Nickelodeon

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Nickelodeon
Nickelodeon logo new.svg
LaunchedDecember 1, 1977 (1977-12-01) (as Pinwheel)
April 1, 1979 (1979-04-01) (as Nickelodeon)
Owned byViacom Media Networks
Viacom
Picture format1080i (HDTV)
480i (SDTV)
SloganYes!
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish (Spanish with SAP)
Broadcast areaNationwide
HeadquartersNew York City, New York
Formerly calledPinwheel (1977–1979)
Sister channel(s)Nick Jr.
Nicktoons
TeenNick
Nick at Nite
MTV
VH1
TV Land
Timeshift serviceNickelodeon East (Eastern and Central time zones)[citation needed]
Nickelodeon West (Pacific and Mountain time zones)[citation needed]
Nick 2 East
Nick 2 West
Websitewww.nick.com
Availability
(channel space shared with Nick at Nite)
Satellite
DirecTV299 (East, HD/SD)
300 (West, SD)
1300 (VOD)
Dish Network170 (East, HD/SD)
171 (West, SD)
C bandAMC 11 - Channel 64 (West) (4DTV Digital)
Available on most other U.S. cable systemsConsult your local cable provider for channel availability
IPTV
AT&T U-verse314 (East, SD)
316 (West, SD)
1314 (East, HD)
Google FiberCheck local listings for channels
Verizon FiOS252 (East, SD)
253 (West, SD)
752 (East, HD)
 
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This article is about the American cable channel. For Nickelodeon channels in other countries, see Nickelodeon around the world. For other uses, see Nickelodeon (disambiguation).
Nickelodeon
Nickelodeon logo new.svg
LaunchedDecember 1, 1977 (1977-12-01) (as Pinwheel)
April 1, 1979 (1979-04-01) (as Nickelodeon)
Owned byViacom Media Networks
Viacom
Picture format1080i (HDTV)
480i (SDTV)
SloganYes!
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish (Spanish with SAP)
Broadcast areaNationwide
HeadquartersNew York City, New York
Formerly calledPinwheel (1977–1979)
Sister channel(s)Nick Jr.
Nicktoons
TeenNick
Nick at Nite
MTV
VH1
TV Land
Timeshift serviceNickelodeon East (Eastern and Central time zones)[citation needed]
Nickelodeon West (Pacific and Mountain time zones)[citation needed]
Nick 2 East
Nick 2 West
Websitewww.nick.com
Availability
(channel space shared with Nick at Nite)
Satellite
DirecTV299 (East, HD/SD)
300 (West, SD)
1300 (VOD)
Dish Network170 (East, HD/SD)
171 (West, SD)
C bandAMC 11 - Channel 64 (West) (4DTV Digital)
Available on most other U.S. cable systemsConsult your local cable provider for channel availability
IPTV
AT&T U-verse314 (East, SD)
316 (West, SD)
1314 (East, HD)
Google FiberCheck local listings for channels
Verizon FiOS252 (East, SD)
253 (West, SD)
752 (East, HD)

Nickelodeon (often shortened to Nick, and originally called Pinwheel) is an American basic cable and satellite television network that is owned by the MTV Networks Kids & Family Group, a unit of the Viacom Media Networks division of Viacom. Most of its programming is aimed at children and adolescents ages 8–16, while its weekday morning edutainment programs are targeted at younger children ages 2–8. The channel's programming consists of original first-run television series, along with occasional broadcasts of theatrically-released and original made-for-cable movies and select other third-party programming. Its programming runs from Sunday-Wednesdays from 7:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Thursdays and Fridays from 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m. and Saturdays from 7:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. (Eastern and Pacific Time).

Since July 1985, it has shared its channel space with Nick at Nite, a nighttime service that airs during the interim hours, and is treated as a separate channel from Nickelodeon by Nielsen for ratings purposes;[1][2] it features reruns of older primetime sitcoms, along with some original series and feature films. Both services are sometimes collectively referred to as "Nickelodeon/Nick at Nite", due to their common association as two individual channels sharing a single channel space.

As of August 2013, Nickelodeon/Nick at Nite is available to approximately 98,799,000 pay television households (86.51% of households with at least one television set) in the United States,[3] making it the third most widely distributed cable channel behind Discovery Channel and TBS.

