Netherlands

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Netherlands
Nederland
FlagCoat of arms
Motto: "Je maintiendrai" (French)
"Ik zal handhaven" (Dutch)
"I will uphold"[nb 1]
Anthem: "Wilhelmus" (Dutch)
"'William"
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Location of the  European Netherlands  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)
Location of the  European Netherlands  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

Location of the  Dutch special municipalities  (green)
Location of the  Dutch special municipalities  (green)
Capital
and largest city
Amsterdam[nb 2]
52°22′N 4°53′E / 52.367°N 4.883°E / 52.367; 4.883
Official languagesDutch
Recognised regional languages
Ethnic groups (2014[3])
DemonymDutch
Sovereign state Kingdom of the Netherlands
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary democracy under constitutional monarchy
 - MonarchWillem-Alexander
 - Prime MinisterMark Rutte
LegislatureStates General
 - Upper houseSenate
 - Lower houseHouse of Representatives
Formation
 - Burgundian Netherlands
(fiefs ruled in personal union)
1384 
 - Habsburg Netherlands
(fiefs ruled in personal union)
1482 
 - Spanish Netherlands
(fiefs ruled in personal union)
1556 
 - United Netherlands
(independent republic)
26 July 1581 (Declared)
30 Jan 1648 (Recognised) 
 - Batavian Republic
(Sister republic to France)
19 January 1795 
 - Netherlands
(monarchy)
16 March 1815 
 - Charter for the Kingdom
(constituent country)
15 December 1954 
 - Founded the EEC
(now EU)
1 January 1958 
Area
 - Total41,543 km2 (134th)
16,039 sq mi
 - Water (%)18.41
Population
 - 2014 estimate16,856,620[4] (63rd)
 - Density406.5/km2 (24th)
1,052.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP)2014 estimate
 - Total$798.106 billion[5] (27th)
 - Per capita$47,365 (13th)
GDP (nominal)2014 estimate
 - Total$880.394 billion[5] (16th)
 - Per capita$52,249 (10th)
Gini (2011)25.8[6]
low · 111th
HDI (2013)Steady 0.915[7]
very high · 4th
Currency
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)[nb 5]
AST (UTC-4)
 - Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
AST (UTC-4)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Drives on theright
Calling code
ISO 3166 codeNL
Internet TLD.nl[nb 7]
 
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This article is about the constituent country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. For other uses, see Netherlands (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Holland.
Netherlands
Nederland
FlagCoat of arms
Motto: "Je maintiendrai" (French)
"Ik zal handhaven" (Dutch)
"I will uphold"[nb 1]
Anthem: "Wilhelmus" (Dutch)
"'William"
Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript disabled or does not have any supported player.
You can download the clip or download a player to play the clip in your browser.
Location of the  European Netherlands  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)
Location of the  European Netherlands  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

Location of the  Dutch special municipalities  (green)
Location of the  Dutch special municipalities  (green)
Capital
and largest city
Amsterdam[nb 2]
52°22′N 4°53′E / 52.367°N 4.883°E / 52.367; 4.883
Official languagesDutch
Recognised regional languages
Ethnic groups (2014[3])
DemonymDutch
Sovereign state Kingdom of the Netherlands
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary democracy under constitutional monarchy
 - MonarchWillem-Alexander
 - Prime MinisterMark Rutte
LegislatureStates General
 - Upper houseSenate
 - Lower houseHouse of Representatives
Formation
 - Burgundian Netherlands
(fiefs ruled in personal union)
1384 
 - Habsburg Netherlands
(fiefs ruled in personal union)
1482 
 - Spanish Netherlands
(fiefs ruled in personal union)
1556 
 - United Netherlands
(independent republic)
26 July 1581 (Declared)
30 Jan 1648 (Recognised) 
 - Batavian Republic
(Sister republic to France)
19 January 1795 
 - Netherlands
(monarchy)
16 March 1815 
 - Charter for the Kingdom
(constituent country)
15 December 1954 
 - Founded the EEC
(now EU)
1 January 1958 
Area
 - Total41,543 km2 (134th)
16,039 sq mi
 - Water (%)18.41
Population
 - 2014 estimate16,856,620[4] (63rd)
 - Density406.5/km2 (24th)
1,052.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP)2014 estimate
 - Total$798.106 billion[5] (27th)
 - Per capita$47,365 (13th)
GDP (nominal)2014 estimate
 - Total$880.394 billion[5] (16th)
 - Per capita$52,249 (10th)
Gini (2011)25.8[6]
low · 111th
HDI (2013)Steady 0.915[7]
very high · 4th
Currency
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)[nb 5]
AST (UTC-4)
 - Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
AST (UTC-4)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Drives on theright
Calling code
ISO 3166 codeNL
Internet TLD.nl[nb 7]

The Netherlands (Listeni/ˈnɛðərləndz/; Dutch: Nederland [ˈneːdərˌlɑnt] ( )) is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a small, densely populated country, lying mainly in Western Europe, but also including three islands in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing maritime borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom and Germany.[9] The three largest and most important cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague and Rotterdam. Amsterdam is the country's capital,[10] while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of government.[11] The port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe – as large as the next three largest combined.[12]

The Netherlands' name literally means "Low Country", inspired by its low and flat geography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding one metre above sea level.[13] Most of the areas below sea level are man-made. Since the late 16th century, large areas (polders) have been reclaimed from the sea and from lakes, amounting to nearly 17% of the country's current land mass.

With a population density of 406 people per km² – 497 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is a very densely populated country for its size. Only Bangladesh, South Korea and Taiwan have both a larger population and a higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the world's second largest exporter of food and agriculture products, after the United States.[14][15]

The Netherlands was one of the first countries in the world to have an elected parliament, and since 1848 it has been governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, organised as a unitary state. The Netherlands has a long history of social tolerance and is generally regarded as a liberal country, having legalised abortion, prostitution and euthanasia, while maintaining a progressive drugs policy. In 2001 it became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage.

The Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD, WTO and a part of the trilateral Benelux economic union. The country is host to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and five international courts: the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the International Court of Justice, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Court and the Special Tribunal for Lebanon. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EU's criminal intelligence agency Europol and judicial co-operation agency Eurojust. This has led to the city being dubbed "the world's legal capital".[16] The Netherlands is also a part of the Schengen Area.

The Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom.[17] It had the twelfth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013. In 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the fourth happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.[18]

Etymology[edit]

The Netherlands in its entirety is often referred to as the much older designation "Holland", though this strictly refers only to North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces, that were created out of the former County of Holland. That county was economically and politically the most important county in the region. Historically, Holland often served as a metonym for the entire country. Referring to the Netherlands as Holland is an example of pars pro toto and is considered either technically incorrect[19][20] or informal,[21] depending on the context, but is more acceptable when referring to the national football team.[22]

De Lage landen (The Low Countries) is a geographical designation of the general area of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, and is also known for the more geopolitical term Benelux. Depending on the context, the designation "Low Countries" sometimes extended with the former Burgundian and Habsburg possessions that are now part of northern France (French Flanders, French Hainaut, Artois, Picardy to the Somme) and the former Luxembourg region around Diedenhoven and Germany (east Frisia, Julich, Cleves, Bentheim, Lingen, the region around Geldern, around Bitburg, some municipalities east of the eastern provinces which were annexed by Prussia in 1815, etc.). The Netherlands has about the same meaning as the Low Countries, but of a more historiographical nature.

In the fifteenth century the name "the Netherlands" ("de Nederlanden") came into use. Unlike France and England it had no ethnic origin, but it was originally a geographical term which denoted only the difference with a higher ground. This was however, practise already since the Romans, who made in the region a distinction between Germania Inferior and Germania Superior, referring to the downstream and upstream location of these two provinces. Place names with Neder and Nieder are still used in various places in respectively the Dutch and German language area. Also terms like lower Rhine and lower Meuse were commonly used (vs. middle Rhine or upper Rhine). Niderlant was in the late Middle Ages the region between the Meuse and the Rhine, the Lower Rhine Area now included. The area known as Oberland (High country) was considered to begin approximately at the nearby higher located Cologne. By extension, the term could also be applied to the delta of the Schelde, Meuse and Rhine, and then would occur in the plural form. Due to the great importance of the Low Countries, the name was increasingly used specifically for this area. From about 1490, the Burgundian-Habsburg provinces thus also were indicated. Besides Flanders, "the Netherlands" was, from the mid-sixteenth century on, probably the most commonly used name.

History[edit]

Prehistory (before 500 BC)[edit]

The Netherlands in 5500 BC
The Netherlands in 500 BC
An oak figurine found in Willemstad (4500 BC).

The prehistory of the area that is now the Netherlands was largely shaped by its constantly shifting, low-lying geography. The oldest human (Neanderthal) traces in the Netherlands where found in the Belvédère quarry near Maastricht: remains of a camp of hunter-gatherers from 250,000 years ago. After the end of the ice age, various Paleolithic groups inhabited the area, and around 8000 BC Mesolithic tribes resided in Friesland and Drenthe, where the oldest canoe in the world is recovered, dating from the same period.[23][24][24] Autochthonous hunter-gatherers from the Swifterbant culture are attested from around 5600 BC onwards.[25] They are strongly linked to rivers and open water and were related to the southern Scandinavian Ertebølle culture (5300 BC–4000 BC). To the west, the same tribes might have built hunting camps to hunt winter game, including seals. People made the switch to animal husbandry sometime between 4800 BC and 4500 BC. Agricultural transformation took place very gradually, between 4300 BC–4000 BC.[26] The Funnelbeaker culture was a farming culture extending from Denmark through northern Germany into the northern Netherlands. In this period of Dutch prehistory the first notable remains were erected: the dolmens, large stone grave monuments found in Drenthe, and were probably built between 4100 BC and 3200 BC. To the southwest, the Vlaardingen culture (around 2600 BC), an apparently more primitive culture of hunter-gatherers survived well into the Neolithic period. Around 2950 BC there was a quick and smooth transition from the Funnelbeaker farming culture to the Corded Ware pastoralist culture.[27] The Bell Beaker culture was also present in the Netherlands, that apparently arose out of the Corded Ware culture.[28][29] The Corded Ware and Bell Beaker cultures were not indigenous to the Netherlands but were pan-European in nature, extending across much of northern and central Europe.

Copper finds show that there was trade with other areas in Europe, as natural copper is not found in Dutch soil. The Bronze age probably started somewhere around 2000 BC and lasted until around 800 BC. Typical bronze objects from this period included knives, swords, axes, fibulae and bracelets. Trading networks during this period extended a far distance. The many finds in Drenthe of rare and valuable objects, such as tin-bead necklaces, suggest that Drenthe was a trading centre in the Netherlands in the Bronze Age. The Bell Beaker cultures (2700–2100) locally developed into the Bronze Age Barbed-Wire Beaker culture (2100–1800). In the second millennium BC, the region was the boundary between the Atlantic and Nordic horizons and was split into a northern and a southern region, roughly divided by the course of the Rhine. In the north, the Elp culture (c. 1800 to 800 BC)[30] was a Bronze Age archaeological culture having earthenware pottery of low quality as a marker. The initial phase was characterized by tumuli (1800–1200 BC) that were strongly tied to contemporary tumuli in northern Germany and Scandinavia, and were apparently related to the Tumulus culture (1600 BC – 1200 BC) in central Europe. This phase was followed by a subsequent change featuring Urnfield (cremation) burial customs (1200–800 BC). The southern region became dominated by the Hilversum culture (1800–800), which apparently inherited the cultural ties with Britain of the previous Barbed-Wire Beaker culture.

