Non-Hispanic Whites

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Non-Hispanic Whites
White, not Hispanic or Latino
Total population
197,243,423 (2012 ACS)
62.8% of the United States population
Regions with significant populations
Throughout the United States
Languages
Predominantly American English with local minorities who speak American French (Louisiana, Vermont, Maine, New Hampshire), Pennsylvania German language (Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana), and immigrant languages (esp. Russian, Arabic, Italian, Polish, and Greek[1])
Religion
Mostly Christianity; minorities practice Judaism, and other faiths or are nonreligious
 
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Non-Hispanic Whites
White, not Hispanic or Latino
Total population
197,243,423 (2012 ACS)
62.8% of the United States population
Regions with significant populations
Throughout the United States
Languages
Predominantly American English with local minorities who speak American French (Louisiana, Vermont, Maine, New Hampshire), Pennsylvania German language (Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana), and immigrant languages (esp. Russian, Arabic, Italian, Polish, and Greek[1])
Religion
Mostly Christianity; minorities practice Judaism, and other faiths or are nonreligious

Non-Hispanic Whites or White, Not Hispanic or Latino are people in the United States, as defined by the Census Bureau, who are of the White race and are not of Hispanic or Latino origin/ethnicity.[2][3] Hence the designation is exclusive in the sense that it defines who is not included as opposed to who is. Non-Hispanic Whites are a subset of White Americans, the other being White Hispanic and Latino Americans.

Although generally all nations in Europe have contributed to the Non-Hispanic White population through emigration to Northern America in the last few centuries, the vast majority of Non-Hispanic Whites trace their origins to Northwestern Europe while the other major source originates in Southern Italy.

In the U.S., this population was first derived from British and French colonization, as well as settlement by other Europeans, such as the Germans and Dutch that began in the 17th century (see History of the United States). Continued growth since the early 1800s is attributed to sustained very high birth rates alongside relatively low death rates among settlers and natives alike as well as periodically massive immigration from European countries, especially Germany, Ireland, England, Italy, Sweden, and Norway, as well as Poland, Albania, Russia, and many more countries. In 2011, for the first time in U.S. history, Non-Hispanic Whites accounted for under half of the births in U.S. - with 49.6 percent of total births.[4] At 197.2 million in 2012, Non-Hispanic Whites compose 62.8% of the total population of United States.[4][5]

Trends[edit]

The Non-Hispanic White population in the United States has been declining as a percentage of the total US population due to a number of factors:

1. Lower Birth Rates. Non-Hispanic Whites are having fewer children relative to other groups. Preliminary 2012 data show that non-Hispanic whites have a total fertility rate of 1.76 children per woman, compared to 1.90 for non-Hispanic blacks, 2.19 for Hispanics, and 1.77 for Asians.[6] Since 1990, rates for other races have been falling while the non-Hispanic white rate has been more or less stable, but the two largest groups, Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks, remain higher.[7] Since 1997, Asian fertility has been lower than that of non-Hispanic whites except during a Year of the Dragon (2000 and 2012), but the Asian population structure has relatively more women of childbearing age and fewer elderly than the white population does, leading to Asians having a higher crude birth rate and lower crude death rate than whites.

2. Immigration. The USA takes more immigrants than the rest of the world combined with the vast majority coming from countries where the population is of non-White and/or Hispanic origin. Immigration to the USA from European countries has been in a steady decline since WWII averaging 56% of all immigrants in the 50s and declining to 35% of all immigrants in the 60s, 20% in the 70s, 11% in the 80s, 14% in the 90s, and 13% in the 00s. In 2009, approximately 90% of all immigrants came from non-European countries.[8] The U.S. does get a small number of non-Hispanic white immigrants, mainly from countries such as Brazil, Canada, Poland, Russia, and the U.K., as well as Egypt and Iran, as Middle Easterners are also counted as "non-Hispanic white" by the government.[9]

3. Intermarriage. The USA is seeing an unprecedented increase in intermarriage between the various racial and ethnic (Hispanic) groups. In 2008, a record 14.6% of all new marriages in the United States were between spouses of a different race or ethnicity from one another. 9% of non-Hispanic Whites who married in 2008 married either a non-White or Hispanic. Among all newlyweds in 2008, intermarried pairings were primarily White-Hispanic of any race (41%) as compared to White-Asian (15%), White-Black (11%), and Other Combinations (33%). Other combinations consists of pairings between different minority groups, multi-racial people, and American Indians.[10] The children of such unions would not generally be classified as White Non-Hispanic (although note that one self-identifies their racial and/or ethnic category).