History

Nickelodeon's history dates back to December 1, 1977, when Warner Cable Communications launched the first two-way interactive cable system, QUBE, in Columbus, Ohio. Its C-3 cable channel carried Pinwheel daily from 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m. Eastern Time.[4] Nickelodeon launched on April 1, 1979, initially distributed to Warner Cable systems via satellite on the RCA Satcom-1 transponder.[5]

Programming

Nickelodeon's schedule currently consists largely of original series aimed at pre-teens and young teenagers, including animated series (such as SpongeBob SquarePants, The Fairly OddParents, The Penguins of Madagascar, The Legend of Korra, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles,[6] and Sanjay and Craig), to live-action comedy and action series (such as Power Rangers Megaforce, The Thundermans, Henry Danger, Every Witch Way and The Haunted Hathaways), as well as series aimed at preschoolers (such as Team Umizoomi, Peter Rabbit and Dora the Explorer). The channel also airs reruns of select original series that are no longer in production (such as Big Time Rush, Victorious, Sam & Cat and iCarly), acquired shows (such as Rocket Monkeys) as well as occasional original made-for-TV movies. The channel also airs bi-monthly special editions of Nick News, a newsmagazine series aimed at children that debuted in 1992 as a weekly series.[7]

Nicktoons

Main article: Nicktoons

Nicktoons is the branding for Nickelodeon's original animated television series (although it has seldom been used by the network itself since the 2002 launch of the spin-off digital cable and satellite channel of the same name). Until 1991, the animated series that aired on Nickelodeon were largely imported from foreign countries, and some original animated specials were also featured on the channel up to that point.[8] Original animated series continue to make up a substantial portion of Nickelodeon's lineup, with roughly 6 to 7 hours of these programs airing on the weekday schedule and around nine hours on weekends, including a five-hour weekend morning animation block. Since the late 2000s, after the channel struck a deal with DreamWorks Animation in 2006 to develop the studio's animated films into weekly series,[9] the network has also begun to incorporate Nicktoons that utilize three-dimensional computer animation (such as The Penguins of Madagascar and Fanboy and Chum Chum), in addition to those that are produced through traditional or digital ink and paint.

Movies

Nickelodeon does not air movies on a regular basis; however, it does produce its own original made-for-cable television movies, which usually premiere in weekend evening timeslots.

The channel occasionally airs feature films produced by the network's Nickelodeon Movies film production division (whose films are distributed by sister company Paramount Pictures). Although the film division bears the Nickelodeon brand name, the cable channel does not have access to most of the movies produced by its film unit. Nickelodeon does have broadcast rights to most feature films based on or that served as the basis for original series produced by the channel (such as Barnyard: The Original Party Animals and The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie); the majority of the live-action feature films produced under the Nickelodeon Movies banner are licensed for broadcast by various broadcast and cable television outlets within the United States other than Nickelodeon (although the network has aired a few live-action Nickelodeon Movies releases such as Angus, Thongs and Perfect Snogging and Good Burger).

Nickelodeon also advertises hour-long episodes of its original series as movies; though the "TV movie" versions of Nickelodeon's original series differ from traditional television films in that they have shorter running times (approximately 45 minutes, as opposed to 75–100 minute run times that most television movies have), and use a traditional multi-camera setup for regular episodes (unless the program is natively shot in the single-camera setup common of films) with some on-location filming. Nickelodeon also periodically acquires theatrically released feature films for broadcast on the channel including Universal's Barbie: A Fashion Fairytale, several Monster High films, and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles Forever (which was later released by Nickelodeon Movies through Paramount DVD for DVD release), with the Barbie and Monster High films usually aired under a brokered format in which Mattel purchases the time in order to promote the release of their films on DVD within a few days of the Nickelodeon premiere, an arrangement possible as Nickelodeon does not have to meet the Federal Communications Commission rules which disallow that arrangement for broadcast channels due to regulations disallowing paid programming to children.

Programming blocks

Current

Former

Special events

Nickelodeon-produced blocks on broadcast networks

Related networks and services

Nick at Nite

Main article: Nick at Nite

Nick at Nite (stylized as "nick@nite") is Nickelodeon's nighttime programming service, which debuted on July 1, 1985, and broadcasts Sunday through Wednesdays from 8:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m., Thursdays and Fridays from 9:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m. and Saturdays from 10:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m. Eastern and Pacific Time.