The Iron Age brought a measure of prosperity to the people living in the area of the present-day Netherlands. Iron ore was available throughout the country, including bog iron extracted from the ore in peat bogs (moeras ijzererts) in the north, the natural iron-bearing balls found in the Veluwe and the red iron ore near the rivers in Brabant. Smiths travelled from small settlement to settlement with bronze and iron, fabricating tools on demand, including axes, knives, pins, arrowheads and swords. Some evidence even suggests the making of Damascus steel swords using an advanced method of forging that combined the flexibility of iron with the strength of steel. The King's grave of Oss dating from around 500 BC was found in a burial mound, the largest of its kind in western Europe and containing an iron sword with an inlay of gold and coral.

Germanic groups and Romans (500 BC – 410 AD)[edit]

Germanic dialects around AD 1.
Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples, showing expansion into the southern Low Countries.

Deteriorating climate in Scandinavia around 850 BC and later faster around 650 BC might have triggered migration of the Germanic tribes. By the time this migration was complete, around 250 BC, a few general cultural and linguistic groupings had emerged.[31][32] The North Sea Germanic (or Ingvaeones) inhabited the northern part of the Low Countries. They would later develop into the Frisii and the early Saxons.[32] A second grouping, the Weser-Rhine Germanic (or Istvaeones), extended along the middle Rhine and Weser and inhabited the Low Countries south of the great rivers. This group consisted of tribes that would eventually develop into the Salian Franks.[32] Also the Celtic La Tène culture (c. 450 BC up to the Roman conquest) had expanded over a wide range, including into the southern area of the Low Countries. Some scholars have speculated that even a third ethnic identity and language, neither Germanic nor Celtic, survived in the Netherlands until the Roman period, the Iron Age Nordwestblock culture,[33][34] that eventually was being absorbed by the Celts to the south and the Germanic peoples from the east.

Rhine Frontier of around 70 AD.

During the Gallic Wars, the area south of the Oude Rijn and west of the Rhine was conquered by Roman forces under Julius Caesar from 57 BC to 53 BC.[34] Caesar describes two main tribes living in what is now the southern Netherlands: the Menapii and the Eburones. The Rhine became fixed around 12 AD as Rome's northern frontier. Notable towns would arise along the Limes Germanicus: Nijmegen and Voorburg. At first part of Gallia Belgica, the area south of the Limes became part of the Roman province of Germania Inferior. The area to the north of the Rhine, inhabited by the Frisii, remained outside Roman rule (but not its presence and control), while the border tribes Batavi and Cananefates served in the Roman cavalry.[35] The Batavi rose against the Romans in the Batavian rebellion of 69 AD, but were eventually defeated. The Batavi later merged with other tribes into the confederation of the Salian Franks, which identity emerged at the first half of the 3rd century.[36] Salian Franks appear in Roman texts as both allies and enemies. The Salian Franks were forced by the confederation of the Saxons from the east to move over the Rhine into Roman territory in the 4th century. From their new base in west Flanders and southwest Netherlands, they were raiding the English Channel. Roman forces pacified the region, but did not expel the Franks, who continued to be feared at least until the time of Julian the Apostate (358), when Salian Franks were allowed to settle as foederati in Toxandria.[36] After deteriorating climate conditions and the Romans withdrew, the Frisii disappeared from the northern Netherlands, probably forced to resettle within Roman territory as laeti in c. 296. The coastal lands remained largely unpopulated for the next two centuries.[37]

Early Middle Ages (411–1000)[edit]

Franks, Frisians and Saxons (c. 716 AD)

After Roman government in the area collapsed, the Franks expanded their territories in numerous kingdoms. By the 490s, Clovis I had conquered and united all these territories in the southern Netherlands in one Frankish kingdom, and from there continued his conquests into Gaul. During this expansion, Franks migrating to the south eventually adopted the Vulgar Latin of the local population.[32] A widening cultural divide grew with the Franks remaining in their original homeland in the north (i.e. southern Netherlands and Flanders), who kept on speaking Old Frankish, which by the 9th century had evolved into Old Low Franconian or Old Dutch.[32] A Dutch-French language boundary came into existence.[32][38]

Frankish expansion (481 to 870 AD)

To the north of the Franks, climatic conditions at the coast improved, so the abandoned land of the ancient Frisii got resettled again, mostly by Saxons, but also by Angles and Jutes. Many moved on to England and came to be known as Anglo-Saxons, but those who stayed would be referred to as Frisians, named after the ancient inhabitants of the Frisii. Frisian was spoken along the entire southern North Sea coast, and it is still the closest to English related living language after Scots. By the 7th-century a Frisian Kingdom (650–734) under King Aldegisel and King Redbad emerged with Utrecht as its centre of power,[39][40] while Dorestad was a Frisian flourishing trading place.[41][42] Between 600 and around 719 the city was often fought over between the Frisians and the Franks. In 734, at the Battle of the Boarn, the Frisians in the Netherlands were after a series of wars defeated by the Franks. Anglo-Saxon missionaries, particularly Willibrord, Wulfram and Boniface, played an important role in converting the Frisian peoples to Christianity. However, Boniface was murdered by the Frisians in Dokkum, in 754.

Rorik of Dorestad, Viking ruler of Friesland (romantic 1912 depiction)

The Frankish Carolingian empire – that had the Roman Empire as its example – would eventually include much of Western Europe, but got divided into three parts in 843. Most of what is today the Netherlands became part of Middle Francia; Flanders became part of West Francia. Situated between – and wanted by – the realms of West and East Francia, Middle Francia was a weak kingdom that comprised territories from Frisia in the north to the Kingdom of Italy in the south. Then, the middle kingdom was partitioned; the lands north of the Alps passed to Lothair II and consecutively were named Lotharingia. After he died in 869, Lotharingia was partitioned, in Upper- and Lower Lotharingia. The latter part comprising the Low Countries, that technically became part of East Francia in 870, although it was effectively under control of Vikings, who raided the largely defenceless Frisian and Frankish towns lying on the Frisian coast and along the rivers. Around 850, Lothair I acknowledged the Viking Rorik of Dorestad as ruler of most of Frisia.[43] Around 879, another Viking terrorised the Frisian lands. He became known as Godfrid, Duke of Frisia, but he was assassinated in 885, after which Gerolf of Holland assumed lordship in Frisia and Viking rule came to an end. The Viking raids made the sway of French and German lords in the area weak. Resistance to the Vikings, if any, came from local nobles, who gained in stature as a result, and that lay the basis for the disintegration of Lower Lotharingia into (semi-)independent states.

High Middle Ages (1000–1384)[edit]

The Holy Roman Empire (the successor state of East Francia) ruled much of the Low Countries in the 10th and 11th century, but was not able to maintain political unity. Powerful local nobles turned their cities, counties and duchies into private kingdoms, that felt little sense of obligation to the emperor. Holland, Hainaut, Flanders, Gelre, Brabant, and the Utrecht were in a state of almost continual war or paradoxically formed personal unions. The language and culture of most of the people who lived in the County of Holland were originally Frisian. As Frankish settlement progressed from Flanders and Brabant, the area quickly became Old Low Franconian (or Old Dutch). The rest of Frisia in the north (now Friesland and Groningen) continued to maintain its independence and had its own institutions (collectively called the "Frisian freedom") and resented the imposition of the feudal system.

Around 1000 AD, due to several agricultural developments, the economy started to develop at a fast pace, and the higher productivity allowed workers to farm more land or to become tradesmen. Towns grew around monasteries and castles, and a mercantile middle class began to develop in these urban areas, especially in Flanders and later also Brabant. Wealthy cities started to buy certain privileges for themselves from the sovereign. In practice, this meant that Brugge and Antwerp became quasi-independent republics in their own right and would later develop into some of the most important cities and ports in Europe.

Around 1100 AD, farmers from Flanders and Utrecht began draining and cultivating uninhabited swampy land in the western Netherlands, and made the emergence of the County of Holland as center of power possible. The title of Count of Holland were fought over in the Hook and Cod Wars (Dutch: Hoekse en Kabeljauwse twisten) between 1350 and 1490. The Cod faction consisted of the more progressive cities, while the Hook faction consisted of the conservative noblemen. These noblemen invited the Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy – who was also Count of Flanders – to conquer Holland.

Burgundian and Habsburg Netherlands (1384–1581)[edit]

The Low Countries in the late 14th century

Most of the Imperial and French fiefs in what is now the Netherlands and Belgium were united in a personal union by Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy in 1433. The House of Valois-Burgundy and their Habsburg heirs would rule the Low Countries in the period from 1384 to 1581. Before the Burgundian union, the Dutch identified themselves by the town they lived in or their local duchy or county. The Burgundian period is when the road to nationhood began. The new rulers defended Dutch trading interests, that developed rapidly. The fleets of the County of Holland defeated the fleets of the Hanseatic League several times. Amsterdam grew and in the 15th century became the primary trading port in Europe for grain from the Baltic region. Amsterdam distributed grain to the major cities of Belgium, Northern France and England. This trade was vital, because Holland could no longer produce enough grain to feed itself. Land drainage had caused the peat of the former wetlands to reduce to a level that was too low for drainage to be maintained.

The Four Days' Battle, 1–4 June 1666, during the Second Anglo–Dutch War.

Under Habsburg, Charles V, ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and King of Spain, all fiefs in the current Netherlands region was united into the Seventeen Provinces, which also included most of present-day Belgium, Luxembourg, and some adjacent land in what is now France and Germany. In 1568, the Eighty Years' War between the Provinces and their Spanish ruler began. In 1579, the northern half of the Seventeen Provinces forged the Union of Utrecht in which they committed to support each other in their defence against the Spanish army.[44] The Union of Utrecht is seen as the foundation of the modern Netherlands. In 1581, the northern provinces adopted the Act of Abjuration, the declaration of independence in which the provinces officially deposed Philip II of Spain as reigning monarch in the northern provinces.[45]

The protestant Queen Elizabeth I of England sympathised with the Dutch struggle against the Spanish, and send an army of 7,600 soldiers to aid the Dutch in their war with the Catholic Spanish.[46] The English army under command of Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester was of no real benefit to the Dutch rebellion.[47] Philip II, the son of Charles V, was not prepared to let them go easily, and war continued until 1648, when Spain under King Philip IV finally recognised the independence of the seven north-western provinces in the Peace of Münster. Parts of the southern provinces became de facto colonies of the new republican-mercantile empire.