4. Methodology. In the 2000 Census, people were allowed to check more than one race in addition to choosing "Hispanic." There was strong opposition to this from some civil rights activists who feared that this would reduce the size of various racial minorities. The government responded by counting those who are white and of one minority race or ethnicity as minorities for the purposes of civil-rights monitoring and enforcement. Hence one could be 1/8th Hispanic or 1/8th Black and still be counted as a minority.[11]

5. Attrition. Minority populations are younger than non-Hispanic whites. The national median age in 2011 was 37.3 with non-Hispanic whites having the oldest median age (42.3) while Hispanics have the youngest (27.6). Non-Hispanic blacks (32.9) and non-Hispanic Asians (35.9) also are younger than whites.[12] In 2013, the Census Bureau reported that for the first time, due to the more advanced age profile of the non-Hispanic White population, non-Hispanic whites died at a faster rate than non-Hispanic White births.[13]

Although non-Hispanic whites are declining as a percentage, in actual numbers they have still been growing. From 2000 - 2010 the non-Hispanic white population grew from 194,552,774 to 196,817,552 - A growth of 1.2% over the 10-year period, due to residual population momentum.[14] Due to the 2013 finding by the Census Bureau that deaths outnumbered births among non-Hispanic whites, though, it is possible that the 2020 Census will show the first drop in the non-Hispanic white population between Censuses.

Population by state or territory[edit]