Originally featuring classic sitcoms from the 1950s and 1960s such as The Donna Reed Show, Mr. Ed and The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, programming eventually shifted towards repeats of popular sitcoms from the 1980s to the 2000s such as Home Improvement, The Cosby Show and Roseanne. Nick at Nite has also occasionally incorporated original scripted and competition series, with some in recent years being produced through its parent network's Nickelodeon Productions unit. Programs airing on Nick at Nite as of 2014 include Full House, Yes, Dear, George Lopez, Friends, The Fresh Prince of Bel Air, and How I Met Your Mother, as well as original series such as See Dad Run and Instant Mom. ACNielsen rates Nick at Nite as being a separate cable channel from Nickelodeon.

Current sister channels

Nicktoons

Nicktoons is a digital cable and satellite television network that launched on May 1, 2002 as Nicktoons TV; it was renamed as Nicktoons in May 2003, before rebranding Nicktoons Network from 2005 until reverting to its previous name in September 2009. The network airs a mix of current and older animated series produced for Nickelodeon (ranging from SpongeBob SquarePants to The Ren and Stimpy Show), along with series produced exclusively for Nicktoons and some limited live-action programs from Nickelodeon.

Nick Jr.

Main article: Nick Jr.

Nick Jr. is a digital cable and satellite television network aimed primarily at children between 2 and 7 years of age, featuring a mix of current and some former preschool-oriented programs from Nickelodeon, and original series exclusive to the channel; it originally launched on February 2, 1999 as Noggin, a joint venture between MTV Networks and the Children's Television Workshop (now Sesame Workshop), the latter of which sold its stake to Viacom in 2002. On September 28, 2009, the network was relaunched as Nick Jr., named after the former preschool program block of the same name that aired on Nickelodeon from January 1988 to February 2009. The network debuted Nickmom, a four-hour nightly program block aimed at mothers in September 2012,[12] which was controversial at its start due to its more lenient content standards (including some profanity, crude humor and suggestive references) than what is otherwise permitted on Nick Jr., particularly as the network operates a singular Eastern Time Zone feed, which results in the Nickmom block airing at the same time in all six U.S. time zones (being broadcast as early as 5:00 p.m. in the Hawaii–Aleutian Time Zone).[13] While traditional advertising appears on the channel during the Nickmom block, the network otherwise only runs programming promotions and underwriter-style sponsorships in lieu of regular commercials.

TeenNick

Main article: TeenNick

TeenNick is a digital cable and satellite television network that is aimed at teenagers and young adults, which originated as a nighttime block called "The N" on Noggin (in a similar scheduling structure as Nickelodeon and Nick at Nite) on April 1, 2002 and was spun off into a standalone channel on December 31, 2007, when it took over the satellite transponder of Nickelodeon Games and Sports. On September 28, 2009, the network was rebranded as TeenNick, named after the former TEENick block that aired on Nickelodeon from July 2000 to February 2009. Although TeenNick has more relaxed program standards than the other Nickelodeon channels (save for Nick at Nite and the Nickmom block on Nick Jr.) – allowing for moderate profanity, suggestive dialogue and some violent content – the network has shifted its lineup almost exclusively towards current and former Nickelodeon series (including some that are burned off due to low ratings on the flagship channel) that have stricter content standards. It also airs some acquired sitcoms and drama series (such as Degrassi, which has aired on the network since 2003 as The N) and until the rebrand, also incorporated some original programming. On July 25, 2011, TeenNick began airing The '90s Are All That, a block of Nickelodeon's most popular 1990s programming, targeting the network's target demographic from that era.[14]

TV Land

Main article: TV Land

TV Land is a basic cable and satellite channel that debuted on April 29, 1996.[15] Based on the Nick at Nite block, it originally aired classic television series from the early 1950s to the 1970s, but beginning in 2004, has broadened its programming inventory to include series from the 1980s and 1990s (and more recently, the 2000s). In 2008, TV Land began producing its own original series; originally these were reality series, however the network ventured into scripted originals with the 2010 debut of Hot in Cleveland. On December 17, 2006, Viacom's MTV Networks Kids & Family Group division took over operational responsibilities for TV Land from Nick at Nite (concurrent with Nickelodeon taking operational duties for Nick at Nite), though TV Land continues to be operated as part of the company's Viacom Media Networks unit.