Dutch Republic (1581–1795)[edit]

After declaring their independence, the provinces of Holland, Zeeland, Groningen, Friesland, Utrecht, Overijssel, and Gelderland formed a confederation. All these duchies, lordships and counties were autonomous and had their own government, the States-Provincial. The States General, the confederal government, were seated in The Hague and consisted of representatives from each of the seven provinces. The sparsely populated region of Drenthe was part of the republic too, although it was not considered one of the provinces. Moreover, the Republic had come to occupy during the Eighty Years' War a number of so-called Generality Lands in Flanders, Brabant and Limburg. Their population was mainly Roman Catholic, and these areas did not have a governmental structure of their own, and were used as a buffer zone between the Republic and the Spanish-controlled Southern Netherlands.[citation needed]

In the Dutch Golden Age, spanning much of the 17th century, the Dutch Empire grew to become one of the major seafaring and economic powers. Science, military, and art (especially painting) were among the most acclaimed in the world. By 1650, the Dutch owned 16,000 merchant ships.[48] The Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company established colonies and trading posts all over the world. The Dutch settlement in North America began with the founding of New Amsterdam on the southern part of Manhattan in 1614. In South Africa, the Dutch settled the Cape Colony in 1652. Dutch colonies in South America were established along the many rivers in the fertile Guyana plains, among them Colony of Surinam (now Suriname). In Asia, the Dutch established the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia), and the only western trading post in Japan, Dejima.

Many economic historians regard the Netherlands as the first thoroughly capitalist country in the world. In early modern Europe it had the wealthiest trading city (Amsterdam) and the first full-time stock exchange. The inventiveness of the traders led to insurance and retirement funds as well as phenomena such as the boom-bust cycle, the world's first asset-inflation bubble, the tulip mania of 1636–1637, and the world's first bear raider, Isaac le Maire, who forced prices down by dumping stock and then buying it back at a discount.[49] The republic went into a state of general decline in the later 18th century, with economic competition from England and long standing rivalries between the two main factions in Dutch society, the republican Staatsgezinden and the supporters of the stadtholder the Prinsgezinden, as main factors.[citation needed]

Batavian Republic and kingdom (1795–1890)[edit]

With the armed support of the revolutionary France, Dutch republicans proclaimed the Batavian Republic, modelled after the French Republic and rendering the Netherlands a unitary state in 19 January 1795. The stadtholder William V of Orange had fled to England. But from 1806 to 1810, Kingdom of Holland was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom governed by his brother Louis Bonaparte to control the Netherlands more effectively. However, King Louis Bonaparte tried to serve Dutch interests instead of his brother's, and he was forced to abdicate on 1 July 1810. The Emperor sent in an army and the Netherlands became part of the French Empire until the autumn of 1813, when Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of Leipzig.

A map of the Dutch colonial empire. Light green: territories administered by or originating from territories administered by the Dutch East India Company; dark green: the Dutch West India Company. In yellow the territories occupied later, during the 19th century.

William Frederick, son of the last stadtholder, returned to the Netherlands in 1813 and proclaimed himself Sovereign Prince of the Netherlands. Two years later, the Congress of Vienna added the southern Netherlands to the north to create a strong country on the northern border of France. William Frederick raised this United Netherlands to the status of a kingdom and proclaimed himself King William I. In addition, William became hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg in exchange for his German possessions. However, the Southern Netherlands had been culturally separate from the north since 1581, and rebelled. The south gained independence in 1830 as Belgium, while the personal union between Luxembourg and the Netherlands was severed in 1890, when William III died with no surviving male heirs. Ascendancy laws prevented his daughter Queen Wilhelmina from becoming the next Grand Duchess.

The submission of Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830; painting by Nicolaas Pieneman

The Belgian Revolution at home and the Java War in the Dutch East Indies brought the Netherlands to the brink of bankruptcy. However, the Cultivation System was introduced in 1830; in the Dutch East Indies, 20% of village land had to be devoted to government crops for export. The policy brought the Dutch enormous wealth and made the colony self-sufficient. On the other hand, the colonies in the West Indies (Dutch Guiana and Curaçao and Dependencies), relied heavily on African slaves in which the Dutch part is estimated at 5–7 percent, or more than half a million Africans. The Netherlands was one of the last countries to abolish slavery, in 1863. Furthermore, slaves in Suriname would be fully free only in 1873, since the law stipulated that there was to be a mandatory 10-year transition.[50] The Dutch were also one of the last European countries to industrialise, in the second half of the 19th century.

World Wars and beyond (1890–present)[edit]

The Netherlands were able to remain neutral during World War I. In part, because the import of goods through the Netherlands proved essential to German survival, until the blockade by the British Royal Navy in 1916.[51] That changed in World War II, when Nazi Germany invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940. The Rotterdam Blitz forced the main element of the Dutch army to surrender 4 days later. During the occupation, over 100,000 Dutch Jews[52] were rounded up and transported to Nazi extermination camps of whom only a few survived. Dutch workers were conscripted for forced labour in Germany, civilians who resisted were killed in reprisal for attacks on German soldiers, and the countryside was plundered for food. Although there were thousands of Dutch who risked their lives by hiding Jews from the Germans, local fascists joined the Waffen SS, fighting on the Eastern Front.[53] Political collaborators were members of the fascist NSB, the only legal political party in the occupied Netherlands. On 8 December 1941, the Dutch government-in-exile in London declared war on Japan,[54] but could not prevent the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia).[55] In 1944–45, the First Canadian Army, which included Canadian, British and Polish troops, was responsible for liberating much of the Netherlands.[56] But soon after VE day, the Dutch fought a colonial war against the new republic of Indonesia.

In 1954, the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands reformed the political structure of the Netherlands, which was a result of international pressure to carry out decolonisation. The Dutch colonies of Surinam and Curaçao and Dependencies and the European country became all constituent countries within the Kingdom, on a basis of equality. Before the reform was completed, Indonesia declared its independence in August 1945 (recognised in 1949), and thus has never been part of the Kingdom. Suriname followed in 1975. After the war the Netherlands left behind also an era of neutrality and gained closer ties with neighboring states. The Netherlands was one of the founding members of the Benelux, the NATO, and the European Coal and Steel Community, which would evolve into the EEC (Common Market) and later the European Union.

Government-encouraged emigration efforts to reduce population density prompted some 500,000 Dutch people to leave the country after the war.[57] The 1960s and 1970s were a time of great social and cultural change, such as rapid ontzuiling (literally: depillarisation), a term that describes the decay of the old divisions along political and religious lines. Youths, and students in particular, rejected traditional mores and pushed for change in matters such as women's rights, sexuality, disarmament and environmental issues. On 10 October 2010, the Netherlands Antilles was dissolved. Referendums were held on each island to determine their future status. As a result the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (the BES islands) were to obtain closer ties with the Netherlands. This led to the incorporation of these three islands into the country of the Netherlands as special municipalities upon the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles. The special municipalities are collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands.

Geography of the Netherlands[edit]

The European Netherlands[edit]

A satellite overview of the Netherlands.

The European area of the Netherlands lies between latitudes 50° and 54° N, and longitudes and 8° E.

The Netherlands is geographically a very low and flat country, with about 26% of its area[58] and 21% of its population[59] located below sea level, and only about 50% of its land exceeding one metre above sea level.[13] The country is for the most part flat, with the exception of foothills in the far southeast, up to a height of no more than 321 metres, and some low hill ranges in the central parts. Most of the areas below sea level are man-made, caused by peat extraction or achieved through land reclamation. Since the late 16th century, large polder areas are preserved through elaborate drainage systems that include dikes, canals and pumping stations. Nearly 17% of the country's land area is reclaimed from the sea and from lakes.

Much of the country was originally formed by the estuaries of three large European rivers: the Rhine (Rijn), the Meuse (Maas) and the Scheldt (Schelde), as well as their distributaries. The south-western part of the Netherlands is to this day a river delta of these three rivers, the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta.

The Netherlands is divided into north and south parts by the Rhine, the Waal, its main distributary branch, and the Meuse. In the past these rivers functioned as a natural barrier between fiefdoms and hence historically created a cultural divide, as is evident in some phonetic traits that are recognisable on either side of what the Dutch call their "Great Rivers" (de Grote Rivieren). Another significant branch of the Rhine, the IJssel river, discharges into Lake IJssel, the former Zuiderzee ('southern sea'). Just like the previous, this river forms a linguistic divide: people to the northeast of this river speak Dutch Low Saxon dialects (except for the province of Friesland, which has its own language).[60]

Floods[edit]

The Christmas flood of 1717 was the result of a northwesterly storm. In total, approximately 14,000 people drowned.

Over the centuries, the Dutch coastline has changed considerably as a result of natural disasters and human intervention. Most notable in terms of land loss was the storm of 1134, which created the archipelago of Zeeland in the south-west.

On 14 December 1287, St. Lucia's flood affected the Netherlands and Germany killing more than 50,000 people in one of the most destructive floods in recorded history.[61] The St. Elizabeth flood of 1421 and the mismanagement in its aftermath destroyed a newly reclaimed polder, replacing it with the 72-square-kilometre (28 sq mi) Biesbosch tidal floodplains in the south-centre. The huge North Sea flood of early February 1953 caused the collapse of several dikes in the south-west of the Netherlands; more than 1,800 people drowned in the flood. The Dutch government subsequently instituted a large-scale programme, the "Delta Works", to protect the country against future flooding, which was completed over a period of more than thirty years.

The impact of disasters was to an extent increased through human activity. Relatively high-lying swampland was drained to be used as farmland. The drainage caused the fertile peat to contract and ground levels to drop, upon which groundwater levels were lowered to compensate for the drop in ground level, causing the underlying peat to contract further. Additionally, until the 19th century peat was mined, dried, and used for fuel, further exacerbating the problem. Centuries of extensive and poorly controlled peat extraction lowered an already low land surface by several metres. Even in flooded areas, peat extraction continued through turf dredging.

Because of the flooding, farming was difficult, which encouraged foreign trade, the result of which was that the Dutch were involved in world affairs since the early 14th/15th century.[62]

Map illustrating areas of the Netherlands below sea level

To guard against floods, a series of defences against the water were contrived. In the first millennium AD, villages and farmhouses were built on man-made hills called terps. Later, these terps were connected by dikes. In the 12th century, local government agencies called "waterschappen" ("water boards") or "hoogheemraadschappen" ("high home councils") started to appear, whose job it was to maintain the water level and to protect a region from floods; these agencies continue to exist. As the ground level dropped, the dikes by necessity grew and merged into an integrated system. By the 13th century windmills had come into use to pump water out of areas below sea level. The windmills were later used to drain lakes, creating the famous polders.[citation needed]

In 1932 the Afsluitdijk ("Closure Dike") was completed, blocking the former Zuiderzee (Southern Sea) from the North Sea and thus creating the IJsselmeer (IJssel Lake). It became part of the larger Zuiderzee Works in which four polders totalling 2,500 square kilometres (965 sq mi) were reclaimed from the sea.[63][64]

The Netherlands is one of the countries that may suffer most from climate change. Not only is the rising sea a problem, but erratic weather patterns may cause the rivers to overflow.[65][66][67]

A polder at 5.53 metres below sea level.
Delta works[edit]
Main article: Delta Works
The Delta Works are located in the provinces of South Holland and Zeeland.

