National Football League in Toronto

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The National Football League (NFL)'s history in Canada's most-populous city, Toronto, Ontario, goes back to 1959, when an NFL-CFL interleague game took place at Exhibition Stadium. Excluding NFL-CFL games, Toronto has hosted the third most NFL games among non-U.S. cities after London and Tokyo. It is one of only three cities to have hosted regular season games outside the United States (the others being London and Mexico City).

The NFL has long been rumoured to be considering placing one of its franchises in Toronto,[1] which is the fourth most populous city in North America, and the third-largest market in English-speaking North America. While the CFL has professional Canadian football teams in Toronto (the Argonauts) and nearby Hamilton (the Tiger-Cats), there are no professional American football teams in Canada, NFL or otherwise. Despite being in Canada, Toronto is physically farther south than existing NFL franchises in Minnesota, Seattle and Green Bay, and has teams in each of the other major professional sports leagues: the Maple Leafs in the National Hockey League, the Blue Jays in Major League Baseball, the Raptors in the National Basketball Association and the Toronto FC in the Major League Soccer. San Diego Chargers executive Dean Spanos was quoted in January 2008 as saying that "the long term goal is globalizing our sport" and that "it is possible that within five or 10 years, the league will have franchises outside the United States."[2]

Toronto would likely be competing with Los Angeles, the second most-populous city in the U.S., for an NFL franchise.[3]

Games played in Toronto[edit]

The first professional U.S. football team to play a home game in Toronto was the Los Angeles Wildcats of the American Football League of 1926, the first major competitor to the National Football League for the dominance of professional football. While the Wildcats nominally represented Los Angeles, California, frequent travel to the west coast still posed a major obstacle so the team was instead a traveling team based in Illinois and played most of its games in the home stadiums of its opponents, with the exception of the Toronto game. The Wildcats lost the regular season game to the New York Yankees (which would join the NFL the following year) 28-0 in front of 10,000 fans at Maple Leaf Stadium on 8 November 1926.[4] The game was relatively popular; at the time, Canadian football still more closely resembled rugby football and had not yet adopted the forward pass. Three years after the game, Canadian football allowed the forward pass.

The NFL has had a presence in Toronto since 1959, when the Toronto Argonauts of the Canadian Football League hosted three NFL teams in a three-season span. The first ever appearance of an NFL team in Toronto was in August of that year during the Chicago Cardinals–Toronto Argonauts exhibition game; it broke the record for exhibition attendance in Canada at 27,770. These interleague exhibition gamess, which had been first tried in Ottawa in 1950 and were later staged in Montreal, were typically played by CFL rules in the first half and NFL rules in the second. The Argos lost all three games. The nearby Hamilton Tiger-Cats also hosted a game against the Bills, then an American Football League team. Buffalo lost the game 38–21, the only time an NFL or AFL team would lose to a CFL team. In 1960 the New York Giants and Chicago Bears played an exhibition game at Varsity Stadium in the first NFL game ever played outside the United States.[5]

During the 1982 NFL season, the NFL players went on strike. In the absence of regular season NFL games, the National Football League Players Association scheduled a series of All-star games across the continent to raise funds.[6] A game between the AFC East and NFC East was scheduled for Toronto's Varsity Stadium for October 24.[7][8] However, the game was cancelled following a court ruling that permitted players who participated in the games to be sued by their clubs for violating their contracts.[9][6]

A Toronto group had plans to bring the Buffalo Bills to Toronto to play an exhibition game at Exhibition Stadium in 1988,[10] with hopes that it would become an annual game.[11][12] However, following objections from CFL Commissioner Douglas Mitchell,[13][14] the game was vetoed by NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle.[10][15] The group would unsuccessfully continue to try to arrange a game for a future season.[11] In 1993 the Cleveland Browns hosted one of their pre-season games in Toronto, which was organized by Molson Brewery, due to a scheduling conflict at Cleveland Stadium with the Cleveland Indians.[16] As early as 1994 the Bills were considered hosting some of their regular season home games in Toronto, with SkyDome officials actively attempting to organize a regular season NFL game at the new stadium.[17][18][19] When the NFL reached a five year partnership agreement with the CFL in 1997, which included a $3 million loan to the Canadian league, the NFL received the CFL's blessing to hold an annual preseason or regular season game in either Toronto or Vancouver for the duration of the agreement.[20]The Bills played in two pre-season American Bowls in Toronto in 1995 and 1997, organized by Paul Godfrey, in an attempt to prove the city's worthiness to host a franchise permanently.[21] In 2000, the NFL announced that SkyDome would host American Bowls in 2001 and 2003, but ultimately the games were never played.[22][23]