White Non-Hispanic Population by state or territory (1990–2012)[15][5]
State/TerritoryPop 1990% pop
1990
Pop 2000% pop
2000
Pop 2010% pop
2010
Pop 2012% pop
2012
% growth
2000-2012
% pop
1990-2012
Alabama Alabama2,960,16773.3%3,125,81970.3%3,204,40267.0%3,212,46866.6%+2.8%-6.7%
Alaska Alaska406,72273.9%423,78867.6%455,32064.1%460,45363.0%+8.7%-10.9%
Arizona Arizona2,626,18571.7%3,274,25863.8%3,695,64757.8%3,730,37056.9%+13.9%-14.8%
Arkansas Arkansas1,933,08282.2%2,100,13578.6%2,173,46974.5%2,179,16873.9%+3.8%-8.3%
California California17,029,12657.2%15,816,79046.7%14,956,25340.1%14,904,05539.2%-5.8%-18.0%
Colorado Colorado2,658,94580.7%3,202,88074.5%3,520,79370.0%3,599,83869.4%+12.4%-11.3%
Connecticut Connecticut2,754,18483.8%2,638,84577.5%2,546,26271.2%2,512,77370.0%-4.8%-13.8%
Delaware Delaware528,09279.3%567,97372.5%586,75265.3%589,64264.3%+3.8%-15.0%
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia166,13127.4%159,17827.8%209,46434.8%222,97535.3%+40.1%+7.9%
Florida Florida9,475,32673.2%10,458,50965.4%10,884,72257.9%10,966,71156.8%+4.9%-16.4%
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia4,543,42570.1%5,128,66162.6%5,413,92055.9%5,460,41655.0%+6.5%-15.1%
Hawaii Hawaii347,64431.4%277,09122.9%309,34322.7%317,03222.8%+14.4%-8.6%
Idaho Idaho928,66192.2%1,139,29188.0%1,316,24384.0%1,330,94283.4%+16.8%-8.8%
Illinois Illinois8,550,20874.8%8,424,14067.8%8,167,75363.7%8,093,68762.9%-3.9%-11.9%
Indiana Indiana4,965,24289.6%5,219,37385.8%5,286,45381.5%5,289,24980.9%+1.3%-8.7%
Iowa Iowa2,663,84095.9%2,710,34492.6%2,701,12388.7%2,705,70488.0%-0.2%-7.9%
Kansas Kansas2,190,52488.4%2,233,99783.1%2,230,53978.2%2,234,82677.4%0.0%-11.0%
Kentucky Kentucky3,378,02291.7%3,608,01389.3%3,745,65586.3%3,760,30285.8%+4.2%-5.9%
Louisiana Louisiana2,776,02265.8%2,794,39162.5%2,734,88460.3%2,748,74859.7%-1.6%-6.1%
Maine Maine1,203,35798.0%1,230,29796.5%1,254,29794.4%1,250,68894.1%+1.7%-3.9%
Maryland Maryland3,326,10969.6%3,286,54762.1%3,157,95854.7%3,166,26353.8%-3.7%-15.8%
Massachusetts Massachusetts5,280,29287.8%5,198,35981.9%4,984,80076.1%5,003,79875.3%-3.7%-12.6%
Michigan Michigan7,649,95182.3%7,806,69178.6%7,569,93976.6%7,523,64776.1%-3.6%-6.2%
Minnesota Minnesota4,101,26693.7%4,337,14388.2%4,405,14283.1%4,424,94482.3%+2.0%-11.4%
Mississippi Mississippi1,624,19863.1%1,727,90860.7%1,722,28758.0%1,717,21457.5%-0.6%-5.6%
Missouri Missouri4,448,46586.9%4,686,47483.8%4,850,74881.0%4,848,75880.5%+3.5%-6.4%
Montana Montana733,87891.8%807,82389.5%868,62887.8%876,78287.2%+8.5%-4.6%
Nebraska Nebraska1,460,09592.5%1,494,49487.3%1,499,75382.1%1,509,06681.3%+1.0%-11.2%
Nevada Nevada946,35778.7%1,303,00165.2%1,462,08154.1%1,455,20052.7%+11.7%-26.0%
New Hampshire New Hampshire1,079,48497.3%1,175,25295.1%1,215,05092.3%1,212,38991.8%+3.2%-5.5%
New Jersey New Jersey5,718,96674.0%5,557,20966.0%5,214,87859.3%5,134,99457.9%-7.6%-16.1%
New Mexico New Mexico764,16450.4%813,49544.7%833,81040.5%827,06639.7%+1.7%-10.7%
New York New York12,460,18969.3%11,760,98162.0%11,304,24758.3%11,227,53457.4%-4.5%-11.9%
North Carolina North Carolina4,971,12775.0%5,647,15570.2%6,223,99565.3%6,292,53364.5%+11.4%-10.5%
North Dakota North Dakota601,59294.2%589,14991.7%598,00788.9%616,19488.1%+4.6%-6.1%
Ohio Ohio9,444,62287.1%9,538,11184.0%9,359,26381.1%9,309,29180.6%-2.4%-6.5%
Oklahoma Oklahoma2,547,58881.0%2,556,36874.1%2,575,38168.7%2,585,77967.8%+1.2%-13.2%
Oregon Oregon2,579,73290.8%2,857,61683.5%3,005,84878.5%3,026,64977.6%+5.9%-13.2%
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania10,422,05887.7%10,322,45584.1%10,094,65279.5%10,035,95378.6%-2.8%-9.1%
Rhode Island Rhode Island896,10989.3%858,43381.9%803,68576.4%791,56075.4%-7.8%-13.9%
South Carolina South Carolina2,390,05668.5%2,652,29166.1%2,962,74064.1%3,016,84363.9%+13.7%-4.6%
South Dakota South Dakota634,78891.2%664,58588.0%689,50284.7%698,50483.8%+5.1%-7.4%
Tennessee Tennessee4,027,63182.6%4,505,93079.2%4,800,78275.6%4,840,88675.0%+7.4%-7.6%
Texas Texas10,291,68060.6%10,933,31352.4%11,397,34545.3%11,554,52844.3%+5.7%-16.3%
Utah Utah1,571,25491.2%1,904,26585.3%2,221,71980.4%2,278,90479.8%+19.7%-11.4%
Vermont Vermont552,18498.1%585,43196.2%590,22394.3%588,13894.0%+0.5%-4.3%
Virginia Virginia4,701,65076.0%4,965,63770.2%5,186,45064.8%5,234,50263.9%+5.4%-12.1%
Washington (state) Washington4,221,62286.7%4,652,49078.9%4,876,80472.5%4,927,04271.4%+5.9%-15.3%
West Virginia West Virginia1,718,89695.8%1,709,96694.6%1,726,25693.2%1,721,90192.8%+0.7%-3.0%
Wisconsin Wisconsin4,464,67791.3%4,681,63087.3%4,738,41183.3%4,738,84282.8%+1.2%-8.5%
Wyoming Wyoming412,71191.0%438,79988.9%483,87485.9%487,67284.6%+11.1%-6.4%
American Samoa American Samoa6821.2%6111.1%-10.4%
Guam Guam10,6666.9%11,0016.9%+3.1%
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands1,2741.8%9161.7%-28.1%
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico33,9660.9%26,9460.7%23,5420.6%-30.7%
United States Virgin Islands U.S. Virgin Islands8,5807.9%3,8303.6%-55.3%
United States United States of America188,128,29675.6%194,552,77469.1%196,817,55263.7%197,243,42362.8%+1.4%–11.9%