After the 1953 disaster, the Delta Works were constructed, a comprehensive set of civil works throughout the Dutch coast. The project started in 1958 and was largely completed in 1997 with the completion of the Maeslantkering. New projects have been periodically started since to renovate and renew the Delta Works. A main goal of the Delta project was to reduce the risk of flooding in South Holland and Zeeland to once per 10,000 years (compared to 1 per 4000 years for the rest of the country). This was achieved by raising 3,000 kilometres (1,864 mi) of outer sea-dykes and 10,000 kilometres (6,214 mi) of inner, canal, and river dikes, and by closing off the sea estuaries of the Zeeland province. New risk assessments occasionally show problems requiring additional Delta project dyke reinforcements. The Delta project is considered by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of the seven wonders of the modern world.[68]

It is anticipated that global warming in the 21st century will result in a rise in sea level which, despite popular belief, will possibly not overwhelm the measures the Netherlands has taken to control floods.[citation needed] Even more specifically, the Netherlands is the only country in the world actively preparing for a sea level rise. A politically neutral Delta Commission has formulated an action plan to cope with a sea level rise of 1.10 metres (3.6 ft) and a simultaneous land height decline of 10 centimetres (3.9 in). The plan foresees in the reinforcement of the existing coastal defenses like dikes and dunes with 1.30 metres (4.3 ft) of additional flood protection. Climate change will not only threaten the Netherlands from the sea side, but could also alter rain fall patterns and river run-off. To protect the country from river flooding, another program is already being executed. The Room for the River plan grants more flow space to rivers, protects the major populated areas and allows for periodic flooding of indefensible lands. The few residents that lived in these so-called "overflow areas" have been moved to higher ground, with some of that ground having been raised above anticipated flood levels.[69]

Protecting the country against floods is one element of climate change. The other is that the pressure of the sea water on ground water will increase.[citation needed] As a result, the fresh water table will be pushed more inland, resulting in more brackish or saline groundwater in the coastal provinces. Due to this change, some drinking water areas will be forced to apply desalination despite the apparent abundance of water. It will also affect agriculture. The greenhouses can continue their production by becoming more water efficient (they are already disconnected from the groundwater, thereby not becoming more saline), though they will need to become more energy and water efficient. The push of more brackish water into the mainland will also cause changes in flora and fauna.[citation needed]

Climate[edit]

The predominant wind direction in the Netherlands is south-west, which causes a moderate maritime climate, with cool summers and mild winters, and typically high humidity. This is especially true close to the Dutch coastline, where temperatures can be more than 10 °C (18 °F) higher (in winter) or lower (in summer) than in the (south) east of the country.

The following tables are based on mean measurements by the KNMI weather station in De Bilt between 1981 and 2010:

Climate data for De Bilt (1981–2010 averages), all KNMI locations (1901–2011 extremes), snowy days: (1971–2000 averages).
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)17.2
(63)
20.4
(68.7)
25.6
(78.1)
32.2
(90)
35.6
(96.1)
38.4
(101.1)
37.1
(98.8)
38.6
(101.5)
35.2
(95.4)
30.1
(86.2)
22.0
(71.6)
17.8
(64)
38.6
(101.5)
Average high °C (°F)5.6
(42.1)
6.4
(43.5)
10.0
(50)
14.0
(57.2)
18.0
(64.4)
20.4
(68.7)
22.8
(73)
22.6
(72.7)
19.1
(66.4)
14.6
(58.3)
9.6
(49.3)
6.1
(43)
14.1
(57.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)3.1
(37.6)
3.3
(37.9)
6.2
(43.2)
9.2
(48.6)
13.1
(55.6)
15.6
(60.1)
17.9
(64.2)
17.5
(63.5)
14.5
(58.1)
10.7
(51.3)
6.7
(44.1)
3.7
(38.7)
10.1
(50.2)
Average low °C (°F)0.3
(32.5)
0.2
(32.4)
2.3
(36.1)
4.1
(39.4)
7.8
(46)
10.5
(50.9)
12.8
(55)
12.3
(54.1)
9.9
(49.8)
6.9
(44.4)
3.6
(38.5)
1.0
(33.8)
6.0
(42.8)
Record low °C (°F)−27.4
(−17.3)
−26.8
(−16.2)
−20.7
(−5.3)
−9.4
(15.1)
−5.4
(22.3)
−1.2
(29.8)
0.7
(33.3)
1.3
(34.3)
−3.7
(25.3)
−8.5
(16.7)
−14.4
(6.1)
−22.3
(−8.1)
−27.4
(−17.3)
Precipitation mm (inches)69.6
(2.74)
55.8
(2.197)
66.8
(2.63)
42.3
(1.665)
61.9
(2.437)
65.6
(2.583)
81.1
(3.193)
72.9
(2.87)
78.1
(3.075)
82.8
(3.26)
79.8
(3.142)
75.8
(2.984)
832.5
(32.776)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)171417131414141415161817184
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0 cm)6642002525
 % humidity87848175757677798486898982
Mean monthly sunshine hours62.385.7121.6173.6207.2193.9206.0187.7138.3112.963.049.31,601.5
Source: Knmi.nl[70]

Ice days (maximum temperature below 0 °C (32 °F)) usually occur from December until February, with the occasional rare ice day prior to or after that period. Freezing days (minimum temperature below 0 °C (32 °F)) occur much more often, usually ranging from mid-November to late March, but not rarely measured as early as mid October and as late as mid May. If one chooses the height of measurement to be 10 cm (4 in) above ground instead of 150 cm (59 in), one may even find such temperatures in the middle of the summer. On average, snow can occur from November to April, but sometimes occurs in May or October too.

Warm days (maximum temperature above 20 °C (68 °F)) in De Bilt are usually found in April to October, but in some parts of the country these warm days can also occur in March, or even sometimes in November or February (usually not in De Bilt, however). Summer days (maximum temperature above 25 °C (77 °F)) are usually measured in De Bilt from May until September, tropical days (maximum temperature above 30 °C (86 °F)) are rare and usually occur only in June to August.

Precipitation throughout the year is distributed relatively equally each month. Summer and autumn months tend to gather a little more precipitation than the other months, mainly because of the intensity of the rainfall rather than the frequency of rain days (this is especially the case in summer, when lightning is also much more frequent).

The number of sunshine hours is affected by the fact that because of the geographical latitude, the length of the days varies between barely eight hours in December and nearly 17 hours in June.

Nature[edit]

The Netherlands has 20 national parks and hundreds of other nature reserves, that include lakes, heathland, woods, dunes and other habitats. Most of these are owned by Staatsbosbeheer, the national department for forestry and nature conservation and Natuurmonumenten (literally 'Natures monuments'), a private organisation that buys, protects and manages nature reserves. The Dutch part of the Wadden Sea in the north, with its tidal flats and wetlands, is rich in biological diversity, and was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Nature Site in 2009.

The Oosterschelde National park

The Oosterschelde, formerly the northeast estuary of the river Scheldt was designated a national park in 2002, thereby making it the largest national park in the Netherlands at an area of 370 square kilometres (140 sq mi). It consists primarily of the salt waters of the Oosterschelde, but also includes mud flats, meadows, and shoals. Because of the large variety of sea life, including unique regional species, the park is popular with Scuba divers. Other activities include sailing, fishing, cycling, and bird watching.

Phytogeographically, the Netherlands is shared between the Atlantic European and Central European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the territory of the Netherlands belongs to the ecoregion of Atlantic mixed forests. In 1871, the last old original natural woods were cut down, and most woods today are planted monocultures of trees like Scots Pine and trees that are not native to the Netherlands.[citation needed] These woods were planted on anthropogenic heaths and sand-drifts (overgrazed heaths) (Veluwe).

Caribbean islands[edit]

Main articles: Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius

The Caribbean Netherlands form a part of the Lesser Antilles. Within this island group,

View of the coast of Bonaire

The islands of the Caribbean Netherlands enjoy a tropical climate with warm weather all year round. The Leeward Islands are warmer and drier than the Windward islands. In summer, the Windward Islands can be subject to hurricanes.

Government[edit]

The Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy since 1815 and a parliamentary democracy since 1848. The Netherlands is described as a consociational state. Dutch politics and governance are characterised by an effort to achieve broad consensus on important issues, within both the political community and society as a whole. In 2010, The Economist ranked the Netherlands as the 10th most democratic country in the world.

Dutch people in orange celebrating Queen's Day in Amsterdam.

The monarch is the head of state, at present King Willem-Alexander. Constitutionally, the position is equipped with limited powers. By law, the king (the title queen has no constitutional significance) has the right to be periodically briefed and consulted on government affairs. Depending on the personalities and relationships of the king and the ministers, the king might have influence beyond the power granted by the constitution.

Willem-Alexander became King of the Netherlands on 30 April 2013.

The executive power is formed by the council of Ministers, the deliberative council of the Dutch cabinet. The cabinet usually consists of 13 to 16 ministers and a varying number of state secretaries. One to three ministers are ministers without portfolio. The head of government is the Prime Minister of the Netherlands, who often is the leader of the largest party of the coalition. The Prime Minister is a primus inter pares, with no explicit powers beyond those of the other ministers. Mark Rutte has been Prime Minister since October 2010; the Prime Minister had been the leader of the largest party continuously since 1973.

The Binnenhof, where the lower and upper houses of the States General meet.

The cabinet is responsible to the bicameral parliament, the States General, which also has legislative powers. The 150 members of the House of Representatives, the Lower House, are elected in direct elections on the basis of party-list proportional representation. These are held every four years, or sooner in case the cabinet falls (for example: when one of the chambers carries a motion of no confidence, the cabinet offers its resignation to the monarch). The States-Provincial are directly elected every four years as well. The members of the provincial assemblies elect the 75 members of the Senate, the upper house, which has the power to reject laws, but not propose or amend them.

Both trade unions and employers organisations are consulted beforehand in policymaking in the financial, economic and social areas. They meet regularly with government in the Social-Economic Council. This body advises government and its advice cannot be put aside easily.

The Netherlands has a long tradition of social tolerance. In the 18th century, while the Dutch Reformed Church was the state religion, Catholicism, other forms of Protestantism, such as Baptists and Lutherans, and Judaism were tolerated. In the late 19th century this Dutch tradition of religious tolerance transformed into a system of pillarisation, in which religious groups coexisted separately and only interacted at the level of government. This tradition of tolerance influences Dutch criminal justice policies on recreational drugs, prostitution, LGBT rights, euthanasia, and abortion, which are among the most liberal in the world.

Political parties[edit]

Mark Rutte, Prime Minister of the Netherlands since October 2010.

Because of the multi-party system, no single party has held a majority in parliament since the 19th century, and coalition cabinets had to be formed. Since suffrage became universal in 1919, the Dutch political system has been dominated by three families of political parties: the strongest of which were the Christian democrats, currently represented by the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA); second were the social democrats, represented by the Labour Party (PvdA); and third were the liberals, of which the right wing People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) is the main representative.

These parties co-operated in coalition cabinets in which the Christian democrats had always been a partner: so either a centre-left coalition of the Christian democrats and social democrats was ruling or a centre-right coalition of Christian democrats and liberals. In the 1970s, the party system became more volatile: the Christian democratic parties lost seats, while new parties became successful, such as the radical democrat and progressive liberal D66.