Former sister channels

Nickelodeon Games and Sports for Kids

Nickelodeon Games and Sports for Kids (commonly branded as Nickelodeon GAS or Nick GAS), was a digital cable and satellite network that launched on March 1, 1999, as part of the suite of digital cable channels launched by MTV Networks. It ran a mix of game shows and other competition programs from Nickelodeon (essentially formatted as a children's version of (and Viacom's answer to) the Game Show Network). The channel formally ceased operations on December 31, 2007, with The N taking over its channel space as a separate 24-hour network; however, an automated loop of Nick GAS continued to be carried on Dish Network due to unknown factors until April 23, 2009.

Other services

ServiceDescription
Nick HD Logo.svg

Nick HD
Nick HD is a high definition simulcast feed of Nickelodeon that broadcasts in the 1080i resolution format; the feed first began broadcasting in 2008. Most of the network's original series since 2008 – mainly its live-action series and some animated content – as well as episodes of programs carried by Nick at Nite (that were either natively produced in HD after 2000 or were remastered in high definition) are broadcast in HD, along with feature films, Nickelodeon original movies made after 2005 and select episodes, films and series produced before 2008. Other programs not available in HD are broadcast in pillarboxed 4:3 standard definition.
Nick 2 Logo.svg

Nick 2
Nick 2 is the off-air brand for a secondary channel of Nickelodeon available on the digital tiers of cable providers, that is available in addition to the main Nickelodeon feed for the respective time zones on the provider's basic tier. Nick 2 is a repackaged version of Nickelodeon's Eastern and Pacific Time Zone feeds – the Pacific feed is distributed to the Eastern and Central Time Zones, and the Eastern feed is distributed to the Pacific and Mountain Time Zones – resulting in the difference in local airtimes for a particular program between two geographic locations being three hours at most, allowing viewers a second chance to watch a program after its initial airing on the Eastern Time Zone feed or to watch the show ahead of its airing on the Pacific Time Zone feed of the main channel (for example, the Nick at Nite block would respectively start at 11:00 p.m. Eastern on Nick 2 Pacific or 5:00 p.m. Pacific weeknights on Nick 2 Eastern).

Nick Too was originally offered as part of the MTV Networks Digital Suite, a slate of channels exclusive to digital cable tiers (though most of these channels are now also carried on satellite), and is the only current example in which two feeds of a non-premium service are provided to cable and IPTV providers. A Nick TOO logo was used on the channel until 2004, when MTV Networks decided to stop using customized branding on the feed (a logo for Nick 2 is only used for identification purposes on electronic program guides as a placeholder image); most television listings thus either show the additional channel under the brandings "Nickelodeon Pacific/NICKP" or "Nickelodeon Eastern/NICKE". DirecTV and Dish Network also offer both Nickelodeon feeds, though they carry both time zone feeds of most of the children's networks that the providers offer by default.

On DemandNick on Demand is the network's video-on-demand service, which is available on most cable and satellite providers. It carries Nickelodeon's live-action, animated and preschool programming; however, acquired programs seen on Nick at Nite are not included as the syndication rights to most of the programs seen during the block are limited by contract to air in nighttime slots on the linear television channel.

Media

Nick.com

Main article: Nick.com

Nick.com is Nickelodeon's main website, which launched in October 1995.[16] It provides content, as well as video clips and full episodes of Nickelodeon series available for streaming. The website was initially accessible only through America Online, but was later made available to all internet service providers. The website's popularity grew to the point where in March 1999, Nick.com became the highest-rated website among children aged 6–14 years old. Nickelodeon used the website in conjunction with television programs which increased traffic.[17] In 2001, Nickelodeon partnered with Networks Inc. to provide broadband video games for rent from Nick.com; the move was a further step in the multimedia direction that the developers wanted to take the website. Skagerlind indicated that over 50% of Nick.com's audience were using a high speed connection, which allowed them to expand the gaming and video streaming options on the website.[18]

Mobile apps

Nickelodeon released a free mobile app for smartphones and tablet computers operating on the Apple and Android platforms in February 2013.[19] Unlike with Nick.com and its sister websites, a TV Everywhere login code provided by participating cable and satellite providers is required to view individual episodes of the network's series.

