Naval Air Station Pensacola

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Naval Air Station Pensacola
Forrest Sherman Field
IATA: NPAICAO: KNPA - FAA: NPA
Summary
Airport typeMilitary: Naval Air Station
OperatorUnited States Navy
LocationEscambia County, near Pensacola, Florida
Built1913
In useActive
CommanderCaptain Daniels
Elevation AMSL28 ft / 8.5 m
Coordinates30°21′15″N 087°18′20″W / 30.35417°N 87.30556°W / 30.35417; -87.30556
Runways
DirectionLengthSurface
ftm
01/197,1372,175Asphalt/Concrete
07L/25R8,0022,439Asphalt/Concrete
07R/25L8,0012,439Asphalt/Concrete
 
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Naval Air Station Pensacola
Forrest Sherman Field
IATA: NPAICAO: KNPA - FAA: NPA
Summary
Airport typeMilitary: Naval Air Station
OperatorUnited States Navy
LocationEscambia County, near Pensacola, Florida
Built1913
In useActive
CommanderCaptain Daniels
Elevation AMSL28 ft / 8.5 m
Coordinates30°21′15″N 087°18′20″W / 30.35417°N 87.30556°W / 30.35417; -87.30556
Runways
DirectionLengthSurface
ftm
01/197,1372,175Asphalt/Concrete
07L/25R8,0022,439Asphalt/Concrete
07R/25L8,0012,439Asphalt/Concrete
The first lighthouse built by the U.S. on the Florida coast

Naval Air Station Pensacola or NAS Pensacola (IATA: NPAICAO: KNPAFAA LID: NPA) (formerly NAS/KNAS until changed circa 1970 to allow Nassau International Airport, now Lynden Pindling International Airport to have IATA code NAS), "The Cradle of Naval Aviation", is a United States Navy base located next to Warrington, Florida, a community southwest of the Pensacola city limits. It is best known as the initial primary training base for all Navy, Marine and Coast Guard aviators and Naval Flight Officers, the advanced training base for most Naval Flight Officers, and as the home base for the United States Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, the precision-flying team known as the Blue Angels. It is currently a Superfund site.[1]

The air station also hosts the Naval Education and Training Command (NETC) and the Naval Aerospace Medical Institute (NAMI), which provides training for all naval flight surgeons, aviation physiologists, aviation experimental psychologists. With the closure of Naval Air Station Memphis in Millington, Tennessee and the transition of that facility to Naval Support Activity Mid-South, NAS Pensacola also became home to the Naval Air Technical Training Center (NATTC), providing technical training schools for nearly all enlisted aircraft maintenance and enlisted aircrew specialties in the U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Coast Guard.

NAS Pensacola contains Forrest Sherman Field, home of Training Air Wing SIX, providing undergraduate flight training for all prospective Naval Flight Officers for the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps, and flight officers/navigators for other NATO/Allied/Coalition partners. TRAWING SIX consists of the Training Squadron 4 (VT-4) Warbucks, Training Squadron 10 (VT-10) Wildcats and Training Squadron 86 (VT-86) Sabrehawks, flying the T-45C Goshawk, T-6A Texan II and T-39 Sabreliner aircraft.

A select number of prospective U.S. Air Force Navigator/Combat Systems Officers destined for certain fighter and bomber aircraft were previously trained via TRAWING SIX, with command of VT-10 rotating periodically to a USAF officer. Today, all USAF Undergraduate CSO Training (UCSOT) for all USAF aircraft is consolidated at NAS Pensacola as a strictly USAF organization and operation under the 479th Flying Training Group (479 FTG), an Air Education and Training Command (AETC) unit. The 479 FTG is a tenant activity at NAS Pensacola and a geographically-separated unit (GSU) of the 12th Flying Training Wing (12 FTW) at Randolph AFB, Texas. The 479 FTG operates USAF T-6A Texan II and T-1A Jayhawk aircraft.

Other tenant activities include the United States Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, the Blue Angels, flying F/A-18 Hornets and a single USMC KC-130F Hercules; and the 2nd German Air Force Training Squadron USA (German: 2. Deutsche Luftwaffenausbildungsstaffel USA – abbreviated “2. DtLwAusbStff”). A total of 131 aircraft operate out of Sherman Field, generating 110,000 flight operations each year.

The National Naval Aviation Museum (formerly known as the National Museum of Naval Aviation), the Pensacola Naval Air Station Historic District, the National Park Service-administered Fort Barrancas and its associated Advance Redoubt, and the Pensacola Lighthouse and Museum (see Pensacola Light) are all located at NAS Pensacola, as well as Barrancas National Cemetery.

Contents

History

The site now occupied by NAS Pensacola has a colorful background dating back to the 16th century when Spanish explorer Don Tristan de Luna founded a colony on the bluff where Fort Barrancas is now situated.

Navy yard

Realizing the advantages of the Pensacola harbor and the large timber reserves nearby for shipbuilding, in 1825 President John Quincy Adams and Secretary of the Navy Samuel Southard made arrangements to build a Navy yard on the southern tip of Escambia County, where the air station is today. Navy Captains William Bainbridge, Lewis Warrington, and James Biddle selected the site on Pensacola Bay.

