Nerium

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Nerium
Nerium oleander in flower
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Asterids
Order:Gentianales
Family:Apocynaceae
Subfamily:Apocynoideae
Tribe:Wrightieae
Genus:Nerium
L.
Species:N. oleander
Binomial name
Nerium oleander
L.
Synonyms

Nerium indicum Mill.
Nerium odorum Aiton[1]

 
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Nerium
Nerium oleander in flower
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Asterids
Order:Gentianales
Family:Apocynaceae
Subfamily:Apocynoideae
Tribe:Wrightieae
Genus:Nerium
L.
Species:N. oleander
Binomial name
Nerium oleander
L.
Synonyms

Nerium indicum Mill.
Nerium odorum Aiton[1]

Nerium oleander /ˈnɪəriəm ˈl.ændər/[2] is an evergreen shrub or small tree in the dogbane family Apocynaceae, toxic in all its parts. It is the only species currently classified in the genus Nerium. It is most commonly known as oleander, from its superficial resemblance to the unrelated olive Olea.[Note 1] It is so widely cultivated that no precise region of origin has been identified, though southwest Asia has been suggested. The ancient city of Volubilis in Morocco may have taken its name from the Berber name oualilt for the flower.[3] Oleander is one of the most poisonous of commonly grown garden plants.

Description[edit]

A seed capsule spreading seeds

Oleander grows to 2–6 m (6.6–20 ft) tall, with erect stems that splay outward as they mature; first-year stems have a glaucous bloom, while mature stems have a grayish bark. The leaves are in pairs or whorls of three, thick and leathery, dark-green, narrow lanceolate, 5–21 cm (2.0–8.3 in) long and 1–3.5 cm (0.39–1.38 in) broad, and with an entire margin. The flowers grow in clusters at the end of each branch; they are white, pink to red,[Note 2] 2.5–5 cm (0.98–2.0 in) diameter, with a deeply 5-lobed fringed corolla round the central corolla tube. They are often, but not always, sweet-scented.[Note 3] The fruit is a long narrow capsule 5–23 cm (2.0–9.1 in) long, which splits open at maturity to release numerous downy seeds.

Habitat and range[edit]

Oleander shrub, Morocco

N. oleander is either native or naturalized to a broad area from Mauritania, Morocco, and Portugal eastward through the Mediterranean region and the Sahara (where it is only found sporadically), to the Arabian peninsula, southern Asia, and as far East as Yunnan in southern parts of China.[4][5][6][7] It typically occurs around dry stream beds. Nerium oleander is planted in many subtropical and tropical areas of the world. On the East Coast of the US, it can be planted as far north as Virginia Beach, Virginia, while in California and Texas it is naturalized as a median strip planting.[citation needed]

Garden history[edit]

In his book Enquiries into Plants of ca. 300 BC, Theophrastus described, (among plants that affect the mind,) a shrub he called onotheras, which modern editors render oleander; "the root of onotheras [oleander] administered in wine," he alleges, "makes the temper gentler and more cheerful".

The plant has a leaf like that of the almond, but smaller, and the flower is red like a rose. The plant itself (which loves hilly country) forms a large bush; the root is red and large, and, if this is dried, it gives off a fragrance like wine.

In another mention, of "wild bay" (Daphne agria), Theophrastus appears to intend the same shrub.[8]

Willa Cather, in her book The Song of the Lark, mentions oleander in the following passage:

This morning Thea saw to her delight that the two oleander trees, one white and one red, had been brought up from their winter quarters in the cellar. There is hardly a German family in the most arid parts of Utah, New Mex­ico, Arizona, but has its oleander trees. However loutish the American­-born sons of the family may be, there was never one who refused to give his muscle to the back-­breaking task of getting those tubbed trees down into the cellar in the fall and up into the sunlight in the spring. They may strive to avert the day, but they grapple with the tub at last.[9]

Oleander is the official flower of the city of Hiroshima, having been the first to bloom following the atomic bombing of the city in 1945.[10]

Uses and effects[edit]

Bud of a white-flowered cultivar

Ornamental gardening[edit]

Oleander grows well in warm subtropical regions, where it is extensively used as an ornamental plant in landscapes, in parks, and along roadsides. It is drought-tolerant and will tolerate occasional light frost down to −10 °C (14 °F).[7] It is commonly used in landscaping freeway medians in California, Texas and other mild-winter states in the Continental United States because it is upright in habit and easily maintained. Its toxicity renders it deer-resistant. It is tolerant of poor soils and drought. Oleander can also be grown in cooler climates in greenhouses and conservatories, or as indoor plants that can be kept outside in the summer. Oleander flowers are showy and fragrant and are grown for these reasons. Over 400 cultivars have been named, with several additional flower colours not found in wild plants having been selected, including red, purple, pink, and orange; white and a variety of pinks are the most common. Many cultivars also have double flowers. Young plants grow best in spaces where they do not have to compete with other plants for nutrients.