In 2012, in 37 out of the 50 U.S. states non-Hispanic whites made up a greater percentage of the state's population than the U.S. overall share of 62.8%; however, the 13 states with greater shares of non-whites include the four most populous states (California, Texas, New York, and Florida). Also, note that while the total non-Hispanic white population has grown since 2000 in 36 out of the 50 states, the relative share of non-Hispanic whites in the overall state population has declined in all 50 states during that same time period.

As of 2012, four states are majority-minority: Hawaii, California, New Mexico, and Texas.

Historical Population by state or territory[edit]

Non-Mexican White (1910-1930) and Non-Hispanic White % of Population (1940-2010) by U.S. State[16][17][18]
State/Territory19101920193019401950196019701980199020002010
Alabama Alabama65.3%73.3%73.3%73.3%70.3%67.0%
Alaska Alaska48.3%77.2%75.8%73.9%67.6%64.1%
Arizona Arizona65.1%74.3%74.5%71.7%63.8%57.8%
Arkansas Arkansas75.2%81.0%82.2%82.2%78.6%74.5%
California California89.5%76.3%66.6%57.2%46.7%40.1%
Colorado Colorado90.3%84.6%82.7%80.7%74.5%70.0%
Connecticut Connecticut97.9%91.4%88.0%83.8%77.5%71.2%
Delaware Delaware86.4%84.1%81.3%79.3%72.5%65.3%
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia71.4%26.5%25.7%27.4%27.8%34.8%
Florida Florida71.5%77.9%76.7%73.2%65.4%57.9%
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia65.2%73.4%71.6%70.1%62.6%55.9%
Hawaii Hawaii31.5%38.0%31.1%31.4%22.9%22.7%
Idaho Idaho98.4%95.9%93.9%92.2%88.0%84.0%
Illinois Illinois94.7%83.5%78.0%74.8%67.8%63.7%
Indiana Indiana96.3%91.7%90.2%89.6%85.8%81.5%
Iowa Iowa99.2%98.0%96.9%95.9%92.6%88.7%
Kansas Kansas95.6%92.7%90.5%88.4%83.1%78.2%
Kentucky Kentucky92.5%92.4%91.7%91.7%89.3%86.3%
Louisiana Louisiana63.7%68.2%67.6%65.8%62.5%60.3%
Maine Maine99.7%99.1%98.3%98.0%96.5%94.4%
Maryland Maryland83.3%80.4%73.9%69.6%62.1%54.7%
Massachusetts Massachusetts98.6%95.4%92.3%87.8%81.9%76.1%
Michigan Michigan95.7%87.1%84.1%82.3%78.6%76.6%
Minnesota Minnesota99.0%97.7%96.1%93.7%88.2%83.1%
Mississippi Mississippi50.6%62.6%63.6%63.1%60.7%58.0%
Missouri Missouri93.4%88.6%87.7%86.9%83.8%81.0%
Montana Montana96.2%94.7%93.4%91.8%89.5%87.8%
Nebraska Nebraska98.2%95.2%94.0%92.5%87.3%82.1%
Nevada Nevada91.6%86.7%83.2%78.7%65.2%54.1%
New Hampshire New Hampshire99.9%99.1%98.4%97.3%95.1%92.3%
New Jersey New Jersey94.3%84.7%79.1%74.0%66.0%59.3%
New Mexico New Mexico50.9%53.8%52.6%50.4%44.7%40.5%
New York New York94.6%80.1%75.0%69.3%62.0%58.3%
North Carolina North Carolina71.9%76.5%75.3%75.0%70.2%65.3%
North Dakota North Dakota98.3%96.9%95.5%94.2%91.7%88.9%
Ohio Ohio95.0%89.8%88.2%87.1%84.0%81.1%
Oklahoma Oklahoma89.9%88.1%85.0%81.0%74.1%68.7%
Oregon Oregon98.6%95.8%93.3%90.8%83.5%78.5%
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania95.1%90.3%89.1%87.7%84.1%79.5%
Rhode Island Rhode Island98.3%96.1%93.4%89.3%81.9%76.4%
South Carolina South Carolina57.1%69.0%68.3%68.5%66.1%64.1%
South Dakota South Dakota96.2%94.6%92.3%91.2%88.0%84.7%
Tennessee Tennessee82.5%83.7%83.1%82.6%79.2%75.6%
Texas Texas74.1%69.6%65.7%60.6%52.4%45.3%
Utah Utah98.2%93.6%92.4%91.2%85.3%80.4%
Vermont Vermont99.7%99.2%98.5%98.1%96.2%94.3%
Virginia Virginia75.3%80.1%78.2%76.0%70.2%64.8%
Washington (state) Washington97.7%93.6%90.2%86.7%78.9%72.5%
West Virginia West Virginia93.7%95.7%95.6%95.8%94.6%93.2%
Wisconsin Wisconsin99.2%95.6%93.6%91.3%87.3%83.3%
Wyoming Wyoming95.9%92.1%92.0%91.0%88.9%85.9%
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico0.9%0.7%

