New islands

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New islands are islands which have been created recently, whether by means of vulcanism, erosion, glacial retreat, or other mechanisms. One of the most famous new volcanic islands is the small island of Surtsey, located in the Atlantic Ocean south of Iceland. It first emerged from the ocean surface only in 1963. In 1965, it was declared a nature reserve for the study of ecological succession; plants, insects, birds, seals, and other forms of life have since established themselves on the island.

Another noted new island is Anak Krakatau (the so-called "child of Krakatoa", which formed in the flooded caldera of that notorious volcano in Indonesia), which only emerged in 1930. Ample rainforests have grown there, though they are often destroyed by frequent eruptions. A population of many wild animals, including insects, birds, humanborne rats, and even monitor lizards, have also settled there.

Uunartoq Qeqertoq is an island off the east coast of Greenland that appeared to have split from the mainland due to glacial retreat between 2002 and 2005; however, it is believed to have been a true island, with or without glacial covering, for many thousands of years.

In February and March 2009, a vigorous eruption created a new island[1] near Hunga Ha'apai in the Tongan Islands of the southwest Pacific. By the end of the activity, however, the new land mass was connected to Hunga Ha'apai.[2]

List of recently created islands

This is a list mostly of submarine volcanoes that later became new volcanic islands between the 20th and the 21st century. Aside from Anak Krakatau, only Surtsey and Home Reef are currently islands, and Surtsey is the only one that is expected to survive.

Name of the islandLand formation year(s)
Norderoogsand2013[3]
unnamed, Zubair Group2011[4]
Peer Ghaib, Balochistan2010, 2004[5]
Home Reef2006, 1984[6]
Kavachi1999-2003, 1991, 1986, 1978, 1976, 1969-70, 1965, 1963-64, 1961, 1958, 1952-53[7]
Metis Shoal1995, 1979, 1967-68[8]
Fukutoku-Okanoba1986, 1974-75, 1914, 1904-05[9]
Kuwae1974, 1971, 1959, 1949, 1948, 1923-25[10]
Surtsey1963-67[11]
Myōjin-shō1952-53, 1946[12]
Anak Krakatau1927-30[13]
Fonuafo'ou1927-28[14]
Banua Wuhu1918-19, 1904[15]

References

  1. ^ Percival, Jenny (21 March 2009). "Underwater volcano creates new island off Tonga". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/mar/21/tonga-volcano-island-nuku-alofa. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
  2. ^ "Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0403-04%3D%26volpage%3Dvar.
  3. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/germany/9792843/New-island-appears-off-coast-of-Germany.html
  4. ^ http://news.discovery.com/earth/red-sea-volcano-erupts-new-island-111228.html
  5. ^ http://tribune.com.pk/story/82150/new-island-emerges-from-the-depths/
  6. ^ "Home Reef". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0403-08%3D%26volpage%3Derupt.
  7. ^ "Kavachi". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0505-06%3D%26volpage%3Derupt.
  8. ^ "Metis Shoal". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0403-07%3D%26volpage%3Derupt.
  9. ^ "Fukutoku-Okanoba". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0804-13%3D%26volpage%3Derupt.
  10. ^ "Kuwae". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0507-07%3D%26volpage%3Derupt.
  11. ^ "Vestmannaeyjar". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1702-01%3D%26volpage%3Derupt.
  12. ^ "Bayonnaise Rocks". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0804-07%3D%26volpage%3Derupt.
  13. ^ "Krakatau". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0602-00%3D%26volpage%3Derupt.
  14. ^ "Falcon Island". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0403-05%3D%26volpage%3Derupt.
  15. ^ "Banua Wuhu". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0607-03%3D%26volpage%3Derupt.