New Mexican Spanish

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Part of a series of articles on
National origin groups
Argentine Americans
Bolivian Americans
Brazilian Americans
Chilean Americans
Colombian Americans
Costa Rican Americans
Cuban Americans
Dominican Americans
Ecuadorian Americans
Guatemalan Americans
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Colonial casta system
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Hispanic and Latino American politics
Chicano Movement
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National Hispanic Institute
NALEO · RNHA
Congressional Hispanic Caucus
Congressional Hispanic Conference
LULAC · MALDEF · NALFO · SHPE
National Council of La Raza
Association of Hispanic Arts · MEChA · UFW
United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce
Culture
Hispanic culture
Literature · Music · Religion · Studies ·
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Belizean Americans · Haitian Americans · Guyanese Americans · Filipino Americans
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English · Portuguese · Spanish in the United States · Spanish · Spanglish
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Californio · Chicano · Hispano · Isleño · Nuevomexicano · Nuyorican · Tejano
Lists
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New Mexican Spanish (Spanish: español neomexicano, or ladino as it is known in Mexico[citation needed]) is a variant of Spanish spoken in the United States, primarily in the northern part of the state of New Mexico and the southern part of the state of Colorado. It is an archaic form of 17th century Castilian Spanish.[1] Despite a continual influence from the Spanish spoken in Mexico to the south by contact with Mexican migrants who fled to U.S. from Mexican Revolution, New Mexico's relative geographical isolation and political isolation from the time New Mexico was purchased by United States from Mexico and unique political history has made New Mexican Spanish differ notably from Spanish spoken in other parts of Latin America, including northern Mexico and Texas.

Speakers of New Mexican Spanish are mainly descendants of Spanish colonists who arrived in New Mexico in the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries. During this time, contact with the rest of Spanish America was limited, and New Mexican Spanish was allowed to develop on its own course. In the meantime, Spanish colonists coexisted with Puebloan peoples and Navajos. After the Mexican-American War, New Mexico and all its inhabitants came under the governance of the English-speaking United States, and for the next hundred years, English-speakers increased in number.

For these reasons, the main differences between New Mexican Spanish and other forms of Latin American Spanish are these: the preservation of forms and vocabulary from colonial-era Spanish (e.g., in some places haiga instead of haya or Yo seigo instead of Yo soy); the borrowing of words from Rio Grande Indian languages for indigenous vocabulary (in addition to the Nahuatl additions that the colonists had brought); a tendency to "re-coin" Spanish words that had fallen into disuse (for example, ojo, whose literal meaning is "eye," was repurposed to mean "hot spring" as well); and a large proportion of English loan words, particularly for technological words (e.g. bós, troqua, and telefón). Pronunciation also carries influences from colonial, Native American, and English sources. In recent years, speakers developed a modern New Mexican Spanish, called Renovador, which contains more modern vocabulary because of the increasing popularity of Spanish-language broadcast media in the U.S. and intermarriage of Mexican settlers and descendants of colonial Spanish settlers; the modernized dialect even contains Mexican Spanish slang (mexicanismos).

Contents

History [edit]

The development of a culture of print media in the late nineteenth century allowed New Mexican Spanish to resist assimilation toward either American English or Mexican Spanish for many decades.[2] The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, for instance, noted that "About one-tenth of the Spanish-American and Indian population [of New Mexico] habitually use the English language." Until the 1930s or 1940s, many speakers never came to learn English, and even after that time, most of their descendants were bilingual with English until the 1960s or 1970s. The advance of English-language broadcast media accelerated this decline. The increasing popularity of Spanish-language broadcast media in the U.S. and intermarriage of Mexican settlers and descendants of colonial Spanish settlers has somehow increased the speakers of New Mexican Spanish.

Morphological variation [edit]

Besides a great deal of phonological variation, there are various morphological differences throughout New Mexican Spanish, usually in verb conjugations or endings:

Phonetic variation [edit]

Phonetic variations of New Mexican Spanish (these can be manifest in small or large groups of speakers, but very rarely manifest in all speakers):

