater the turbulence and instability, and the more severe the storm can become.[1][3]

The nor'easters taking the East Coast track usually indicates the presence of a high-pressure area in the vicinity of Bermuda.[5] The storm will then reach the North Carolina coast, which is in the Southeast, and begin to develop. At this time, either the nor'easter can move slightly inland and present mostly rain or it can move slightly offshore, growing stronger and increasing its potential to be destructive. In the latter case, the effects of the storm can reach the major cities of the Northeast, such as New York City.[1] Such a storm will rapidly intensify, tracking northward and following the topography of the East Coast, sometimes continuing to grow stronger during its entire existence. A nor'easter usually reaches its peak intensity while off the Canadian coast. The storm then reaches Arctic areas, and can reach intensities equal to that of a strong hurricane. It then meanders throughout the North Atlantic and can last for several weeks.[1]

Characteristics

Nor'easters are usually formed by an area of vorticity associated with an upper-level disturbance or from a kink in a frontal surface that causes a surface low-pressure area to develop. Such storms are very often formed from the merging of several weaker storms, a "parent storm", and a polar jet stream mixing with the tropical jet stream.

Until the nor'easter passes, thick, dark, low-level clouds often block out the sun. Temperatures usually fall significantly due to the presence of the cooler air from winds that typically come from a northeasterly direction. It is not uncommon for residual cloud cover to last for several days after the height of the storm. During a single storm, the precipitation can range from a torrential downpour to a fine mist. All precipitation types can occur in a nor'easter, although they are well known for their frozen precipitation. High wind gusts, which can reach hurricane strength, are also associated with a nor'easter. On very rare occasions, such as in the North American blizzard of 2006 and a nor'easter in 1979, the center of the storm can take on the circular shape more typical of a hurricane and have a small eye.

Difference from tropical cyclones

Often, people mistake nor'easters for tropical cyclones and do not differentiate between the two weather systems. Nor'easters differ from tropical cyclones in that nor'easters are cold-core low-pressure systems, meaning that they thrive on cold air. Tropical cyclones are warm-core low-pressure systems, which means they thrive on warm temperatures.

Difference from other extratropical storms

A nor'easter is formed in a strong extratropical cyclone, usually experiencing bombogenesis. While this formation occurs in many places around the world, nor'easters are unique for their combination of northeast winds and moisture content of the swirling clouds. Nearly similar conditions sometimes occur during winter in the Pacific Northeast (northern Japan and northwards) with winds from NW-N. In Europe, similar weather systems with such severity are hardly possible; the moisture content of the clouds is usually not high enough to cause flooding or heavy snow, though NE winds can be strong.

Difference from Euroclydons

Nor'easters are often mistaken for Euroclydons, but these are two separate weather patterns. A Euroclydon is a tempestuous northeast wind that blows in the Mediterranean.

Areas often affected

The northeastern United States, from Virginia to the New England coast, Quebec and Atlantic Canada can experience nor'easters, most often in the winter and early spring but also sometimes during the autumn. These storms can sometimes last for several days, leaving inches of rain or several inches (or feet) of snow on the region.

The Atlantic coast, from northern Georgia northward up the coast, can suffer high winds, pounding surf, and extremely heavy rains during these storms. However, swells have been known to cause damage through the Caribbean as well. Surfers wait in anticipation when a nor'easter is formed. Nor'easters cause a significant amount of severe beach erosion in these areas, as well as flooding in the associated low-lying areas. Beach residents in these areas may actually fear the repeated depredations of nor'easters over those of hurricanes, because nor'easters happen more frequently and cause substantial damage to beach-front property and their dunes.

Impacts

Nor'easters usually bring massive amounts of precipitation, high winds, large waves, and marginal storm surge to coastal areas. Depending on the circumstances and the time of year, nor'easters can bring rain, ice, and snow. Ice, snow, and high winds can shut down major airports for days leaving thousands stranded. Ice and snow can also shut down major highways and interstates leaving motorists unable to reach their destinations. During nor'easters, many people lose power because of high winds, ice, and snow.

Biologists at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution on Cape Cod have determined Nor'easters are an environmental factor for red tides of the Atlantic coast.

"Nor'easter" usage and origins

Compass card (1607)

The term nor'easter came to American English by way of British English.[citation needed] According to the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the first recorded use in the English language of the term "nore" ("north") in association with the points of the compass and wind direction was by Dekker in 1612: "How blowes the winde Syr?" "Wynde! is Nore-Nore-West."