Nickelodeon Movies

Main article: Nickelodeon Movies

Nickelodeon Movies is a motion picture production unit that was founded in 1995, as a family entertainment arm of Paramount Pictures (owned by Nickelodeon corporate parent Viacom), which releases the studio's films. The first film released from the studio was the 1996 mystery/comedy Harriet the Spy. Nickelodeon Movies has produced films based on Nickelodeon animated programs including The Rugrats Movie and The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie, as well as other adaptations and original live-action and animated projects.

Nickelodeon Magazine

Main article: Nickelodeon Magazine

Nickelodeon Magazine was a print magazine that was launched in 1993; the network had previously published a short-lived magazine effort in 1990. Nickelodeon Magazine incorporated informative non-fiction pieces, humor (including pranks and parodical pieces), interviews, recipes (such as green slime cake), and a comic book section in the center of each issue featuring original comics by leading underground cartoonists as well as strips about popular Nicktoons. The magazine ceased publication after 16 years in December 2009, citing a sluggish magazine industry.[20]

Nick Radio

Nick Radio is a radio network that launched on September 30, 2013, in a partnership between the network and iHeartMedia (then called Clear Channel Communications), which distributes the network mainly via its iHeartRadio web platform and mobile app; its programming is also streamed via the Nick.com website and on New York City radio station WHTZ as a secondary HD channel. Nick Radio focuses on Top 40 and pop music (geared towards the network's target audience of children and adolescents, with radio edits of some songs incorporated due to inappropriate content), along with celebrity interview features. In addition to regular on-air DJs, Nick Radio also occasionally features guest DJ stints by popular artists as well as stars from Nickelodeon's original series.[21][22][23]

Experiences

Nickelodeon Universe

Main article: Nickelodeon Universe

Nickelodeon Universe at the Mall of America is the largest indoor theme park in the United States. On August 18, 2009, Nickelodeon and Southern Star Amusement announced that it would build a second Nickelodeon Universe in New Orleans, Louisiana by the end of 2010,[24] which was set to be the first outdoor Nickelodeon Universe theme park. On November 9, 2009, Nickelodeon announced that it had ended the licensing agreement with Southern Star Amusements.[25]

Theme park areas

Nickelodeon Studios as viewed from the Hard Rock Cafe in March 2004 before it moved.

All except two Nickelodeon-themed theme park areas now closed:

Current attractions

Closed areas

Nickelodeon Animation Studio

Nickelodeon Animation Studio (formerly Games Animation) is a production firm located in Burbank, California, which serves as the animation facilities for many of the network's Nicktoons series. It also houses the headquarters of the Nicktoons cable channel.

Nickelodeon On Sunset

Main article: Nickelodeon On Sunset

Nickelodeon On Sunset is a studio complex in Hollywood, California, which serves the primary production facilities for Nickelodeon's series; the studio is designated by the National Register for Historic Places as a historical landmark as a result of its prior existence as the Earl Carroll Theater, a prominent dinner theater. It has served as the production facilities for several Nickelodeon series including iCarly (until it moved to Sunset Bronson Studios for its fifth season), All That (from 2002 to 2005, after it moved production from Nickelodeon Studios in Orlando, Florida), Victorious and Sam & Cat.

Hotel brands

Cruises

International

An attempt at the Guinness record for the world's largest picnic, sponsored by Nickelodeon in Petah Tikva, Israel.

Between 1993 and 1995, Nickelodeon launched international channels in the United Kingdom, Australia and Germany; by the latter year, the network had provided its programming to broadcasters in 70 countries. Since the mid-1990s and early 2000s, Nickelodeon as a brand has expanded into include language- or culture-specific channels for various other territories in different parts of the world including Europe, Asia, Oceania and Canada, and has licensed some of its cartoons and other content, in English and local languages, to broadcast networks and cable channels such as KI.KA and Super RTL in Germany, RTÉ Two (English language) and TG4 (Irish language) in Ireland, YTV (in English) and Vrak.TV (in French) in Canada, Canal J in France, Alpha Kids in Greece and CNBC-e in Turkey.