In the 1994 election, the CDA lost its dominant position. A "purple" cabinet was formed by VVD, D66, and PvdA. In the 2002 elections, this cabinet lost its majority, because of an increased support for the CDA and the rise of the right LPF, a new political party, around Pim Fortuyn, who was assassinated a week before the elections. A short-lived cabinet was formed by CDA, VVD, and LPF, which was led by the CDA leader Jan Peter Balkenende. After the 2003 elections, in which the LPF lost most of its seats, a cabinet was formed by CDA, VVD, and D66. The cabinet initiated an ambitious programme of reforming the welfare state, the healthcare system, and immigration policy.

In June 2006, the cabinet fell after D66 voted in favour of a motion of no confidence against the Minister of Immigration and Integration, Rita Verdonk, who had instigated an investigation of the asylum procedure of Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a VVD MP. A caretaker cabinet was formed by CDA and VVD, and general elections were held on 22 November 2006. In these elections, the CDA remained the largest party and the Socialist Party made the largest gains. The formation of a new cabinet took three months, resulting in a coalition of CDA, PvdA, and ChristianUnion.

On 20 February 2010, the cabinet fell when the PvdA refused to prolong the involvement of the Dutch Army in Uruzgan, Afghanistan.[71] Snap elections were held on 9 June 2010, with devastating results for the previously largest party, the CDA, which lost about half of its seats, resulting in 21 seats. The VVD became the largest party with 31 seats, closely followed by the PvdA with 30 seats. The big winner of the 2010 elections was Geert Wilders, whose extreme-right wing PVV,[72][73] the ideological successor to the LPF, more than doubled its number of seats.[74] Negotiation talks for a new government resulted in a minority government, led by VVD (a first) in coalition with CDA, which was sworn in on 14 October 2010. This unprecedented minority government was supported by PVV, but proved ultimately to be unstable,[75] when on 21 April 2012, Wilders, leader of PVV, unexpectedly 'torpedoed seven weeks of austerity talks' on new austerity measures, paving the way for early elections.[76] [77] [78]

VVD and PvdA were the big winners of the elections. Since 5 November 2012 they have formed the second Rutte cabinet.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Provinces and special municipalities of the Netherlands.

The Netherlands is divided into twelve provinces, each under a Commissioner of the King (Commissaris van de Koning), except for Limburg province where the position is named Governor (Gouverneur). All provinces are divided into municipalities (gemeenten), of which there are 403.[79]

The country is also subdivided into 24 water districts, governed by a water board (waterschap or hoogheemraadschap), each having authority in matters concerning water management.[80] The creation of water boards actually pre-dates that of the nation itself, the first appearing in 1196. The Dutch water boards are among the oldest democratic entities in the world still in existence.

The administrative structure on the 3 BES islands, also known as the Caribbean Netherlands, is different. These islands have the status of openbare lichamen (public bodies) and are generally referred to as special municipalities. They are not part of a province.[81]

Provinces[edit]

FlagProvinceCapitalLargest cityArea[82]
(km²)
Population[83]
31-09-2013
Density
(per km²)
Flag Drenthe.svgDrentheAssenAssen2,639489,155185
Flevolandflag.svgFlevolandLelystadAlmere1,415399,825282
Frisian flag.svgFrieslandLeeuwardenLeeuwarden3,340646,401194
Gelderland-Flag.svgGelderlandArnhemNijmegen4,9702,019,196406
Flag Groningen.svgGroningenGroningenGroningen2,325582,908251
NL-LimburgVlag.svgLimburgMaastrichtMaastricht2,1501,120,332521
North Brabant-Flag.svgNorth Brabant's-HertogenboschEindhoven4,9142,478,687504
Flag North-Holland, Netherlands.svgNorth HollandHaarlemAmsterdam2,6652,737,5401,027
Flag of Overijssel.svgOverijsselZwolleEnschede3,3241,139,462343
Utrecht (province)-Flag.svgUtrechtUtrechtUtrecht1,3831,251,266905
Flag of Zeeland.svgZeelandMiddelburgMiddelburg1,784380,864213
Flag Zuid-Holland.svgSouth HollandThe Hague (Den Haag)Rotterdam2,8083,572,4091,272
Total33,71816,818,045499

Special municipalities[edit]

Government House, Saba
FlagNameCapitalLargest cityArea[84]
(km²)
Population[85]
31-12-2012
Density
(per km²)
BonaireBonaireKralendijkKralendijk28817,40860
Sint EustatiusSint EustatiusOranjestadOranjestad213,897186
SabaSabaThe BottomThe Bottom131,991153
Total32223,29672

Foreign relations[edit]

The Peace Palace (Vredespaleis), The Hague

The history of Dutch foreign policy has been characterised by its neutrality. Since the Second World War the Netherlands has become a member of a large number of international organisations, most prominently the UN, NATO and the EU. The Dutch economy is very open and relies on international trade.

The foreign policy of the Netherlands is based on four basic commitments: to Atlantic co-operation, to European integration, to international development and to international law. One of the more controversial international issues surrounding the Netherlands is its liberal policy towards soft drugs.

During and after the Dutch Golden Age, the Dutch people built up a commercial and colonial empire, which fell apart quickly after the Second World War. The historical ties inherited from its colonial past still influence the foreign relations of the Netherlands.

Military[edit]

The Netherlands has one of the oldest standing armies in Europe; it was first established as such by Maurice of Nassau. The Dutch army was used throughout the Dutch Empire. After the defeat of Napoleon, the Dutch army was transformed into a conscription army. The army was unsuccessfully deployed during the Belgian revolution in 1830. After 1830, it was deployed mainly in the Dutch colonies, as the Netherlands remained neutral in European wars (including the First World War), until the Netherlands was invaded in the Second World War and quickly defeated by the Wehrmacht in May 1940.

The Netherlands abandoned its neutrality in 1948 when it signed the Treaty of Brussels, and later became a founding member of NATO in 1949. The Dutch military was therefore part of the NATO strength in Cold War Europe, deploying its army to several bases in Germany. More than 3.000 Dutch soldiers were assigned to the 2nd Infantry Division of the United States Army during the Korean War. In 1996 conscription was suspended, and the Dutch army was once again transformed into a professional army. Since the 1990s the Dutch army has been involved in the Bosnian War and the Kosovo War, it held a province in Iraq after the defeat of Saddam Hussein, and it was engaged in Afghanistan.

The military is composed of four branches, all of which carry the prefix Koninklijke (Royal):

General Tom Middendorp is the current Commander of the Netherlands armed forces. All military specialities except the submarine service and the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps (Korps Mariniers) are open to women. The Korps Commandotroepen, the Special Operations Force of the Netherlands Army, is open to women, but because of the extremely high physical demands for initial training, it is almost impossible for women to become a commando.[86] The Dutch Ministry of Defence employs more than 70,000 personnel, including over 20,000 civilians and over 50,000 military personnel.[87] In April 2011 the government announced a major reduction in its military because of a cut in government expenditure, including a decrease in the number of tanks, fighter aircraft, naval ships and senior officials.[88]

Economy[edit]

A graphical depiction of Dutch product exports in 28 colour-coded categories.[89]

The Netherlands has a developed economy and has been playing a special role in the European economy for many centuries. Since the 16th century, shipping, fishing, trade, and banking have been leading sectors of the Dutch economy. The Netherlands is one of the world's 10 leading exporting countries. Foodstuffs form the largest industrial sector. Other major industries include chemicals, metallurgy, machinery, electrical goods, and tourism (in 2012 the Netherlands welcomed 11.7 million international tourists). Examples include Unilever, Heineken, financial services (ING), chemicals (DSM, AKZO), petroleum refining (Shell), electronical machinery (Philips, ASML), and car navigation (TomTom).

The Netherlands has the 17th-largest economy in the world, and ranks 10th in GDP (nominal) per capita. Between 1997 and 2000 annual economic growth (GDP) averaged nearly 4%, well above the European average. Growth slowed considerably from 2001 to 2005 with the global economic slowdown, but accelerated to 4.1% in the third quarter of 2007. In May 2013, inflation was at 2.8% per year.[90] In April 2013, unemployment was at 8.2% (or 6.7% following the ILO definition) of the labour force.[91]

In Q3 and Q4 2011, the Dutch economy contracted by 0.4% and 0.7%, respectively, because of European Debt Crisis, while in Q4 the Eurozone economy shrunk by 0.3%.[92] The Netherlands also has a relatively low GINI coefficient of 0.326. Despite ranking 7th in GDP per capita, UNICEF ranked the Netherlands 1st in child well-being.[93] On the Index of Economic Freedom Netherlands is the 13th most free market capitalist economy out of 157 surveyed countries.

Amsterdam is the financial and business capital of the Netherlands.[94] The Amsterdam Stock Exchange (AEX), part of Euronext, is the world's oldest stock exchange and is one of Europe's largest bourses. It is situated near Dam Square in the city's centre. As a founding member of the euro, the Netherlands replaced (for accounting purposes) its former currency, the "gulden" (guilder), on 1 January 1999, along with 15 other adopters of the euro. Actual euro coins and banknotes followed on 1 January 2002. One euro was equivalent to 2.20371 Dutch guilders. In the Caribbean Netherlands, the United States dollar is used instead of the euro.

The Port of Rotterdam is Europe's largest port.

The Dutch location gives it prime access to markets in the UK and Germany, with the port of Rotterdam being the largest port in Europe. Other important parts of the economy are international trade (Dutch colonialism started with co-operative private enterprises such as the VOC), banking and transport. The Netherlands successfully addressed the issue of public finances and stagnating job growth long before its European partners. Amsterdam is the 5th-busiest tourist destination in Europe with more than 4.2 million international visitors.[95] Since the enlargement of the EU large numbers of migrant workers have arrived in the Netherlands from central and eastern Europe.[96]

Of economic importance is BrabantStad, a partnership between the municipalities of Breda, Eindhoven, Helmond, 's-Hertogenbosch and Tilburg and the province of North Brabant. BrabantStad is the fastest growing economic region in the Netherlands, with Brainport as one of the three national top regions and as a top region in the world. The region lies within the Eindhoven-Leuven-Aachen Triangle (ELAT).[97] The partnership aims to form an urban network and to make North Brabant explicitly known as a leading knowledge region within Europe. With a total of 1.5 million people and 20% of the industrial production in the Netherlands is BrabantStad one of the major economical important, metropolitan regions of the Netherlands. Of all the money that goes to research and development in the Netherlands, one third is spent in Eindhoven. A quarter of the jobs in the region are in technology and ICT.[98] Of all European patent applications in the field of physics and electronics about eight per cent is from North Brabant.[99] In the extended region, BrabantStad is part of the Eindhoven-Leuven-Aachen Triangle (ELAT). This economic cooperation agreement between three cities in three countries has created one of the most innovative regions in the European Union (measured in terms of money invested in technology and knowledge economy).[100] The economic success of this region is important for the international competitiveness of the Netherlands; Together Amsterdam (airport), Rotterdam (seaport), and Eindhoven (Brainport) form the foundation of the Dutch economy.[101]