Bills Toronto Series[edit]

Rogers Centre, home of the Bills Toronto Series since 2008.
Main article: Bills Toronto Series

For decades, the Bills have had a large fan base in southern Ontario. The team averages 15,000 Canadian fans a game at Ralph Wilson Stadium,[24] and has a Canadian sales office and radio affiliate in Toronto: CJCL. The NFL's television rules in Canada have been applied in a similar manner to secondary markets in the U.S., so that nearly all Bills games are televised in Toronto (on CFTO and CITY). Toronto is within a 75-mile (120 km) radius of Ralph Wilson Stadium, and is thus subject to the league's blackout policy for home games that do not sell out.

On October 18, 2007, they announced that they were seeking NFL approval to play a pre-season and at least one regular season home game in Toronto in an attempt to regionalize the franchise and capitalize on the southern Ontario market.[24] Moving games from Ralph Wilson Stadium required the approval of Erie County and the Empire State Development Corporation.[25] On January 30, 2008, it was announced that the Rogers Communications had reached an agreement with the Bills to host five annual regular-season and three exhibition NFL games over five seasons in Toronto's Rogers Centre, beginning in 2008. Rogers Communications, owner of the Rogers Centre, paid C$78 million for the games,[26] and hired a general manager and management staff to handle the games.[27] On April 3 it was announced that the Bills would play the Pittsburgh Steelers in the pre-season game, and a couple of weeks later it was revealed that they would host their division rivals, the Miami Dolphins, on December 7.

Both games had ticket prices ranging from C$55 to C$295 and VIP tickets from C$325 to C$575.[28] The average ticket price of C$183 was significantly above the highest in the NFL (after converting to U.S. dollars), and nearly four times the Bills' ticket prices, which were the lowest in the league.[27] The first of these games took place in the 2008 NFL season.[29][30] The preseason game against the Steelers was scheduled one day before the Toronto Argonauts played in the same stadium. Buffalo won the game, 24–21, but there were reports that organizers had to give away over 10,000 tickets to ensure a sellout crowd, a suggestion denied by Ted Rogers.[31] The regular season game against Miami was played after the completion of the 2008 CFL season. The Bills, led by backup quarterback J. P. Losman, lost 16–3, eliminating them from playoff contention for the ninth straight year. Reportedly, about half of the crowd was Dolphins fans.[27][32]

In March 2009 Rogers announced that it was considering renegotiating the agreement to add a second annual regular-season Bills game beginning in 2010,[33] though this never came to fruition. Ticket prices for the 2009 game were lowered an average of 17%.[34] The game, against the New York Jets, was a featured on the NFL Network's Thursday Night Football package. Again, the Bills lost 19-13. The following year, the Bills lost to the Chicago Bears, 22-19.

NFL officials were considering expanding the season to 18 games in 2011, with the possibility of incorporating additional international play. Rogers again expressed an interest in expanding the series by an additional game per season, especially if the schedule was lengthened.[35] However, the schedule was ultimately not changed in the negotiated collective bargaining agreement. The Bills organization opposed playing more than one regular season game each year in Toronto.[36] In the 2011 Bills "State of the Team" address, team CEO Russ Brandon said that the series had been a major success and had increased the Toronto share of ticket sales by 44% relative to prior to the series.[37] Later that year the Bills won their first game in Toronto, defeating the Washington Redskins, 23-0.