FeatureExamplePhonemicStandardN.M. Spanish
Phrase-final epenthetical
[e] or [i]
voy a cantar/ˈboi a kanˈtaɾ/[ˈboi̯.a.kanˈtar][ˈboi̯.a.kanˈta.ɾe]
dame el papel/ˈdame el paˈpel/[ˈda.mel.paˈpel][ˈda.mel.paˈpe.li]
Uvularization of /x/mujeres/muˈxeɾes/[muˈxe.ɾes][muˈχe.ɾes]
Conditional elision of intervocalic /ʝ/ella/ˈeʝa/[ˈe.ʝa]e.a]
estrellita/estɾeˈʝita/[es.tɾeˈʝi.ta][es.tɾeˈi.ta]
Realization of /ɾ/ and/or /r/
as an alveolar approximant [ɹ]
Rodrigo/roˈdɾiɡo/[roðˈɾi.ɣo][ɹoðˈɹi.ɣo]
Softening of /t͡ʃ/ to [ʃ] [3]muchachos/muˈt͡ʃat͡ʃos/[muˈt͡ʃa.t͡ʃos][muˈʃa.ʃos]
Insertion of nasal consonant /
nasalisation of vowel preceding
postalveolar affricate/fricative
muchos/ˈmut͡ʃos/[ˈmu.t͡ʃos][ˈmun.ʃos]
[ˈmũ.ʃos]
Elision of word-final intervocalic
consonants, esp. in -ado[4]
ocupado/okuˈpado/[o.ku.ˈpa.ðo][o.kuˈpa.u]
[o.kuˈpa.o]
todo/ˈtodo/[ˈto.ðo][ˈto.o]
Aspiration or elision (rare) of /f/[5]me fui/me ˈfui/[me ˈfwi][meˈhwi]
[meˈwi]
Completely devoiced /s/[6]estas mismas casas/ˈestas ˈmismas ˈkasas/[ˈes.tazˈmiz.masˈka.sas][ˈes.tasˈmis.masˈka.sas]
Velarization of pre-velar-consonant
voiced bilabial approximant
abuelo/aˈbuelo/[a.ˈβ̞we.lo][aˈɣʷwe.lo]
Syllable-initial, syllable-final, or
total aspiration or elision of /s/
somos así/ˈsomos aˈsi/[ˈso.mos.aˈsi]ho.mos.aˈhi]
[ˈo.mos.aˈi]
[ˈso.moh.aˈsi]
[ˈso.mo.aˈsi]
ho.moh.aˈhi]
[ˈo.mo.aˈi]

Language contact [edit]

New Mexican Spanish has been in contact with several indigenous American languages, most prominently those of the Pueblo and Navajo peoples the Spaniards and Mexicans coexisted with during colonial times. For an example of loanword phonological borrowing in Taos, see Taos loanword phonology.

Legal status [edit]

New Mexico law grants Spanish a special status. For instance, constitutional amendments must be approved by referendum and must be printed on the ballot in both English and Spanish.[7] Certain legal notices must be published in English and Spanish, and the state maintains a list of newspapers for Spanish publication.[8] Spanish was not used officially in the legislature after 1935.[9] Though the New Mexico Constitution (1912) provided that laws would be published in both languages for twenty years and this practice was renewed several times, it ceased in 1949.[9][10] Accordingly, some describe New Mexico as officially bilingual,[11][12][13] while others disagree.[9][14]

See also [edit]

Notes [edit]

  1. ^ Rubén Cobos. A Dictionary of New Mexico & Southern Colorado Spanish. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press, 2003
  2. ^ Great Cotton, Eleanor and John M. Sharp. Spanish in the Americas' Georgetown University Press p. 278'
  3. ^ This is also a feature of the dialect spoken in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua, other northwest states of Mexico, and west Andalusia.
  4. ^ This is a feature of all Latin American Spanish dialects, as well as Canarian and Andalusian dialects.
  5. ^ This is related to the change of Latin /f/- to Spanish /h/-, wherein /f/ was pronounced labiodental [f], bilabial [ɸ], or glottal fricative [h] that later deleted from pronunciation.
  6. ^ This is a free variation before voiced consonants in all other Spanish dialects with non-aspiration of [s], meaning /s/ can be [s] or [z] before voiced consonants.
  7. ^ New Mexico Code 1-16-7 (1981).
  8. ^ New Mexico Code 14-11-13 (2011).
  9. ^ a b c Cobarrubias, Juan; Fishman, Joshua A. (1983). Progress in Language Planning: International Perspectives. Walter de Gruyter. p. 195. ISBN 90-279-3358-8. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  10. ^ Garcia, Ofelia (2011). Bilingual Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective. John Wiley & Sons. p. 167. ISBN 1-4443-5978-9. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  11. ^ The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. "Language Rights and New Mexico Statehood". New Mexico Public Education Department. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  12. ^ "NMTCE New Mexico Teachers of English". New Mexico Council of Teachers of English. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  13. ^ "All About New Mexico". Sheppard Software. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  14. ^ Bills, Garland D.; Vigil, Neddy A. (2008). The Spanish Language of New Mexico and Southern Colorado: A Linguistic Atlas. UNM Press. p. 17. ISBN 0-8263-4549-2. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 

References [edit]