Management at Nickelodeon

Presidents

See also

References

  1. ^ "Nielsen's 51% Solution Nixes Nicks". Multichannel.com. 2004-07-19. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  2. ^ Collins, Scott (March 25, 2004). "Nickelodeon Squeezes 2 Ratings Out of 1 Very Diverse Network". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  3. ^ Seidman, Robert (August 23, 2013). "List of How Many Homes Each Cable Networks Is In - Cable Network Coverage Estimates As Of August 2013". TV by the Numbers. Zap2it. Retrieved September 6, 2013. 
  4. ^ http://www.qube-tv.com/qube-tv/GUIDE_PDFS/PAGE47-48.pdf
  5. ^ http://www.cablecenter.org/barco-library-hauser-oral-history/item/hauser-gustave.html
  6. ^ The Mirage Group Sells Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles(TM) to Nickelodeon | Reuters
  7. ^ Pam Gelman. "Nick News with Linda Ellerbee - TV Show Rating For Kids and Families". Commonsensemedia.org. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  8. ^ Nickelodeon ventures into cartoons, Chicago Sun-Times (via HighBeam Research), August 10, 1991.
  9. ^ "Nickelodeon and Dreamworks teaming up". Tvsquad.com. 2006-10-25. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  10. ^ Nick TV Schedule Nickelodeon/MTV Networks/Viacom International.
  11. ^ Joe Lepper (2004-07-26). "Nickelodeon tells kids to go out and play for anniversary". Media Week. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  12. ^ "Nick Jr.'s NickMom Primetime Comedy Block Sets Launch Date, Adds Docu Series". Retrieved 29 August 2012. 
  13. ^ Hoffman, Sybil (15 October 2012). "Sexual comedy show airs on toddler network". KTVK, Phoenix. Retrieved 16 October 2012. 
  14. ^ Adalian, Josef (2011-07-26). "Nick's New Nineties Nostalgia Block Is a Ratings Smash". New York. Retrieved 2011-10-09. 
  15. ^ "TV Land Opens up on MONDAY". April 23, 1996. Retrieved 2008-02-03. 
  16. ^ "Nick History". Nickelodeon. Archived from the original on January 27, 2005. Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  17. ^ "Nickelodeon TV & Online Are Perfect Together as Nick.com Takes Top Ratings Spot in March". Entertainment Wire. 1999-05-19. Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  18. ^ Brown, Karen (2001-11-12). "Nick Looks to Gaming As High-Speed Revenue Play". MultiChannel News. Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  19. ^ http://www.engadget.com/2013/02/22/nickelodeon-nick-app/
  20. ^ "Nickelodeon Magazine Closing". June 4, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-28. 
  21. ^ "Nickelodeon And Clear Channel Launch Nick Radio". Radio Ink. September 30, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-01. 
  22. ^ "Clear Channel's iHeartRadio Unveils Nick Radio". MediaPost. September 30, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-01. 
  23. ^ "Nickelodeon And CCM+E Launch First Ever Nick-Branded Radio Station On iHeartradio And Nick.Com". All Access Media Group. October 1, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-01. 
  24. ^ White, Jaquetta (2009-08-18). "Nickelodeon signs on to help turn around Six Flags amusement park, Nagin says". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  25. ^ Jacquetta White (November 9, 2009). "Nickelodeon ends licensing agreement with Southern Star". Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  26. ^ "SpongeBob splashing into family vacations". money.cnn.com. CNN. 2007-05-31. Retrieved 2011-10-02. 
  27. ^ De Lollis, Barbara (May 25, 2010). "Marriott hotels to woo families this summer with help from Nickelodeon, SpongeBob and Dora". travel.usatoday.com. USA Today. Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  28. ^ "Most Popular". USA Today. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  29. ^ "Family Cruises with Nickelodeon". Norwegian Cruise Line. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 

Further reading

  • Hendershot, Heather (2004). Nickelodeon Nation: The History, Politics, and Economics of America's Only TV Channel for Kids. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0814736521. 
  • Klickstein, Mathew (2013). SLIMED! An Oral History of Nickelodeon's Golden Age. New York: Plume. ISBN 0142196851. 

External links