Construction began in April 1826, and the Pensacola Navy Yard, also known as the Warrington Navy Yard became one of the best equipped naval stations in the country. In its early years the base dealt mainly with the suppression of slave trade and piracy in the Gulf and Caribbean as the garrison of the West Indies Squadron.

On January 12, 1861, just prior to the commencement of the Civil War, the Warrington Navy Yard surrendered to secessionists.[2] When Union forces captured New Orleans in 1862, Confederate troops, fearing attack from the west, retreated from the Navy Yard and reduced most of the facilities to rubble.

After the war, the ruins at the yard were cleared away and work was begun to rebuild the base. Many of the present structures on the air station were built during this period, including the stately two- and three-story houses on North Avenue. In 1906, many of these newly rebuilt structures were destroyed by a great hurricane and tidal wave.

Naval aeronautical station

NAS Pensacola in 1918

The Navy Department awakened to the possibilities of naval aviation through the efforts of Captain Washington Irving Chambers, prevailed upon Congress to include in the Naval Appropriation Act enacted in 1911–12 a provision for aeronautical development. Chambers was ordered to devote all of his time to naval aviation.

In October 1913, Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels, appointed a board, with CAPT Chambers as chairman, to make a survey of aeronautical needs and to establish a policy to guide future development. One of the board's most important recommendations was the establishment of an aviation training station in Pensacola.

Upon the entry of the United States into World War I on 6 April 1917, Pensacola, still the only naval air station, had 38 naval aviators, 163 enlisted men trained in aviation support, and 54 fixed-wing aircraft. Two years later, by the signing of the armistice in November 1918, the air station, with 438 officers and 5,538 enlisted men, had trained 1,000 naval aviators. At war's end, seaplanes, dirigibles, and free kite balloons were housed in steel and wooden hangars stretching a mile down the air station beach.

In the years following World War I, aviation training slowed down. From the 12-month flight course, an average of 100 pilots were graduating annually. This was before the day of aviation cadets; officers were accepted for the flight training program only after at least two years of sea duty. The majority were Annapolis graduates, although a few reserve officers and enlisted men also graduated. Thus, Naval Air Station Pensacola became known as the "Annapolis of the Air".

Station Field was created on the north side of the navy yard in 1922. Enlarged, it was renamed Chevalier Field in 1935 for Lt. Cdr. Godfrey DeCourcelles Chevalier, a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy in June 1910, who was appointed a Naval Air Pilot No. 7 on 7 November 1915 and a Naval Aviator No. 7 on 7 November 1918. With the advent of jet aviation, its 3,100 foot runway was too short for new aircraft entering service, and Forrest Sherman Field was opened in 1954 for most fixed-wing operations.

Naval air station

With the inauguration in 1935 of the cadet training program, activity at Pensacola again expanded. When Pensacola's training facilities could no longer accommodate the ever increasing number of cadets accepted by the Navy, two more naval air stations were created—one in Jacksonville, Florida, and the other in Corpus Christi, Texas. In August 1940, a larger auxiliary base, Saufley Field, named for LT R.C. Saufley, Naval Aviator 14, was added to Pensacola's activities. In October 1941, a third field, Ellyson Field, named after CDR Theodore G. “Spuds” Ellyson, the Navy’s first aviator, was added.

Aerial view of NAS Pensacola in the mid-1940s. Chevalier Field is at the upper right.

As the nations of the world moved toward World War II, NAS Pensacola once again became the hub of air training activities. NAS Pensacola expanded again, training 1,100 cadets a month, 11 times the amount trained annually in the 1920s. The growth of NAS Pensacola from 10 tents to the world's greatest naval aviation center was emphasized by then-Senator Owen Brewster's statement: "The growth of naval aviation during World War II is one of the wonders of the modern world." Naval aviators from NAS Pensacola were called upon to train the Doolittle Raiders at Eglin Field in 1942 in carrier take-offs in their B-25 Mitchell bombers. Navy LT Henry Miller supervised their takeoff training and accompanied the crews to the launch. For his efforts, LT Miller is considered an honorary member of the Raider group.[3]

The Korean War presented problems as the military was caught in the midst of transition from propellers to jets, and the air station revised its courses and training techniques. Nonetheless, NAS Pensacola produced 6,000 aviators from 1950 to 1953.

Forrest Sherman Field was opened in 1954 on the western side of NAS Pensacola. This jet airfield was named after the late Admiral Forrest P. Sherman, a former Chief of Naval Operations. Shortly thereafter the United States Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, the Blue Angels, relocated from NAS Corpus Christi, Texas.

Pilot training requirements shifted upward to meet the demands for the Vietnam War which occupied much of the 1960s and 1970s. Pilot production was as high as 2,552 (1968) and as low as 1,413 (1962).