Toxicity[edit]

Nerium oleander has historically been considered a poisonous plant because some of its compounds may exhibit toxicity, especially to animals, when consumed in high amounts. Among these compounds are oleandrin and oleandrigenin, known as cardiac glycosides, which are known to have a narrow therapeutic index and can be toxic when ingested.

Toxicity studies of animals administered oleander extract concluded that rodents and birds were observed to be relatively insensitive to oleander cardiac glycosides.[11] Other mammals, however, such as dogs and humans, are relatively sensitive to the effects of cardiac glycosides and the clinical manifestations of "glycoside intoxication".[11][12][13]

However, despite the common "poisonous" designation of this plant, very few toxic events in humans have been reported. According to the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS) in 2002 there were 847 human exposures to oleander reported to poison centers in the United States.[14] Despite this exposure level, from 1985 through 2005, only three deaths were reported. One cited death was apparently due to the ingestion of oleander leaves by a diabetic man.[15] His blood indicated a total blood concentration of cardiac glycosides of approximately 20 μg/L which is well above the reported fatal level. Another study reported on the death of a woman who self-administered "an undefined oleander extract" both orally and rectally and her oleandrin tissue levels were 10 to 39 μg/g which were in the high range of reported levels at autopsy.[16] And, finally, one study reported the death of a woman who ingested oleander 'tea'.[17] Few other details were provided.

In contrast to consumption of these undefined oleander derived materials, there is no toxicity or deaths reported from topical administration or contact with Nerium oleander or specific products derived from them. In reviewing oleander toxicity Lanford and Boor[18] concluded that, except for children who might be at greater risk, "the human mortality associated with oleander ingestion is generally very low, even in cases of moderate intentional consumption (suicide attempts)".[18]

Toxicity studies that have been conducted in dogs and rodents administered oleander extracts by intramuscular (IM) injection indicated that on an equivalent weight basis, doses of an oleander extract with glycosides ten times in excess of those likely to be administered therapeutically to humans are still safe and without any "severe toxicity observed".[19]

Effects of poisoning[edit]

Oleandrin, one of the toxins present in Oleander

Reactions to ingestion of this plant can include both gastrointestinal and cardiac effects. The gastrointestinal effects can consist of nausea and vomiting, excess salivation, abdominal pain, diarrhea that may or may not contain blood, and especially in horses, colic.[6] Cardiac reactions consist of irregular heart rate, sometimes characterized by a racing heart at first that then slows to below normal further along in the reaction. The heart may also beat erratically with no sign of a specific rhythm. Extremities may become pale and cold due to poor or irregular circulation. Reactions to poisonings from this plant can also affect the central nervous system. These symptoms can include drowsiness, tremors or shaking of the muscles, seizures, collapse, and even coma that can lead to death.

Oleander sap can cause skin irritations, severe eye inflammation and irritation, and allergic reactions characterized by dermatitis.[20]

Treatment[edit]

Poisoning and reactions to oleander plants are evident quickly, requiring immediate medical care in suspected or known poisonings of both humans and animals.[20] Induced vomiting and gastric lavage are protective measures to reduce absorption of the toxic compounds. Charcoal may also be administered to help absorb any remaining toxins.[6] Further medical attention may be required and will depend on the severity of the poisoning and symptoms. Temporary cardiac pacing will be required in many cases (usually for a few days) till the toxin is excreted.

Digoxin Immune Fab is the best way to cure an oleander poisoning if inducing vomiting has no or minimal success, although it is usually used only for life-threatening conditions due to side-effects.[citation needed]

Drying of plant materials does not eliminate the toxins. It is also hazardous for animals such as sheep, horses, cattle and other grazing animals, with as little as 100 g being enough to kill an adult horse.[21] Plant clippings are especially dangerous to horses, as they are sweet. In July 2009, several horses were poisoned in this manner from the leaves of the plant.[22] Symptoms of a poisoned horse include severe diarrhea and abnormal heartbeat. There is a wide range of toxins and secondary compounds within oleander, and care should be taken around this plant due to its toxic nature. Different names for oleander are used around the world in different locations, so, when encountering a plant with this appearance, regardless of the name used for it, one should exercise great care and caution to avoid ingestion of any part of the plant, including its sap and dried leaves or twigs. The dried or fresh branches should not be used for spearing food, for preparing a cooking fire, or as a food skewer. Many of the oleander relatives, such as the Desert Rose (Adenium obesum) found in East Africa, have similar leaves and flowers and are equally toxic.

