Nepalese Constituent Assembly election, 2013

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Nepalese Constituent Assembly election, 2013
2008 ←
19 November 2013
→ Next

575 (of the 601) seats to the Nepalese Constituent Assembly
301 seats needed for a majority
 First partySecond partyThird party
 Sushil Koirala.jpgJhala Nath Khanal portrait.jpgPrachanda 2009.jpg
LeaderSushil KoiralaJhala Nath KhanalPushpa Kamal Dahal
PartyNepali CongressCommunist Party of Nepal (UML)UCPN (Maoist)
Leader's seatBanke - 1, Chitwan - 4Ilam - 1. Sarlahi - 1Kathmandu- 10, Siraha - 5
Last election115 seats108 seats229 seats
Seats won196 seats175 seats80 seats
Popular vote2,694,983 (FPTP)
2,418,370 (Prop.)
2,492,090 (FPTP)
2,239,609 (Prop.)
1,609,145 (FPTP)
1,439,726 (Prop.)
Percentage29.80% (FPTP)
25.55% (Prop.)
27.55% (FPTP)
23.66% (Prop.)
15.21% (Prop.)
SwingIncrease7.01% (FPTP)
Increase4.41% (Prop.)
Increase5.92% (FPTP)
Increase3.33% (Prop.)
Decrease12.27% (FPTP)
Decrease14.07 (Prop.)

Prime Minister before election

Khil Raj Regmi

Elected Prime Minister


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Nepalese Constituent Assembly election, 2013
2008 ←
19 November 2013
→ Next

575 (of the 601) seats to the Nepalese Constituent Assembly
301 seats needed for a majority
 First partySecond partyThird party
 Sushil Koirala.jpgJhala Nath Khanal portrait.jpgPrachanda 2009.jpg
LeaderSushil KoiralaJhala Nath KhanalPushpa Kamal Dahal
PartyNepali CongressCommunist Party of Nepal (UML)UCPN (Maoist)
Leader's seatBanke - 1, Chitwan - 4Ilam - 1. Sarlahi - 1Kathmandu- 10, Siraha - 5
Last election115 seats108 seats229 seats
Seats won196 seats175 seats80 seats
Popular vote2,694,983 (FPTP)
2,418,370 (Prop.)
2,492,090 (FPTP)
2,239,609 (Prop.)
1,609,145 (FPTP)
1,439,726 (Prop.)
Percentage29.80% (FPTP)
25.55% (Prop.)
27.55% (FPTP)
23.66% (Prop.)
15.21% (Prop.)
SwingIncrease7.01% (FPTP)
Increase4.41% (Prop.)
Increase5.92% (FPTP)
Increase3.33% (Prop.)
Decrease12.27% (FPTP)
Decrease14.07 (Prop.)

Prime Minister before election

Khil Raj Regmi

Elected Prime Minister


Sample ballot paper for Proportional Representations(PR) for Constituent Assembly election 2013

Constituent Assembly elections were held in Nepal on 19 November 2013.[1] The vote was repeatedly delayed,[2] having previously been planned for 22 November 2012 following the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly on 27 May 2012, but it was put off by the election commission.[3]


Following King Gyanendra's suspension of Parliament and government takeover during the Nepalese Civil War, mass protests led to him to re-instate Parliament and end the war fought by the government against the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), on the condition that the constitution would be re-written. The king's powers were also removed and an election was held in 2008 to elect a Constituent Assembly. The Constituent Assembly was tasked with writing a new constitution; however, its deadline was extended several times, with the last one set for 27 May 2012.

In the lead up to the deadline, there were several violent protests by a variety of ethnic groups outside the Parliament building. Rallies were then banned in the area and around the PM's office with riot police guarding against protests and the Nepali Army on high alert in case the situation could not be controlled. Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai called for a new election on 22 November after the deadline passed, with a possibility of a state of emergency. A member of his party, Post Bahadur Bogati, announced that "it is not possible to promulgate the constitution within the deadline now. That possibility is out, 100 percent."