The country continues to be one of the leading European nations for attracting foreign direct investment and is one of the five largest investors in the United States. The economy experienced a slowdown in 2005, but in 2006 recovered to the fastest pace in six years on the back of increased exports and strong investment. The pace of job growth reached 10-year highs in 2007. The Netherlands is the fifth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report.[102]

The Groningen gas field, one of the largest natural gas fields in the world, is situated near Slochteren. Exploitation of this field has resulted in €159 billion in revenue since the mid-1970s.[103]

Agriculture[edit]

Farmland in the Netherlands

The Dutch agricultural sector is highly mechanised, and has a strong focus on international exports. It employs about 4% of the Dutch labour force but produces large surpluses for the food-processing industry and accounts for 21 percent of the Netherlands' total export value.[104] The Dutch rank second worldwide in value of agricultural exports, behind only the United States,[105] with exports earning €79 billion in 2013,[14] up from €75.4 billion in 2012.[15]
The Netherlands exports a quarter of all the world's tomatoes, and trade of one-third of the world's exports of chilis, tomatoes and cucumbers goes through the country. The Netherlands also exports one-fifteenth of the world's apples.[106]

Aside from that, a significant portion of Dutch agricultural exports consists of fresh-cut plants, flowers, and flower bulbs, with the Netherlands exporting two-thirds of the world's total.[106]

Transport[edit]

Highway A15 / A16 flyover

Mobility on Dutch roads has grown continuously since the 1950s and now exceeds 200 billion km travelled per year,[107] three quarters of which are done by car.[108] Around half of all trips in the Netherlands are made by car, 25% by bicycle, 20% walking, and 5% by public transport.[108] With a total road network of 139,295 km, which includes 2,758 km of expressways,[109] the Netherlands has one of the densest road networks in the world — much denser than Germany and France, but still not as dense as Belgium.[110]

About 13% of all distance is travelled by public transport, the majority of which by train.[108] Just like in many other European countries, the Dutch rail network of 3,013 km is also rather dense.[111] The network is mostly focused on passenger rail services and connects virtually all major towns and cities. Trains are frequent, with one or two trains per hour on lesser lines, two to four trains per hour on average, and up to eight trains an hour on the busiest lines.

A fietsstraat (bike street) where cyclists have priority and cars are "guests" and must yield.

Cycling is a ubiquitous mode of transport in the Netherlands. Almost as many kilometres are covered by bicycle as by train.[108] The Dutch are estimated to have at least 18 million bicycles,[112][113] which makes more than one per capita, and twice as many as the ca. 9 million motor vehicles on the road.[114] In 2013, the European Cyclists' Federation ranked both the Netherlands and Denmark as the most bike-friendly countries in Europe,[115] but more of the Dutch (31%) than of the Danes (19%) list the bike as their main mode of transport for daily activities.[116] Cycling infrastructure is comprehensive. Busy roads have received some 35,000 km of dedicated cycle tracks, physically segregated from motorised traffic.[117] Busy junctions are often equipped with bicycle-specific traffic lights. There are large bicycle parking facilities, particularly in city centres and at train stations.

Rotterdam has the largest port in Europe, with the rivers Meuse and Rhine providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching to Basel, Switzerland, and into France. As of 2013, Rotterdam was the world's eighth largest container port handling 440.5 million metric tonnes of cargo annually.[118] The port's main activities are petrochemical industries and general cargo handling and transshipment. The harbour functions as an important transit point for bulk materials and between the European continent and overseas. From Rotterdam goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. In 2007, the Betuweroute, a new fast freight railway from Rotterdam to Germany, was completed.

As part of its commitment to environmental sustainability, the Dutch government initiated a plan to establish over 200 recharging stations for electric vehicles across the country by 2015. The rollout will be undertaken by Switzerland-based power and automation company ABB and Dutch startup Fastned, and will aim to provide at least one station within a 50-kilometre radius (30 miles) from every home in the Netherlands.[119]

Demographics[edit]

Population of the Netherlands from 1900 to 2000

The Netherlands had an estimated population of 16,785,403 on 30 April 2013.[120] It is the 10th most populous country in Europe and the 63rd most populous country in the world. Between 1900 and 1950, the country's population almost doubled from 5.1 to 10.0 million people. From 1950 to 2000, the population further increased from 10.0 to 15.9 million people, but the rate of population growth was less than that of the previous fifty years.[121] The estimated growth rate in 2013 is 0.44%.[122]

The fertility rate in the Netherlands is 1.78 children per woman (2013 est[122]), which is high compared with many other European countries, but below the rate of 2.1 children per woman required for natural population replacement. Life expectancy is high in the Netherlands: 83.21 years for newborn girls and 78.93 for boys (2013 est[122]). The country has a migration rate of 1.99 migrants per 1,000 inhabitants per year.[122]

The majority of the population of the Netherlands is ethnically Dutch. A 2005 estimate counted: 80.9% Dutch, 2.4% Indonesian, 2.4% German, 2.2% Turkish, 2.0% Surinamese, 1.9% Moroccan, 0.8% Antillean and Aruban, and 7.4% others.[123] Some 150.000 to 200.000 people living in the Netherlands are Expatriates, mostly concentrated in and around Amsterdam and The Hague, now constituting almost 10% of the population of these cities.[124][125]
The Dutch are the tallest people in the world, with an average height of 1.81 metres (5 ft 11.3 in) for adult males and 1.67 metres (5 ft 5.7 in) for adult females in 2009.[126] People in the south are on average about 2 cm (0.8 inches) shorter than those in the north.

Dutch people, or descendants of Dutch people, are also found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in Canada, Australia, Brazil, South Africa and the United States. According to the 2006 US Census, more than 5 million Americans claim total or partial Dutch ancestry.[127] There are close to 3 million Dutch-descended Afrikaners living in South Africa.[128] In 1940, there were 290,000 Europeans and Eurasians in Indonesia,[129] but most have since left the country.[130] According to Eurostat, in 2010 there were 1.8 million foreign-born residents in the Netherlands, corresponding to 11.1% of the total population. Of these, 1.4 million (8.5%) were born outside the EU and 0.428 million (2.6%) were born in another EU Member State.[131]

The Netherlands is the 24th most densely populated country in the world, with 404.6 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,048/sq mi)—or 497 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,287/sq mi) if only the land area is counted. The Randstad is the country's largest conurbation located in the west of the country and contains the four largest cities: Amsterdam in the province North Holland, Rotterdam and The Hague in the province South Holland, and Utrecht in the province Utrecht. The Randstad has a population of 7 million inhabitants and is the 6th largest metropolitan area in Europe.


Language[edit]

The official language is Dutch, which is spoken by the vast majority of the inhabitants. Besides Dutch, West Frisian is recognized as a second official language in the northern province of Friesland (Fryslân in West Frisian).[133] West Frisian has a formal status for government correspondence in that province. In the European part of the Netherlands two other regional languages are recognized under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.[134] The first is Low Saxon (Nedersaksisch in Dutch) is recognised. Low Saxon consists of several dialects spoken in the north and east, like Twents in the region of Twente, and Drents in the province of Drenthe. Secondly, Limburgish is also recognised as regional language. It consists of Dutch varieties of Meuse-Rhenish Franconian languages and is spoken in the south-eastern province of Limburg.[60] The dialects most spoken in the Netherlands are the Brabantian-Hollandic dialects.[135]

Knowledge of foreign languages in the Netherlands, in percent of the population over 15, 2006. Data taken from an EU survey. ebs_243_en.pdf (europa.eu)

English has a formal status in the special municipalities of Saba and Sint Eustatius. It is widely spoken on these islands. Papiamento has a formal status in the special municipality of Bonaire. Yiddish and the Romani language were recognised in 1996 as non-territorial languages.[136]

The Netherlands has a tradition of learning foreign languages, formalized in Dutch education laws. Some 87% of the total population indicate they are able to converse in English, 70% in German, and 29% in French.[137] English is a mandatory course in all secondary schools.[138] In most lower level secondary school educations (vmbo), one additional modern foreign language is mandatory during the first two years.[139]

In higher level secondary schools (havo and vwo), two additional modern foreign languages are mandatory during the first three years. Only during the last three years in vwo one foreign language is mandatory. Besides English, the standard modern languages are French and German, although schools can replace one of these modern languages with Spanish, Turkish, Arabic, or Russian.[139] Additionally, schools in the Frisia region teach and have exams in Frisian, and schools across the country teach and have exams in classical Greek and Latin for secondary school (called gymnasium or vwo+).

Religion[edit]

The Netherlands was a predominantly Christian society until late into the 20th century, with a strong demarcation (pillarisation) between roughly the Catholic south on one side and the Calvinist north on the other side. In the 1960s, this started to diminish. Although religious diversity remains, there has been a decline of religious adherence. The Netherlands is one of the most secular countries in Western Europe, with only 39% being religiously affiliated (31% for those aged under 35), and fewer than 5.6% visiting church regularly (meaning once or more per month) in 2010. Religion is in the Netherlands generally considered a personal matter which is not supposed to be propagated in public.[140][141][142]

According to a Eurobarometer poll in 2010,[143] 28% of the Dutch citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", whereas 39% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force", and 30% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force". Since 1989, the unaffiliated have become mainstream, the number of adults without a religion in 2005 being at 51.3% and steadily growing. Almost all Christian groups show a decrease in the number of members or less stable membership. However, in particular the loss of members of the two major churches, which are the Roman Catholic Church in the Netherlands, with a membership loss of more than 300,000 members between late 2005 and late 2010, and the Protestant Church in the Netherlands, with a membership loss of more than 150,000 members, cause the number of Christians in the Netherlands to have decreased from approximately 7.132 million (44%) by the end of 2005 to 6.861 million (39%) [144] by the end of 2010. Also Ietsism, Agnosticism and Christian atheism are on the rise; the first two being general accepted and the last being more or less considered to be non-controversial.[145] A countervailing trend is produced by a religious revival in the Protestant Bible Belt, and the growth of Muslim and Hindu communities resulting from immigration and high birth rates.[146][147] The SCP (Sociaal Cultureel Planbureau) expects the number of non-affiliated Dutch to be at 72% in 2020.[148]

Different sources give very different percentages.[149] A 2007 research God in Nederland, based on in-depth interviews of 1132 people concluded that 61% of the Dutch are non-affiliated. Fewer than 7% attend church regularly (at least once a month). Similar studies were done in 1966, 1979 and 1996, showing a steady decline of religious affiliation. That this trend is likely to continue is illustrated by the fact that in the age group under 35, 69% are non-affiliated. However, those who do identify with a religious denomination tend to be more profoundly religious than in the past. Religious belief is also regarded as a very personal affair, as is illustrated by the fact that 60% of self-described believers are not affiliated with any organised religion. There is a stronger stress on positive sides of belief, with Hell and the concept of damnation being pushed into the background. One quarter of non-believers sometimes pray, but more in a sense of meditative self-reflection.[149]

Freedom of education has been guaranteed by the Dutch constitution since 1917, and schools run by religious groups (especially Catholic and Protestant) are funded by the government. All schools must meet strict quality criteria.