Therapeutic efficacy[edit]

Drugs derived from Nerium oleander have been investigated as a treatment for cancer.[23][24] According to the American Cancer Society the trials have produced no evidence of benefit, but they did however cause adverse side-effects.[25]

Ecology[edit]

Some invertebrates are known to be unaffected by oleander toxins, and feed on the plants. Caterpillars of the Oleander or Polka-Dot Wasp Moth (Syntomeida epilais) feed specifically on oleanders and survive by eating only the pulp surrounding the leaf-veins, avoiding the fibers. Larvae of the Common Crow Butterfly (Euploea core) also feed on oleanders. The Common Crow larvae retain or modify toxins, making them unpalatable to would-be predators such as birds, but not to other invertebrates such as spiders and wasps.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cf. oleaster
  2. ^ The "Yellow Oleander" is Thevetia peruviana.
  3. ^ In the past, scented plants were sometimes treated as the distinct species N. odorum, but the character is not constant and it is no longer regarded as a separate taxon.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Nerium oleander L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1998-03-09. Retrieved 2010-06-26. 
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  3. ^ "Archaeological Site of Volubilis". African World Heritage Fund. Retrieved 2013-05-12. 
  4. ^ Pankhurst, R. (editor). Nerium oleander L. Flora Europaea. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. Retrieved on 2009-07-27.
  5. ^ Bingtao Li, Antony J. M. Leeuwenberg, and D. J. Middleton. "Nerium oleander L.", Flora of China. Harvard University. Retrieved on 2009-07-27.
  6. ^ a b c INCHEM (2005). Nerium oleander L. (PIM 366). International Programme on Chemical Safety: INCHEM. Retrieved on 2009-07-27
  7. ^ a b Huxley, A.; Griffiths, M.; Levy, M. (eds.) (1992). The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  8. ^ Theophrastus. Inquiry into Plants, A. F. Hort, tr. Loeb Classical Library. pp. I.9.3, IX.19.1. 
  9. ^ Cather, Willa (1915). "IV". The Song of the Lark. Project Gutenberg. p. 26. 
  10. ^ http://arnoldia.arboretum.harvard.edu/pdf/articles/892.pdf
  11. ^ a b Szabuniewicz M, Schwartz WL, McCrady JD, et al. (1972). "Experimental oleander poisoning and treatment". Southwestern Vet 25 (2): 105–114. 
  12. ^ Szabuniewicz, M., Schwartz, W.L., McCrady, J.D., Russell, L.H. and Camp, B.J. (1971) Treatment of experimentally induced oleander poisoning. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 189, 12–21.
  13. ^ Hougen, T.J., Lloyd, B.L. and Smith, T.W. (1979) Effects of inotropic and arrhythmogenic digoxin doses and of digoxin-specific antibody on myocardial monovalent cation trans-port in the dog. Circ. Res. 44, 23–31.
  14. ^ Watson, William A., et al. 2003. 2002 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 21 (5): 353-421.
  15. ^ Wasfi, Ibrahim A.; Zorob, Omar; Al Katheeri, Nawal A.; Al Awadhi, Anwar M. (2008). "A fatal case of oleandrin poisoning". Forensic Science International 179 (2–3): e31–6. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2008.05.002. PMID 18602779. 
  16. ^ Blum, L. M. & F. Reiders (1987). "Oleandrin distribution in a fatality from rectal and oral Nerium oleander extract administration". Journal of Analytical Toxicology 11 (5): 219–221. PMID 3682781. 
  17. ^ Haynes, B. E., H. A. Bessen & W. D. Wightman (1985). "Oleander tea: herbal draught of death". Annals of Emergency Medicine 14 (4): 350–353. doi:10.1016/S0196-0644(85)80103-7. PMID 4039113. 
  18. ^ a b S. D. Langford & P. J. Boor (1996). "Oleander toxicity: an examination of human and animal toxic exposures". Toxicology 109 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1016/0300-483X(95)03296-R. PMID 8619248. 
  19. ^ Rhodes JW. Non-GLP Single Dose Lethality Assessment of Nerium Oleander (NOI) by Intramuscular Administration in the Rat. Southwest Research Institute Project 12-7547-029.
  20. ^ a b Goetz, Rebecca. J. (1998). "Oleander". Indiana Plants Poisonous to Livestock and Pets. Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue University. Retrieved on 2009-07-27.
  21. ^ Knight, A. P. (1999). "Guide to Poisonous Plants: Oleander". Colorado State University. Retrieved on 2009-07-27.
  22. ^ Trevino, Monica. 2009.Dozens of horses poisoned at California farm. CNN: Crime. Retrieved on 2009-08-03
  23. ^ Henary, HA; Kurzrock, R; Falchook; et al, GS (2011). "Final Results of a First-in-Human Phase 1 Trial of PBI-05204, and Inhibitor of AKT, FGF-2, NF-Kb and P70S6K in Advanced Cancer Patients". J Clin Oncol 29 (supplement; abstract 3023). 
  24. ^ Newman, R. A.; Yang, P.; Pawlus, A. D.; Block, K. I. (2008). "Cardiac Glycosides as Novel Cancer Therapeutic Agents". Molecular Interventions 8 (1): 36–49. doi:10.1124/mi.8.1.8. PMID 18332483. 
  25. ^ "Oleander Leaf". American Cancer Society. Retrieved April, 2013. 

External links[edit]