On the deadline day there were large protests as talks between the CPN (Maoist), Nepali Congress, Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) and the Madhesi Front were ongoing. The talks broke down after the incumbent CPN (Maoist)'s demands for 10 to 14 new provinces largely along ethnic groups lines, which was supported by several small Madhesi parties calling for autonomy, was opposed by the Nepali Congress and the CPN (UML). CPN (Maoist) member Narayankaji Shrestha said that "a constitution is not possible without federal states recognising the identity of ethnic groups." The opponents of the proposal said the move could lead to tensions amongst different castes. Ram Sharan Mahat of the Nepali Congress said that the CPN (Maoist) "want[ed] to kill the assembly, not make the constitution" in order to stay in power. At a cabinet session that night CPN (UML) general secretary and Deputy Prime Minister Ishwor Pokharel walked out saying that the move was "unconstitutional, neither is it based on political consensus." However, the Madhesi leader Laxman Lal Karna said that "in the afternoon, the NC and the [CPN-]UML had said there was no chance of a deal. Let us go for polls. We have done the democratic thing."[4][5] The CPN (Maoist)'s Barsha Man Pun then announced the election saying that "we had no other alternative. We apologise for not being able to prepare the constitution."[6]

The Nepali Congress claimed the delays were a ploy by the UCPN (M) to remain in power and that Maoist-led government's "unilateral decision was unexpected".[7] However, according to an AFP interview on Rajkishore Yadav, the Maoist-led government "wanted to conduct elections in November 22" but the election commission insisted that "the lack of a workable constitution meant there were no legal provisions for holding a vote".[8]

In mid-September 2013, an opposition one-day strike called for the cancellation of the election.[9]

Opinion polls[edit]

In mid-2011, an opinion indicated that 45% of respondents opposed an extension of the CA's mandate. A majority of respondents were uncertain about who they would vote for. Similarly, there were calls for a fresh election by opposition politicians at the time. Most respondents also said a new constitution was the top most priority.[10]

In the Himal Media opinion poll conducted in March 2013, voters expressed a slight preference for the Nepali Congress,14.9%, over the CPN (UML), 11.3%, and UCPN (Maoist), 7.3%.[11]


In the morning of the election, a bomb exploded near a voting station wounding three people after a boy picked up what he though was a toy that then exploded. It also follows days of similar attacks by those opposed to the election.[12] On December 16, Mohan Baidya, Chairman of the breakaway CPN(Maoist) which had boycotted the elections publicly stated his party had planted bombs across the country prior to the elections.[13]


Voters turned out in record numbers with nation-wide turnout averaging 78.34% [14] breaking the previous record of 68.15% in the 1991 general elections.[15] The highest turnout was in Dolpa-1 at 89.5% and the lowest in Baitadi-2 at 67.32%.


Initial results showed the Nepali Congress winning a plurality of the first-past-the-post seats with 105 of the 240 seats; the CPM-UML close behind with 91; and the CPN (Maoist) far behind, winning just 26. Smaller parties and two independent candidates won the remaining 18 seats.[16] 335 seats were allotted by proportional representation using a modified Sainte-Laguë method of allocation.