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Table 53. Languages Spoken At Home by Language: 2009", The 2012 Statistical Abstract (U.S. Census Bureau), retrieved 2011-12-27 
  2. ^ U.S. Census Bureau definition of race[dead link]
  3. ^ Note that the majority of Hispanic and Latino Americans are white ([1]) like the overall population of the United States. Hispanics and Latinos can be of any race: white, black, Asian, etc., as race and ethnicity are independent of each other: "Guidance on the Presentation and Comparison of Race and Hispanic Origin Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2010-01-12. "Race and Hispanic origin are two separate concepts in the federal statistical system. People who are Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. People in each race group may be either Hispanic or non-Hispanic. Each person has two attributes, their race (or races) and whether or not they are Hispanic." 
  4. ^ a b "Whites Account for Under Half of Births in U.S.". 
  5. ^ a b "2012 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". American FactFinder, U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  6. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr62/nvsr62_03.pdf
  7. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr62/nvsr62_01.pdf
  8. ^ "US Office of Immigration Statistics: 2009 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  9. ^ http://www.dhs.gov/immigration-statistics
  10. ^ Pew Social Trends: "Marrying Out" June 15, 2010
  11. ^ New York Times: "Fix the Census’ Archaic Racial Categories" By KENNETH PREWITT August 21, 2013
  12. ^ Pew Social Trends: "Explaining Why Minority Births Now Outnumber White Births" by Jeffrey Passel, Gretchen Livingston and D’Vera Cohn May 17, 202
  13. ^ New York Times: "Census Benchmark for White Americans: More Deaths Than Births" By SAM ROBERTS June 13, 2013
  14. ^ CNN: "White U.S. population grows but drops in overall percentage" September 29, 2011
  15. ^ http://www.census.gov/2010census/
  16. ^ "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Census.gov. Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
  17. ^ http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/mso01-wp.pdf
  18. ^ http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-05.pdf

See also[edit]