Modern history

Flyover with troops in formation

In 1971, NAS Pensacola was picked as the headquarters site for CNET (Chief of Naval Education and Training), a new command which combined direction and control of all Navy education and training activities and organizations. The Naval Air Basic Training Command was absorbed by the Naval Air Training Command, which moved to NAS Corpus Christi, Texas. In 2003, CNET was replaced by the Naval Education and Training Command(NETC).[1]

Also located on board NAS Pensacola is Naval Aviation Schools Command (NAVAVSCOLSCOM). This command has the following subordinate schools:

NAVAVSCOLSCOM also previously oversaw Aviation Officer Candidate School (AOCS) until that program's disestablishment and merger into Officer Candidate School (OCS) under Officer Training Command at NETC Newport, Rhode Island in 2007.

The Pensacola Naval Complex in Escambia and Santa Rosa counties employs more than 16,000 military and 7,400 civilian personnel.

During the 2005 round of Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC), it was feared that NAS Pensacola might be closed, despite its naval hub status, due to extensive damage by Hurricane Ivan in late 2004; nearly every building on the installation suffered heavy damage, with near total destruction of the air station's southeastern complex . The main barracks, Chevalier Hall, only opened in late January 2005, four months after the storm. When the list was released on 13 May 2005, it was revealed that NAS Pensacola, as well as the other bases hit by Ivan in Northwest Florida, were not on the BRAC list.

Archaeologists examine the remains of 16th century shipwreck on the beach at NAS Pensacola

In May 2006, Navy construction crews unearthed a Spanish ship from underneath the Pensacola Naval Air Station, possibly dating back to the mid-16th century. It was discovered during the rebuilding of the base's rescue swimmer school which was destroyed by Hurricane Ivan. [2]

On March 3, 2010 the commander of the base, Captain William Reavey Jr., was relieved of command after a Navy investigation into alleged improper conduct. Reavey was replaced by Captain Christopher Plummer.[4]

United States Air Force at NAS Pensacola

NAS Pensacola is host to the 479th Flying Training Group (479 FTG) of the Air Education and Training Command (AETC). The 479 FTG is composed of the 451st Flying Training Squadron, 455th Flying Training Squadron and 479th Operations Support Squadron. The 479 FTG is part of the 12th Flying Training Wing at Randolph AFB, Texas, but student information and files are handled through Tyndall AFB, Florida while they train at NAS Pensacola. With the divestment of Specialized Undergraduate Navigator Training (SUNT) and the retirement of the T-43 Bobcat from the 12th Flying Training Wing main operation at Randolph AFB, the 479 FTG assumed responsibility for the renamed Undergraduate Combat Systems Officer Training (UCSOT) for all prospective USAF CSOs. The 479 FTG operates USAF T-6 Texan II and T-1 Jayhawk aircraft at NAS Pensacola.

NAS Pensacola is also home to AETC's Detachment 1, 359th Training Squadron (359 TRS). A geographically separated unit of the 359 TRS at Sheppard AFB, Texas, this school provides enlisted technical training for all USAF Non-Destructive Inspections (NDI) and Aircraft Structural Maintenance (ASM) students. The 359 TRS, Det 1, graduates approximately 1100 students annually.

Incidents and accidents

On 20 February 1939, a squadron of twelve U.S. Navy aircraft, types not identified, but described as "fast combat ships", returning to NAS Pensacola, Florida, from a routine training trip on a Monday night, found the Gulf Coast socked in by a fog described as one of the heaviest ever witnessed in the region, and eight planes were lost with two pilots killed. Three aircraft piloted by instructors, and one other plane, are diverted by radio and outrun the fogbank to land safely at Atmore and Greenville, Alabama. "Six of the Navy's flying students bailed out in the darkness and reached ground safely in their first parachute jumps. Their planes were wrecked beyond repair. Lt. G. F. Presser, Brazilian Navy flyer, in training at the Naval Air Station, crashed and was killed at Corry Field. His plane burned. The fog was so dense that the intense glow of the burning plane could not be seen by attendents on the field. Lt. N. M. Ostergren, U. S. Navy, was found dead at his crashed plane near McDavid the next morning. Both men were married. Officers said the wreckage of the eight planes - they declined to estimate their worth, but aviation circles here said the fast combat ships would cost from $18,000 to $20,000 each - was the air station's second heaviest loss. In 1926 a hurricane wrecked planes on the ground, hangars and other equipment for a total damage of about $1,000,000."[5]

References

  1. ^ http://www.epa.gov/region04/waste/npl/nplfln/pennasfl.htm
  2. ^ Miller, J. Michael. "Marine's Telling of 1861 Florida Navy Yard Fall Given", Fortitudine, vol XX, no. 4 (Spring 1991): 8.
  3. ^ Doolittle Tokyo Raiders, Memorial site of Richard O. Joyce
  4. ^ Tilghman, Andrew, "NAS Pensacola CO’s firing made permanent", Military Times, March 4, 2010.
  5. ^ Crestview, Florida, "8 Planes Wrecked In Fog - Two Lose Lives As Eight Planes Wreck At Air Station", Okaloosa News-Journal, Friday 24 February 1939, Volume 25, Number 8, page 1.

External links