Nepali Congress2,694,98329.801052,418,37025.5591
Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist)2,492,09027.55912,239,60923.6684
Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist)1,609,14517.79261,439,72615.2154
Rastriya Prajatantra Party Nepal252,5792.790630,6976.6624
Madhesi Jana Adhikar Forum, Nepal (Loktantrik)283,4683.134274,9872.9110
Rastriya Prajatantra Party238,3132.633260,2342.7510
Madhesi Jana Adhikar Forum, Nepal206,1102.282214,3192.268
Tarai-Madhesh Loktantrik Party171,8891.904181,1401.917
Sadbhavana Party140,9301.561133,2711.415
Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist) (2002)98,0911.080130,3001.385
Federal Socialist Party108,6831.200121,2741.285
Rastriya Janamorcha66,6660.74092,3870.983
Communist Party of Nepal (United)24,8080.27091,9970.973
Rashtriya Madhesh Samajwadi Party76,3920.84079,5080.843
Nepal Workers Peasants Party54,3230.60166,7780.713
Rastriya Janamukti Party39,3520.44063,8340.672
Terai Madhes Sadbhavana Party65,0470.72162,7460.662
Tharuhat Tarai Party Nepal38,9720.43062,5260.662
Nepal Pariwar Dal14,5460.16051,8230.552
Dalit Janajati Party33,5080.37048,8020.522
Akhanda Nepal Party12,5900.14036,8830.391
Madeshi Janadikar Forum (Gantantrik)35,2890.39033,9820.361
Nepali Janata Dal6,8160.08033,2030.351
Khambuwan Rashtriya Morcha, Nepal6,4510.07030,6860.321
Nepa Rastriya Party9,3770.10028,0110.301
Jana Jagaran Party Nepal3,5100.04027,3970.291
Sanghiya Sadhbhawana Party20,3950.23025,2150.271
Madhesh Samata Party Nepal8,1300.09023,0010.241
Samajwadi Janata Party4,6610.05021,6240.231
Sanghiya Loktantrik Rastriya Manch (Tharuhat)4,6220.05021,1280.221
Sanghiya Gantantrik Samajwadi Party Nepal8,9500.10018,6310.200
Nepal Communist Party8,2910.09018,1400.190
Nepal Yuwa Kisan Party2,4570.03016,2040.170
Nepal Janata Party2,4410.03015,6500.170
Nepal Sadbhawana Party12,5720.14015,5780.160
Khas Samabeshi Rashtriya Party6,0350.07015,2250.160
Terai Madhesh Pahad Himal Ekata Party2,2120.02012,4660.130
Akhanda Sudhur Pashchim Party5,5480.06012,3340.130
Madhesh Terai Forum3,6320.04011,2860.120
Rashtriya Swabhiman Party Nepal1,5500.02011,2700.120
Lok Dal7480.01010,9530.120
Janata Dal Nepal3500.00010,6450.110
Nepal Loktantrik Samajwadi Dal1,5520.02010,3590.110
Janata Dal Loktantrik Party1,4780.02010,0180.110
Jana Prajatantrik Party1,3180.0108,6450.090
Shiva Sena Nepal3,4790.0408,4160.090
Picchada Barga Nishad Dalit Janajati Party2550.0008,3320.090
Mongol National Organization4,6690.0508,2150.090
Nava Nepal Nirman Party1,3980.0208,1190.090
Chure Babar Rashtriya Ekata Party2,4100.0307,9750.080
Nepal Shanti Chhetra Parishad410.0007,7570.080
Nepal Gantantrik Ekata Party0007,1780.080
Sanghiya Limbuwan Rajya Parishad3,0630.0307,0630.070
Bishwa Satyabadi Party1110.0006,6660.070
Sahakari Party Nepal8470.0106,1410.060
Rashtirya Janata Dal Nepal2,5690.0306,0970.060
Shanti Party Nepal1,6590.0206,0320.060
Sanghiya Samabeshi Samajwadi Party, Nepal650.0005,9780.060
Garib Ekta Samaj Party, Nepal4210.0005,8590.060
