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The Neuman systems model is a nursing theory based on the individual's relationship to stress, the reaction to it, and reconstitution factors that are dynamic in nature. The theory was developed by Betty Neuman, a community health nurse, professor and counselor. The central core of the model consists of energy resources (normal temperature range, genetic structure, response pattern, organ strength or weakness, ego structure, and knowns or commonalities) that are surrounded by several lines of resistance, the normal line of defense, and the flexible line of defense. The lines of resistance represent the internal factors that help the patient defend against a stressor, the normal line of defense represents the person's state of equilibrium, and the flexible line of defense depicts the dynamic nature that can rapidly alter over a short period of time.
The purpose of the nurse is to retain this system's stability through the three levels of prevention: