Nazi concentration camp badges

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Nazi camp ID-emblems in a 1936 German illustration.

Nazi concentration camp badges, primarily triangles, were part of the system of identification in Nazi camps. They were used in the concentration camps in the Nazi-occupied countries to identify the reason the prisoners had been placed there.[1] The triangles were made of fabric and were sewn on jackets and trousers of the prisoners. These mandatory badges of shame had specific meanings indicated by their colour and shape. Such emblems helped guards assign tasks to the detainees: for example, a guard at a glance could see if someone were a convicted criminal (green patch) and thus likely of a "tough" temperament suitable for kapo duty. Someone with an "escape suspect" mark usually would not be assigned to work squads operating outside the camp fence. Someone wearing an F could be called upon to help translate guards' spoken instructions to a trainload of new arrivals from France. Some historical monuments quote the badge-imagery; the use of a triangle being a sort of visual shorthand to symbolize all camp victims. Also, the modern day use of a pink triangle emblem to symbolize gay rights is a response to the camp identification patches.

Badge coding system[edit]

The system of badges varied between the camps, and in the later stages of World War II, the use of badges dwindled in some camps, and became increasingly accidental in others. The following description is based on the badge coding system used before and during the early stages of the war in the Dachau concentration camp, which had one of the more elaborate coding systems.

Shape was chosen by analogy with the common triangular road hazard signs in Germany that denote warnings to motorists. Here, a triangle is called inverted because its base is up while one of its angles points down.

Single triangles[edit]

People who wore the green and pink triangles were convicted in criminal courts and may have been transferred to the criminal prison systems after the camps were liberated.

Double triangles[edit]

Double-triangle badges resembled two superimposed triangles forming a Star of David, a Jewish symbol.

Like those who wore pink and green triangles, people in the bottom two categories would have been convicted in criminal courts.

Other badges[edit]

In addition to colour-coding, some groups had to put letter insignia on their triangles to denote country of origin. Red triangle with a letter, for example: "B" (Belgier, Belgians), "F" (Franzosen, French), "H" (Holländer, Dutch), "I" (Italiener, Italians), "J"[8] (Jugoslawen, Yugoslavs), "N" (Norweger, Norwegian), "P" (Polen, Poles), "S" (Republikanische Spanier, Republican Spanish) "T" (Tschechen, Czechs), "U" (Ungarn, Hungarians).[citation needed]

Also, repeated offenders would receive bars over their stars or triangles, a different colour for a different crime.

Many various markings and combinations existed. A prisoner would usually have at least two, and possibly more than six.

Some camps assigned Nacht und Nebel prisoners with two large letters, NN, in yellow.

Penal battalion, penal company, etc., are military units consisting of convicted persons for which military service was either the assigned punishment or a voluntary replacement of imprisonment.

Detainees wearing civilian clothing (more common later in the war) instead of the striped uniforms were often marked with a prominent X on the back.[9] This made for an ersatz prisoner uniform. For permanence, such Xs were made with white oil paint, with sewn-on cloth strips, or were cut (with underlying jacket-liner fabric providing the contrasting color). Detainees would be compelled to sew their number and (if applicable) a triangle emblem onto the fronts of such X-ed clothing.[10]

Table of camp inmate markings[edit]

Political enemiesProfessional criminalsForeign forced laborers or EmigrantsJehovah's Witnesses (Bible Students)Sex offenders (usually male homosexuals)"Asocials"Roma (Gypsies)
Basic coloursRed triangle.svgGreen triangle.svgBlue triangle.svgPurple triangle.svgPink triangle.svgBlack triangle.svgBrown triangle svg.jpg
Markings for repeatersRed triangle repeater.svgGreen triangle repeater.svgBlue triangle repeater.svgPurple triangle repeater.svgPink triangle repeater.svgBlack triangle repeater.svgBrown triangle repeater svg.jpg
Inmates of penal battalions (German: Strafkompanie)Red triangle penal.svgGreen triangle penal.svgBlue triangle penal.svgPurple triangle penal.svgPink triangle penal.svgBlack triangle penal.svgMaroon triangle penal.svg
Markings for JewsRed triangle jew.svgGreen triangle jew.svgBlue triangle jew.svgPurple triangle jew.svgPink triangle jew.svgBlack triangle jew.svgBrown triangle jew.jpg
Special markingsMale race defiler.svg
Jewish race defiler
Female race defiler2.svg
Female race defiler
Escape suspect.svg
Escape suspect
Inmate number.svg

Inmate number



Special inmate.svg

Special inmates' brown armband

Sleeve badges.svg

Applicable marks were worn in descending order as follows: inmate number, repeater bar, triangle or star, member of penal battalion, escape suspect. In this case, the inmate is a Jewish convict with multiple convictions, serving in a penal battalion, Strafkompanie.

Red triangle Pole.svg
Pole: "P" on a red triangle
Red triangle Czech.svg
Czech: "T" (the German word for Czech is Tscheche) on a red triangle
Armed forces red triangle.svg
Member of the armed forces: red triangle, an enemy POW or a deserter.
NationalityPolitical prisoner
BelgiumBelgian political prisoner triangle (2).gif
CzechoslovakiaRed triangle Czech.svg
FranceRed triangle French.svg
PolandRed triangle Pole.svg
SpainPreso politico es.png

Postwar use[edit]

Triangle-motifs appear on many postwar memorials to the victims of the Nazis. Most triangles are plain while some others bear nationality-letters. The otherwise potentially puzzling designs are a direct reference to the identification patches used in the camps. On such monuments, typically an inverted (point down, base up) triangle (especially if red) evokes all victims, including also the non-Jewish victims like Slavs, Poles, communists, gays, Roma (see Porajmos), the handicapped (see Action T4), and Soviet POWs. An inverted triangle colored pink would symbolize gay male victims. A non-inverted (base down, point up) triangle and/or a yellow triangle is generally more evocative of the Jewish victims.


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nazis Open Dachau Concentration Camp
  2. ^ http://books.google.com/books/about/Between_Resistance_and_Martyrdom.html?id=cjRiEV0CSQUC
  3. ^ Plant, The Pink Triangle.
  4. ^ Claudia Schoppmann: Nationalsozialistische Sexualpolitik und weibliche Homosexualität (Dissertation, FU Berlin, 1990.) Centaurus, Pfaffenweiler 1991 (revisited 2nd edition 1997). ISBN 3-89085-538-5
  5. ^ "Black triangle women". 2001-02-01. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  6. ^ Jewish Virtual Museum: Badges
  7. ^ Note that since "Jew" was defined along "racial" lines, such as by the Nuremberg Laws, Jews could be classified as Jehovah's Witnesses.
  8. ^ Politika: У Аушвицу, на вест о ослобођењу Београда
  9. ^ Rochelle G. Saidel (2006). The Jewish Women of Ravensbruck Concentration Camp (pg 76). Retrieved May 20, 2013. 
  10. ^ Rochelle G. Saidel (2006). The Jewish Women of Ravensbruck Concentration Camp (pg 76). Retrieved May 20, 2013. 

References[edit]

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