Madhesi Janadikar Forum Madhesh2,1970.0205,8140.060
Rashtriya Yatharthabadi Party Nepal9530.0105,5050.060
Nepal Ama Party1,5420.0205,4910.060
Janata Dal United5220.0105,3960.060
Rashtriya Shiva Sena Party1,9590.0205,3710.060
Rashtriya Madhesh Bahujan Samajwadi Party8690.0105,3010.060
Samyukta Rashtrabadi Morcha Nepal8120.0105,2250.060
Rashtriya Mukti Andolan Nepal1670.0005,2160.060
Churebavar Loktantrik Party5660.0105,0850.050
Nepal Nagarik Party6910.0104,8610.050
Nepal Labour Party9820.0104,8370.050
Nepal Sadbhawana Party (Gajendrawadi)1,6790.0204,8240.050
Rashtriya Nagarik Party2900.0004,6680.050
Churebavar Rashtriya Party5770.0104,6500.050
Nepal Sadbhawana Party (United)1,2850.0104,5780.050
Bahujan Samaj Party Nepal4600.0004,5220.050
Jantantrik Terai Madhes Mukti Tigers2,7550.0304,3700.050
Hindu Prajatantrik Party, Nepal1780.0004,2150.040
Naya Nepal Rashtriya Party550.0004,1400.040
Jana Unity-Cooperative Party of Nepal2,1250.0204,0660.040
Nepal Samabeshi Party1310.0103,8820.040
Deshbhakta Samaaj7030.0103,8660.040
Limbuwan Mukti Morcha3980.0003,7480.040
Liberal Democratic Party4070.0003,7210.040
Nepal Jana Sambeshi Ekata Party1420.0003,6740.040
Nepal Communist Party (ML-Socialist)7880.0103,6610.040
Janata Party Nepal1,3540.0103,5950.040
Rashtriya Churebavar Party4030.0003,4840.040
Nepal Gauravshali Party1160.0003,3880.040
Nepal Rashtriya Bikash Party5500.0103,3730.040
Rashtriya Ekata Party7500.0103,3650.040
Social Republican Party5410.0103,3600.040
Deshbhakta Paryavaraniya Samajik Morcha2170.0003,2930.030
United Green Organization940.0003,2290.030
Jana Morcha Nepal8760.0103,1810.030
Nepal Rashtra Sewa Dal1830.0003,1270.030
Loktantrik Party - Nepal2490.0003,1070.030
Rastriya Jana Bikas Party670.0003,1020.030
Matribhumi Nepal Dal4400.0003,0990.030
Naya Sanghiyata Janadharana Party00.0003,0070.030
Nepal Rashtriya Yatayat Bikash Dal120.0002,9520.030
Rashtrabadi Ekata Party3940.0002,9050.030
Limbuwan Mukti Morcha Nepal7410.0102,8440.030
Nepal Samajwadi Party (Lohiaite)7430.0102,7430.030
Sanghiya Bikashbadi Party Nepal00.0002,6520.030
Rashtrabadi Janata Party7620.0102,5050.030
Nepal Janabhawana Party280.0002,4390.030
Nepal Nyayik Dal1460.0002,3790.030
Tamangsaling Rashtriya Janaekta Party360.0002,3080.020
Samyukta Jana Morcha1470.0002,2250.020
Shramik Janata Party - Nepal450.0002,0340.020
Rashtriya Madhesh Ekata Party, Nepal8500.0102,0310.020
Om Sena Nepal180.0002,0110.020
Hariyali Party Nepal2510.0001,9270.020
Nepal Madhesi Janata Dal (S)3340.0001,9020.020
Nepal Shramjivi Dal400.0001,8910.020
Yuwa Shakti Nepal Party220.0001,8200.020
League Nepal Shanti Ekata Party4350.0001,8130.020
Loktantrik Janata Party Nepal1350.0001,7290.020
Terai Pahad Himal Samaj Party810.0001,6970.020
Rashtriya Loktantrik Yuwa Party340.0001,1910.010
Nepali Janata Party00.0009960.010
Garib Janatako Kranti Party6820.00000.000
Communist Party of Nepal (MLM) Communist2470.0007,7810.000
Source: Election Commission, Nepal, Republica