Three political parties in the Dutch parliament (CDA, ChristianUnion, and SGP) base their policy on Christian belief in varying degrees. Although the Netherlands is a secular state, in some municipalities where the Christian parties have the majority, the council meetings are opened by prayer.

Municipalities in general also give civil servants a day off on Christian religious holidays, such as Easter and the Ascension of Jesus.[150]





Circle frame.svg

Religion in the Netherlands (2005)[151]

  Irreligious (51.3%)
  Roman Catholicism (24.6%)
  Protestantism (14.8%)
  Islam (5.8%)
  Hinduism (1.4%)
  Buddhism (1.2%)
  Other Unspecified (0.9%)

Roman Catholicism[edit]

Currently, Roman Catholicism is the single largest religion of the Netherlands with around four million registered adherents which is 24% of the Dutch population in 2011.[152] In the second half of the twentieth century a rapid secularization took place in the Catholic parts of the Netherlands. In 2006 slightly more than half of the Brabantian people identified with Catholicism, but only 1–2% of the total population of that area attend mass, and these churchgoers consist mostly of people over 65 years old.[153] Since the provinces of North Brabant and Limburg are in the Netherlands historically most Roman Catholic, their people still use the term and some traditions as a base for their cultural identity rather than as a religious identity. The vast majority of the Catholic population in the Netherlands is now largely irreligious in practice. Research among Catholics in the Netherlands in 2007 shows that only 27% of the Dutch Catholics can be regarded as a theist, 55% as an ietsist / agnostic theist and 17% as agnostic.[154]

Protestantism[edit]

The Protestant Church in the Netherlands (PKN) follows with 10.8% of the population.[155] It was formed in 2004 as a merger of the two major strands of Calvinism: the Dutch Reformed Church, the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands and a smaller Lutheran Church. Other Protestant churches, both orthodox Calvinist and liberal churches did not merge into the PKN. The number of members falls on average by about 2.5% per year. This is caused primarily by the death of older members and little growth among the younger population.[156] Research in 2007 concludes that 42% of the members of the PKN is a non-theist.[154] Furthermore, in the Protestant Church in the Netherlands (PKN) and several other smaller denominations of the Netherlands, 1 in 6 clergy are either agnostic or atheist.[157]

Humanism[edit]

A research in 2003 shows that about 1.27 million people in the Netherlands express explicitly an affinity with secular humanism, which is about 9.4% of the total population.[158] Erasmus and Dirck Coornhert are important early representatives of humanism in the Netherlands in the 16th century. In the 17th century, especially Spinoza and Hugo Grotius were important. During the Age of Enlightenment (18th century), the importance of science and research increased sharply. Confidence in human understanding and logical reasoning was given shape in liberalism. The German philosophers Ludwig Feuerbach and Kant and the evolution theory of Darwin, among other scientific theories in the 19th century, had an exceptionally strong influence and were a major step in the development of humanism in the Netherlands. The modern organized humanist movement began in the Netherlands in the mid-nineteenth century with the establishment of freethinkers association De Dageraad (Dawn). The members, including writer Multatuli and later Anton Constandse. Marx' socialism had a significant influence on the Dutch humanism of the 20th century. With the establishment of the humanistic associations Humanitas in 1945 and the Humanistisch Verbond in 1946, Dutch humanists organized themselves after the Second World War. When the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the United Nations in 1948, the Dutch Humanist movements became involved with the establishment of the International Humanist and Ethical Union in 1952 (and since 1990 also the European Humanist Federation).[159]

Pluralism[edit]

Slightly more than half (52.8%) of the respondents to a research about humanism in 2003 affiliated with no religious or philosophical movement at all. In contrast 8% said to follow more than 1 movement. This form of pluralism occurs in all religious and philosophical Dutch movements, but is strongest among supporters of non-Western religions. 75% of Dutch Buddhists also affiliate with other religious or philosophical movements. Among followers of Hinduism in the Netherlands, this ratio is even higher, at 91%. On the other hand, followers of Western religions and humanism, as well as movements in the 'other' category were least likely to affiliate with more than one religious or philosophical movement. Within Western movements the people affiliating with humanism were most likely to also adhere to one or more other movements (47%). Most of these humanists adhere to Catholicism (27%), Protestantism (14%) or Buddhism (12%). Also 9% of Catholics, 6% of Protestants and 50% of the Buddhists counting themselves as humanists, as well as 25% of the Muslims, 55% of the Hindu, 19% of the Jews and 15% of the supporters of a movement other than these listed.[158]

Minority religions[edit]

Mosque in Rotterdam

In 2006, there were 850,000 Muslims.[160] As a result of different determination methods in 2012 this number had dropped to 825.000 (4% of the total Dutch population).[161] Muslim numbers began to rise after the 1970s as the result of immigration. Some migrants from former Dutch colonies, such as Surinam and Indonesia, were sometimes Muslim, but migrant workers from Turkey and Morocco are the biggest part, as well as their children. During the 1990s, the Netherlands opened its borders for Muslim refugees from countries like Bosnia and Herzegovina, Iran, Iraq, Somalia, and Afghanistan.[162] Muslims form a diverse group. Social tensions between native Dutch and migrant Muslims began to rise in the early 21st century, with the rise and murder of populist politician Pim Fortuyn by militant animal rights activist Volkert van der Graaf and the murder of Theo van Gogh by an extremist Muslim, Mohammed Bouyeri. There are about 1,500 Ahmadi Muslims in Netherlands.[163]

The Netherlands has an estimated 250,000 Buddhists or people who feel strongly attracted by this religion, mainly ethnic Dutch people. There are approximately 200,000 Hindus, most of them of Surinamese origin. Sikhs are another religious minority in the Netherlands, numbering around 12,000, mainly located in or around Amsterdam. There are five gurudwaras in the Netherlands. The Association of Religion Data Archives (relying on World Christian Encyclopedia) estimated some 6,400 Bahá'ís in 2005.[164]

Although the Holocaust deeply affected the Jewish community (killing about 75% of its 140,000 members at the time[165]), it has managed to rebuild a vibrant and lively Jewish life for its approximately 45,000 current members. Around 10% of the population of Amsterdam was Jewish at the start of World War II.[166]

Education[edit]

Education in the Netherlands is compulsory between the ages of 4 and 16, and partially compulsory between the ages of 16 and 18.

All children in the Netherlands usually attend elementary school from (on average) ages 4 to 12. It comprises eight grades, the first of which is facultative. Based on an aptitude test, the 8th grade teacher's recommendation and the opinion of the pupil's parents or caretakers, a choice is made for one of the three main streams of secondary education (after completing a particular stream, a pupil may still continue in the penultimate year of the next stream):

Culture[edit]

Symbols and icons of Dutch culture

Art, philosophy and literature[edit]

Main articles: Dutch art and Dutch literature

The Netherlands has had many well-known painters. The 17th century, in which the Dutch Republic was prosperous, was the age of the "Dutch Masters", such as Rembrandt van Rijn, Johannes Vermeer, Jan Steen, Jacob van Ruysdael and many others. Famous Dutch painters of the 19th and 20th century were Vincent van Gogh and Piet Mondriaan. M. C. Escher is a well-known graphics artist. Willem de Kooning was born and trained in Rotterdam, although he is considered to have reached acclaim as an American artist.

The Netherlands is the country of philosophers Erasmus of Rotterdam and Spinoza. All of Descartes' major work was done in the Netherlands. The Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens (1629–1695) discovered Saturn's moon Titan, argued that light travelled as waves, invented the pendulum clock and was the first physicist to use mathematical formulae. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe and describe single-celled organisms with a microscope.

In the Dutch Golden Age, literature flourished as well, with Joost van den Vondel and P. C. Hooft as the two most famous writers. In the 19th century, Multatuli wrote about the poor treatment of the natives in Dutch colonies. Important 20th century authors include Harry Mulisch, Jan Wolkers, Simon Vestdijk, Hella S. Haasse, Cees Nooteboom, Gerard (van het) Reve and Willem Frederik Hermans. Anne Frank's Diary of a Young Girl was published after she died in the Holocaust and translated from Dutch to all major languages.

Replicas of Dutch buildings can be found in Huis Ten Bosch, Nagasaki, Japan. A similar Holland Village is being built in Shenyang, China. Windmills, tulips, wooden shoes, cheese, Delftware pottery, and cannabis are among the items associated with the Netherlands by tourists.

The Netherlands has a long history of social tolerance and today is regarded as a liberal country, considering its drug policy and its legalisation of euthanasia. On 1 April 2001, the Netherlands became the first nation to legalise same-sex marriage.

Customs and etiquette[edit]

The Dutch have a code of etiquette which governs social behaviour and is considered important. Because of the international position of the Netherlands, many books have been written on the subject. Some customs may not be true in all regions and they are never absolute. In addition to those specific to the Dutch, many general points of European etiquette apply to the Dutch as well. Dutch society is egalitarian, individualistic and modern. The people tend to view themselves as modest, independent and self-reliant. They value ability over dependency. The Dutch have an aversion to the non-essential. Ostentatious behaviour is to be avoided. Accumulating money is fine, but public spending of large amounts of money is considered something of a vice and associated with being a show-off. A high lifestyle is considered wasteful and suspect with most people. The Dutch are proud of their cultural heritage, rich history in art and involvement in international affairs. Dutch manners are blunt with a no-nonsense attitude; informality combined with adherence to basic behaviour. This might be perceived as impersonal and patronising by other cultures, but is the norm in Dutch culture. According to a humorous source on Dutch culture, The UnDutchables: Their directness gives many the impression that they are rude and crude—attributes they prefer to call ‘openness’.[167] A well known more serious source on Dutch etiquette is "Dealing with the Dutch" from Jacob Vossestein: Dutch egalitarianism is the idea that people are equal, especially from a moral point of view, and accordingly, causes the somewhat ambiguous stance the Dutch have towards hierarchy and status.[168] As always, manners differ between groups. Asking about basic rules will not be considered impolite. What may strike you as being blatantly blunt topics and comments are no more embarrassing or unusual to the Dutch than discussing the weather.[167]

Music[edit]

The Netherlands has multiple music traditions. Traditional Dutch music is a genre known as "Levenslied", meaning Song of life, to an extent comparable to a French Chanson or a German Schlager. These songs typically have a simple melody and rhythm, and a straightforward structure of couplets and refrains. Themes can be light, but are often sentimental and include love, death and loneliness. Traditional musical instruments such as the accordion and the barrel organ are a staple of levenslied music, though in recent years many artists also use synthesizers and guitars. Artists in this genre include Jan Smit, Frans Bauer and the late André Hazes.

Rock singer Anouk at Festival Mundial in 2008

Contemporary Dutch rock and pop music (Nederpop) originated in the 1960s, heavily influenced by popular music from the United States and Britain. In the 1960s and 1970s the lyrics were mostly in English, and some tracks were instrumental. Bands such as Shocking Blue, (the) Golden Earring and Focus enjoyed international success. As of the 1980s, more and more pop musicians started working in the Dutch language, partly inspired by the huge success of the band Doe Maar. Today Dutch rock and pop music thrives in both languages, with some artists recording in either.
Current symphonic metal bands Epica and Within Temptation as well as jazz / pop singer Caro Emerald are having some international success. Contemporary local heroes include rock singer Anouk, country pop singer Ilse DeLange, rock band Kane and Dutch language duo Nick & Simon.

