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Logothetis is director of the department "Physiology of Cognitive Processes" at the Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics in Tübingen. He studied mathematics and music in Athens and completed a doctorate in biology in Munich with Ernst Pöppel. His research interests lie in exploring the neural mechanisms of visual perception.
According to Logothetis, in order to understand a system, a description of it is necessary at all levels . As a result, intracortical cell recording and also modeling and imaging is conducted at all levels in his department. Therefore, in addition to functional magnetic resonance imaging, 'in vivo' spectroscopy is also used, and the working group is researching smart contrast agents (SCA) in order to make functional imaging useful for effects other than haemodynamic response.
Logothetis has made significant discoveries, such as finding out that the Blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response is connected to brain activity at a neuronal level. These findings are essential for correct interpretation of measurements with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Logothetis is one of the 2003 winners of the Louis-Jeantet Prize for Medicine.