Similar uses occurred in 1688 (… Nore and Nore-West …) and in 1718 (… Nore-west or Nore-nore-west.). These recorded uses are predated by use of the term "noreast", first recorded as used by Davis in 1594 (Noreast by North raiseth a degree in sayling 24 leagues.) and shown, for instance, on a compass card published in 1607. Thus, the manner of pronouncing from memory the 32 points of the compass, known in maritime training as "boxing the compass", is described by Ansted[6] with pronunciations "Nor'east (or west)," "Nor' Nor'-east (or west)," "Nor'east b' east (or west)," and so forth. According to the OED, the first recorded use of the term "nor'easter" occurs in 1836 in a translation of Aristophanes. The term "nor'easter" naturally developed from the historical spellings and pronunciations of the compass points and the direction of wind or sailing.[citation needed]

As noted in a January 2006 editorial by William Sisson, editor of Soundings magazine,[7] use of "nor'easter" to describe the storm system is common along the U.S. East Coast. Yet it has been asserted by linguist Mark Liberman (see below) that "nor'easter" as a contraction for "northeaster" has no basis in regional New England dialect and is a "fake" word. However, this view neglects the little-known etymology and the historical maritime usage described above.

Nineteenth-century Downeast mariners pronounced the compass point "north northeast" as "no'nuth-east," and so on.[citation needed] For decades, Edgar Comee, of Brunswick, Maine, waged a determined battle against use of the term "nor'easter" by the press, which usage he considered a pretentious and altogether lamentable affectation and the odious, even loathsome, practice of landlubbers who would be seen as salty as the sea itself. His efforts, which included mailing hundreds of postcards, were profiled, just before his death at the age of 88, in The New Yorker.[8]

Despite the efforts of Comee and others, use of the term continues by the press. According to Boston Globe writer Jan Freeman, from 1975 to 1980, journalists used the nor’easter spelling only once in five mentions of such storms; in the past year (2003), more than 80 percent of northeasters were spelled nor'easter.[9]

University of Pennsylvania linguistics professor Mark Liberman has pointed out that while the OED cites examples dating back to 1837, these examples represent the contributions of a handful of non-New England poets and writers. Liberman posits that "nor'Easter" may have originally been a literary affectation, akin to "e'en" for "even" and "th'only" for "the only", which is an indication in spelling that two syllables count for only one position in metered verse, with no implications for actual pronunciation.[10]

However, despite these assertions, the term can be found in the writings of New Englanders going back at least to the 19th century.

Usage existed into the 20th century in the form of:

Notable nor'easters

Here is a list of notable nor'easters, followed by a short description about the event.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f Multi-Community Environmental Storm Observatory (2006). "Nor'easters". http://www.mcwar.org/NorEasters.pdf. Retrieved January 22, 2008. 
  2. ^ Multi-Community Environmental Storm Observatory (2006). "Nor'easters". Archived from the original on October 9, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071009034304/http://www.mcwar.org/articles/noreasters/NorEasters.html. Retrieved January 22, 2008. 
  3. ^ a b Storm-E (2007). "Nor'easters". http://www3.cet.edu/weather2/h17.html. Retrieved January 22, 2008. 
  4. ^ How stuff works (2006). "What are nor'easters?". http://science.howstuffworks.com/question595.htm. Retrieved January 22, 2008. 
  5. ^ Weather channel (2007). "Nor'easters". Weather Channel. http://www.weather.com/encyclopedia/winter/noreast.html. Retrieved January 22, 2008. 
  6. ^ Ansted. A Dictionary of Sea Terms, Brown Son & Ferguson, Glasgow, 1933
  7. ^ "Featuring Boating News, Stories and More". Soundings Online. http://www.soundingsonline.com. Retrieved 2012-08-18. 
  8. ^ "Talk of the Town". The New Yorker, issue of September 5, 2005.
  9. ^ Jan Freeman, "The Word". The Boston Globe, issue of December 21, 2003.
  10. ^ Mark Liberman, "Nor'easter considered fake". Language Log, January 25, 2004.
  11. ^ "The story of a bad boy - Thomas Bailey Aldrich - Google Boeken". Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=lNc-AAAAYAAJ&dq=nor%27easter+snow. Retrieved 2012-08-18. 
  12. ^ http://www.horrormasters.com/Text/a1735.pdf
  13. ^ "A new system of meteorology, designed for schools and private students ... - John H. Tice - Google Boeken". Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=q9UOAAAAYAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved 2012-08-18. 
  14. ^ "Charities and the commons: a weekly journal of philanthropy and social advance - Charity Organization Society of the City of New York. Publication Committee - Google Boeken". Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=-HkXAAAAYAAJ. Retrieved 2012-08-18. 
  15. ^ "Old Cape Cod: the land, the men, the sea - Mary Rogers Bangs - Google Boeken". Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=NUIVAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA182. Retrieved 2012-08-18. 
  16. ^ "Glossary of meteorology - American Meteorological Society - Google Boeken". Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=tI8JAQAAIAAJ. Retrieved 2012-08-18. 

External links