On May 22, 2012, the league gave their approval for a five year extension to the Bills Toronto Series through 2017 should the two sides reach an agreement.[38] The deal, featuring one regular season game each year plus a pre-season game in 2015, was formally announced on January 29, 2013.[39] In the final game of the original deal, the Bills lost to the Seattle Seahawks 50-17.

On March 5, 2014 the Bills and Rogers released a joint statement which announced that they had "postponed for one year the scheduled 2014 regular season game at Rogers Centre" and that they would "use this time to collectively evaluate opportunities and build on the foundation to enhance future games."[40][41] Keith Pelley, President of Rogers Communication, said that "there’s no hiding the fact the series did not get off to a rosy start" and that "it's tough midway through to change that perception, hence the reason why we thought it would be a best to take a year off then re-launch it once we’ve thought that through."[42] Bills CEO Russ Brandon described Toronto as a "challenged market" for the team and stated that the series "has not translated into enough wins for us there". However, Brandon also emphasized the financial benefits of the series by saying that it has "taken a game out of the [Buffalo] market that has essentially taken 70,000 seats out of our market, and we've truly only sold out two of our home games". He went on to say "we've manufactured sellouts in the other four or five. We're trying to find ways to obviously keep this team viable and we've done a very good job, and this [Toronto] series has obviously contributed to that".[43] Brandon has also said that the additional game would "stress-test the Buffalo market".[44] Brandon revealed that "Southern Ontario and the Toronto market and the GTA (Greater Toronto Area) are now the top secondary market of the Buffalo Bills".[45]

List of games[edit]

Below is a list of games played in southern Ontario by teams from the NFL, and its predecessor leagues the American Football League of 1926 (AFL 1926) and American Football League (AFL) from which the NFL absorbed teams.

CFL interleague games[edit]

August 5, 1959Chicago Cardinals55–26Toronto ArgonautsExhibition Stadium27,770[46]
August 3, 1960Pittsburgh Steelers43–16Toronto ArgonautsExhibition Stadium23,570[47]
August 2, 1961St. Louis Cardinals36–7Toronto ArgonautsExhibition Stadium24,376[48]
August 8, 1961Buffalo Bills (AFL)21–38Hamilton Tiger-CatsCivic Stadium12,000[49]

Preseason games[edit]

August 15, 1960Chicago Bears16–7New York GiantsVarsity Stadium5,401[50]
August 27, 1988Tampa Bay BuccaneersCancelledBuffalo BillsExhibition Stadium[10]
August 14, 1993New England Patriots9–12Cleveland BrownsSkyDome33,021[51]
August 12, 1995Dallas Cowboys7–9Buffalo BillsSkyDome55,799[52]
August 16, 1997Green Bay Packers35–3Buffalo BillsSkyDome53,896[53]
August 14, 2008Pittsburgh Steelers21–24Buffalo BillsRogers Centre48,434[54]
August 19, 2010Indianapolis Colts21–34Buffalo BillsRogers Centre39,583[55]

Regular season games[edit]

November 8, 1926New York Yankees (AFL 1926)28–0Los Angeles Wildcats (AFL 1926)Maple Leaf Stadium10,000[56]
December 7, 2008Miami Dolphins16–3Buffalo BillsRogers Centre52,134[57]
December 3, 2009New York Jets19–13Buffalo BillsRogers Centre51,567[58]
November 7, 2010Chicago Bears22–19Buffalo BillsRogers Centre50,746[59]
October 30, 2011Washington Redskins0–23Buffalo BillsRogers Centre51,579[60]
December 16, 2012Seattle Seahawks50–17Buffalo BillsRogers Centre40,770[61]
December 1, 2013Atlanta Falcons34–31 (OT)Buffalo BillsRogers Centre38,969[62]

Toronto NFL franchise[edit]