The UCPN (Maoist) leader Prachanda protested the conduct of the election, alleging fraud, and threatening to withdraw from the Constituent Assembly. However domestic and international pressure mounted and various political leaders from Nepali Congress and CPN UML urged Unified Maoist to accept the peoples verdict and get involved in the process of a peaceful CA.[17] Subsequently an internal assessment by the party concluded vote-rigging was not the cause of the party's defeat and mentioned "misrepresentation of the party on issue of federalism and the party’s split" as reasons for defeat.[18] On December 25, 2013, the UCPN (Maoist) offered unconditional support to the Nepali Congress to from the next government following the signing of a four-point deal between the NC, CPN(UML), UCPN (Maoist) and Madesbadi parties that agreed to form a parliamentary body to investigate election irregularities.[19]

In response to the allegations of fraud leveled by the Maoist and smaller parties, Chief Election Commissioner Nilkantha Upreti affirmed the elections were "concluded in a free, fair , impartial and credible manner" and urged voters "not to believe in such misleading publicity" about the fairness of the elections.[20]




  1. ^ "Nepal voting ends for new Constituent Assembly". BBC News. November 19, 2013. Retrieved December 4, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Channel NewsAsia". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved November 24, 2013. 
  3. ^ Utpal Parashar (May 27, 2012). "Nepal fails to meet constitution deadline". Kathmandu: Hindustan Times. Retrieved May 27, 2012. 
  4. ^ "Nepal premier calls for fresh elections". Al Jazeera English. October 4, 2011. Retrieved May 27, 2012. 
  5. ^ Prashant Jha (May 28, 2012). "Nepal's CA fails to write Constitution". The Hindu. Retrieved May 27, 2012. 
  6. ^ Sharma, Gopal (May 27, 2012). "Nepal faces fresh turmoil after charter deadline missed". Reuters. Retrieved May 27, 2012. 
  7. ^ Poll call Maoist ploy to stay in power, says NC
  8. ^ AFP: Nepal calls April-May elections to end deadlock (21 November 2012)
  9. ^ Nepal strike shuts down capital Al Jazeera, 12 September 2013
  10. ^ Majority Against CA Extension Nepal News, 19 October 2011
  11. ^ [1] Nepali Times,15–21 March 2013 #647. Retrieved Nov 29, 2013.
  12. ^ "Bomb blast at Nepal polling booth - Central & South Asia". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved November 24, 2013. 
  13. ^ "CPA, 12-pt pact have been scrapped: Baidya". eKantipur. Retrieved December 16, 2013. "Meanwhile, Baidya has owned up the responsibility for explosions that occurred in various places across the nation ahead of the Constituent Assembly elections..."The party cadres detonated bombs realising it was necessary for the people," he said."
  14. ^ "Constituency Wise Cast/Valid/Invalid Votes". Election Commission of Nepal. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  15. ^ "Sovereign people make CA polls historic". My Republica. 19 November 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  16. ^ "Nepali Congress maintains lead over CPN-UML in polls". LiveMint. Retrieved November 23, 2013. 
  17. ^ Charlie Campbell (November 22, 2013). "Nepal’s Maoists Dispute Election Results, Raising Fears of Further Crisis". Kathmandu: Time Magazine. Retrieved November 23, 2013. 
  18. ^ "Maoist internal review sparks blame game". Kathmandu: eKantipur. Dec 15,2013. Retrieved Dec 15, 2013. 
  19. ^ Ekantipur Report (25 December 2013). "'UCPN (M) to give unconditional support to NC-led govt'". Ekantipur. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  20. ^ "Election was free and credible: EC". EKantipur. 23 November 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  21. ^ "Statement by the Press Secretary on Elections in Nepal". The White House. Office of the Press Secretary, The White House. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  22. ^ "Carter Center Congratulates Nepal on Well-Conducted Election Process". The Carter Centre. The Carter Centre. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  23. ^ "Nepal: Ban welcomes peaceful conduct of Constituent Assembly poll". UN News Centre. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  24. ^ "Germany hails Nepal election". My Republica. 26 November 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  25. ^ "India congratulates Nepal for fair polls". Business Standard. 19 November 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  26. ^ "China hails election". The Himalayan Times. 20 November 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  27. ^ "STATEMENT by EU High Representative Catherine Ashton on the Elections to the Constituent Assembly of Nepal". European Union External Action Service. European Union External Action Service. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  28. ^ "Japanese observers declare elections free, fair". 23 November 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  29. ^ "FCO Minister comments on the recent elections in Nepal". Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 7 January 2014.