Early 1990s Dutch and Belgian house music came together in Eurodance project 2 Unlimited. Selling 18 million records,[169] the two singers in the band are the most successful Dutch music artists to this day. Tracks like "Get Ready for This" are still popular themes of U.S. sports events, like the NHL. In the mid 1990s Dutch language rap and hip hop (Nederhop) also came to fruition and has become popular in the Netherlands and Belgium. Artists with North African, Caribbean or Middle Eastern origins have strongly influenced this genre.

Since the 1990s Dutch electronic dance music (EDM) conquered the world in many forms, from trance, techno and gabber to hardstyle. Some of the world's best dance music DJs hail from the Netherlands, including Armin van Buuren, Tiësto, Hardwell, Martin Garrix, Sander van Doorn and Afrojack; the first three of which have been ranked as best in the world by DJ Mag Top 100 DJs. The Amsterdam dance event (ADE) is the world's leading electronic music conference and the biggest club festival for the many electronic sub-genres on the planet.[170][171] These artists also contribute significantly to the mainstream pop music played over the airwaves all around the world, as they frequently collaborate and produce for many notable artists.

In classical music, Jan Sweelinck ranks as the Netherlands' most famous composer, with Louis Andriessen amongst the best known living Dutch classical composers. Notable violinists are Janine Jansen and André Rieu. The latter, together with his Johann Strauss Orchestra, has taken classical and waltz music on worldwide concert tours, the size and revenue of which are otherwise only seen from the world's biggest rock and pop music acts.[172][173] Acclaimed harpist Lavinia Meijer in 2012 released an album with works from Philip Glass that she transcribed for harp, with approval of Glass himself.[174]
The Concertgebouw (completed in 1888) in Amsterdam is home to the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, considered one of the world's finest orchestras.[175]

Aruba and the five main islands of the Netherlands Antilles are part of the Lesser Antilles island chain. Their music is a mixture of native, African and Dutch elements, and is closely connected with trends from neighboring islands like Barbados, Martinique, Trinidad and Tobago and Guadeloupe, as well as the mainland former Dutch possession of Suriname, which has exported kaseko music to great success on the islands. Curaçao and Bonaire likely have the most active and well-known music scenes. Curaçao is known for a kind of music called tumba, which is named after the conga drums that accompany it.

Film and television[edit]

Some Dutch films – mainly by director Paul Verhoeven – have received international distribution and recognition, such as Turkish Delight ("Turks Fruit") (1973), Soldier of Orange ("Soldaat van Oranje") (1975), Spetters (1980) and The Fourth Man ("De Vierde Man") (1983). Verhoeven then went on to direct big Hollywood movies like RoboCop and Basic Instinct, and returned with Dutch film Black Book in 2006.

Other well-known Dutch film directors are Jan de Bont (Speed), Dick Maas (De Lift), Fons Rademakers (The Assault), documentary maker Bert Haanstra and Joris Ivens. Film director Theo van Gogh achieved international notoriety in 2004 when he was murdered in the streets of Amsterdam.

Internationally successful Dutch actors include Famke Janssen (X-Men films), Carice van Houten (Game of Thrones), Rutger Hauer (Blade Runner), Jeroen Krabbé and Derek de Lint.

The Netherlands has a well developed television market, with both multiple commercial and non-commercial broadcasters. Imported TV programmes, as well as interviews with responses in a foreign language, are virtually always shown with the original sound, and subtitled. The only exception are shows for children.

TV exports from the Netherlands mostly take the form of specific formats and franchises, most notably through internationally active TV production conglomerate Endemol, founded by Dutch media tycoons John de Mol and Joop van den Ende. Headquartered in Amsterdam, Endemol has around 90 companies in over 30 countries. Endemol and its subsidiaries create and run reality and talent game show franchises worldwide, including Big Brother, Deal or No Deal, and The Voice.

Sport[edit]

Dutch star football players Arjen Robben and Robin van Persie in a match in 2011

Approximately 4.5 million of the 16.8 million people in the Netherlands are registered to one of the 35,000 sports clubs in the country. About two-thirds of the population between 15 and 75 participates in sports weekly.[176] Football is the most popular participant sport in the Netherlands, before field hockey and volleyball as the second and third most popular team sports. Tennis, gymnastics and golf are the three most widely engaged individual sports.[177]

Organisation of sports began at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Federations for sports were established (such as the speed skating federation in 1882), rules were unified and sports clubs came into existence. A Dutch National Olympic Committee was established in 1912. Thus far, the nation has won 266 medals at the Summer Olympic Games and another 110 medals at the Winter Olympic Games.

In international competition Dutch national teams and athletes are dominant in several fields of sport. The Netherlands women's hockey team is the most successful team in World Cup history. The Netherlands baseball team have won the European championship 20 times out of 32 events. Dutch K-1 kickboxers have won the K-1 World Grand Prix 15 times out of 19 tournaments.
The Dutch speed skaters' performance at the 2014 Winter Olympics, where they won 8 out of 12 events, 23 out of 36 medals, including 4 clean sweeps, is the most dominant performance in a single sport in Olympic history.

Motorcycle racing at the TT Assen Circuit has a long history. Assen is the only venue to have held a round of the Motorcycle World Championship every year since its creation in 1949. The circuit was purpose built for the Dutch TT in 1954, with previous events having been held on public roads.

Cuisine[edit]

Main article: Dutch Cuisine
Example of traditional Dutch dinner: Brussels sprouts, boiled potatoes and sausage, including its gravy

Originally, the country's cuisine has been shaped by the practices of fishing and farming, including the cultivation of the soil for growing crops and raising domesticated animals. Dutch cuisine is simple and straightforward, and contains many dairy products. Breakfast and lunch are typically bread with toppings, with cereal for breakfast as an alternative. Traditionally, dinner consists of potatoes, a portion of meat, and (seasonal) vegetables. The Dutch diet was relatively high in carbohydrates and fat, reflecting the dietary needs of the labourers whose culture moulded the country. Without many refinements, it is best described as rustic, though many holidays are still celebrated with special foods. In the course of the twentieth century this diet changed and became much more cosmopolitan, with most global cuisines being represented in the major cities.

The Southern Dutch cuisine consists of the cuisines of the Dutch provinces of North Brabant and Limburg and the Flemish Region in Belgium. It is renowned for its many rich pastries, soups, stews and vegetable dishes and is often called Burgundian which is a Dutch idiom invoking the rich Burgundian court which ruled the Low Countries in the Middle Ages, renowned for its splendor and great feasts. It is the only Dutch culinary region that developed an haute cuisine.

In early 2014, Oxfam ranked the Netherlands as the country with the most nutritious, plentiful and healthy food, in a comparison of 125 countries.[178][179]

Colonial heritage[edit]

Main article: Dutch Empire
New Amsterdam as it appeared in 1664. Under British rule it became known as New York.

From the exploitations of the Dutch East India Company in the 17th century, to the colonisations in the 19th century, Dutch imperial possessions continued to expand, reaching their greatest extent by establishing a hegemony of the Dutch East Indies in the early 20th century. The Dutch East Indies, which later formed modern-day Indonesia, was one of the most valuable European colonies in the world and the most important one for the Netherlands.[180] Over 350 years of mutual heritage has left a significant cultural mark on the Netherlands.

In the Dutch Golden Age of the 17th century, the Netherlands urbanised considerably, mostly financed by corporate revenue from the Asian trade monopolies. Social status was based on merchants' income, which reduced feudalism and considerably changed the dynamics of Dutch society. When the Dutch Royal Family was established in 1815, much of its wealth came from Colonial trade.[181]

Universities such as the Royal Leiden University, founded in the 16th century, have developed into leading knowledge centres for South-east Asian and Indonesian studies.[182] Leiden University has produced leading academics such as Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje, and still has academics who specialise in Indonesian languages and cultures. Leiden University and in particular KITLV are educational and scientific institutions that to this day share both an intellectual and historical interest in Indonesian studies. Other scientific institutions in the Netherlands include the Amsterdam Tropenmuseum, an anthropological museum with massive collections of Indonesian art, culture, ethnography and anthropology.

A European doctor vaccinates Indonesian patients.

The traditions of the Royal Dutch East Indies Army (KNIL) are maintained by the Regiment Van Heutsz of the modern Royal Netherlands Army. A dedicated Bronbeek Museum, a former home for retired KNIL soldiers, exists in Arnhem to this day.

A specific segment of Dutch literature called Dutch Indies literature still exists and includes established authors, such as Louis Couperus, the writer of "The Hidden Force", taking the colonial era as an important source of inspiration.[183] One of the great masterpieces of Dutch literature is the book "Max Havelaar", written by Multatuli in 1860.[184]

The majority of Dutchmen that repatriated to the Netherlands after and during the Indonesian revolution are Indo (Eurasian), native to the islands of the Dutch East Indies. This relatively large Eurasian population had developed over a period of 400 years and were classified by colonial law as belonging to the European legal community.[185] In Dutch they are referred to as Indische Nederlanders or as Indo (short for Indo-European).[186]

Including their second generation descendants, Indos are currently the largest foreign-born group in the Netherlands. In 2008, the Dutch Census Bureau for Statistics (CBS)[187] registered 387,000 first- and second-generation Indos living in the Netherlands.[188] Although considered fully assimilated into Dutch society, as the main ethnic minority in the Netherlands, these 'repatriants' have played a pivotal role in introducing elements of Indonesian culture into Dutch mainstream culture.

Practically every town in the Netherlands has a 'Toko' (Dutch Indonesian Shop) or an Indonesian restaurant[189] and many 'Pasar Malam' (Night market in Malay/Indonesian) fairs are organised throughout the year. Many Indonesian dishes and foodstuffs have become commonplace in the Netherlands. Rijsttafel, a colonial culinary concept, and dishes such as Nasi goreng and satay are very popular in the Netherlands.[190]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The official motto is in French. The literal translation into English is "I will maintain"; a better translation, however, is "I will hold firm" or "I will uphold" (namely, the integrity and independence of the territory).[original research?]
  2. ^ While Amsterdam is the constitutional capital, The Hague is the seat of the government.
  3. ^ West Frisian (Friesland),[1] Papiamento (Bonaire)[2] and English (Sint Eustatius and Saba)[2] have a formal status in certain parts of the country. Dutch Low Saxon and Limburgish are recognised as regional languages by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.
  4. ^ The euro is used in the European Netherlands and replaced the Dutch guilder in 2002. The US dollar is used in the Caribbean Netherlands and replaced the Netherlands Antillean guilder in 2011.[8]
  5. ^ CET and CEST are used in the European Netherlands, and AST is used in the Caribbean Netherlands.
  6. ^ 599 was the country code designated for the now dissolved Netherlands Antilles. The Caribbean Netherlands still use 599-7 (Bonaire), 599-3 (Sint Eustatius) and 599-4 (Saba).
  7. ^ The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. .bq is designated, but not in use, for the Caribbean Netherlands.

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Coordinates: 52°19′N 5°33′E / 52.317°N 5.550°E / 52.317; 5.550