While Toronto has been home to American football teams over the years, including the Continental Football League's Toronto Rifles from 1965–67, no NFL team has ever been based in the city. However, there have been numerous efforts to bring an NFL club to Toronto over the last than 40 years.[63] In 1952 it was reported that the Dallas Texans of the NFL might be moved to Toronto.[64] In 1955, Eric Cradock, who would later become part owner of the Argos, stated that he had held discussions with the NFL about establishing a Toronto NFL team and that he was considering bringing two teams to the city to play a game to test the market's interest.[65] Later that year it was reported that the Argos would join the NFL by 1957, contingent upon a larger stadium being constructed, over of several other bidders for a Toronto NFL team.[66] A Toronto group announced in 1960 that they were in negotiations with the league for a Toronto franchise to begin play by 1962.[67] The same year, a separate group brought the New York Giants and Chicago Bears to Toronto to play an exhibition game at Varsity Stadium, the first NFL game ever played outside the United States, with the goal of eventually acquiring an expansion franchise for the city.[5] However, prior to the game George Halas, owner of the Bears and chairman of the NFL's expansion committee, said "we should not do anything detrimental to [Canada's] game" on NFL expansion into Canada.[68] In 1964 a Toronto group submitted a bid for an expansion franchise to begin play in 1967, with plans to construct a new stadium.[69][70] The following year, NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle listed the city as one of 12 potential expansion markets, but stated that "we would not want to do anything detrimental to the CFL."[71][72] In 1969, a Toronto group approached the NFL about bringing a team to the city.[73][74] Later that year, Rozelle said that that the league could expand "outside the continental United States", including possibly to Canadian cities.[75]

During John Bassett's ownership of the Argonauts from late-50s to early-70s, he entertained various machinations for bringing American football to Toronto, including moving the Argos to the NFL or bringing an NFL expansion team to the city.[76][73][77] At the time, Montreal was pursuing an NFL team and Bassett was concerned that if they were successful it could lead to the demise of the Montreal Alouettes and ultimately the CFL.[73] He viewed his plans to have Toronto join the NFL as a precaution against such a scenario.[73] His son John F. Bassett's attempt to launch the Toronto Northmen in the World Football League in 1974 led to the Canadian government proposing the Canadian Football Act, a bill that was never approved but would have banned US football leagues from playing in Canada to protect the CFL from competition.[78][79] The bill forced Bassett to move the club to Memphis were they became the Memphis Southmen.[80]

In 1980, an NFL spokesperson said that "we would not consider expanding into Canada unless the federal government extends an invitation".[81] Rozelle said in 1987 that "Toronto and Montreal are both great cities, capable of supporting NFL franchises, but ... we have an obligation to those cities in the United States".[82] After several US lawmakers suggested that they would pressure the NFL to expand within the United States rather than to Canada, Don Weiss, executive director of the NFL, said in 1987 that "Congressional pressure will obviously be brought to bear on us" and that "their reaction will affect our decision."[83][84] In 1990, new commissioner Paul Tagliabue said that "it is obviously realistic in this decade" for an NFL team to be based in Canada.[85] However, the following year he said he would continue Rozelle's policy of not expanding into Canada.[86] In 1992, with the NFL considering expansion, Tagliabue said "it's a decision we made to limit expansion applications to U.S. cities, because it's our belief that a number of U.S. cities are qualified, and they should be serviced first". He went on to say "we're simply making a business judgment" and it "has nothing to do with any understanding with the Canadian Football League."[87] However, by 1995, Tagliabue said of Toronto "we're very interested in this market".[88] The same year, Roger Goodell, the NFL's vice-president and future commissioner, said Toronto was "unquestionably one of the cities under consideration for future expansion."[89]

When the plans were being developed for the construction of SkyDome, an NFL team was considered as a possible tenant for the new stadium.[90][91] To leave open this possibility, the stadium operators resisted granting the Argos football exclusivity in their lease at the SkyDome.[91][92] In 1989, shortly after an announcement that a Montreal based group was seeking an NFL team for their city, a group led by former Chairman of the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto Paul Godfrey and Carling O'Keefe Breweries announced that they had been pursuing an NFL team to play at the soon to be opened SkyDome for two years, as a contingency in case the CFL or the Argos folded. O'Keefe had previously owned the Argos and retained the right to put an NFL team in the SkyDome if the Argos ceased to exist.[93][94][95][96] When the American Bowl was played at the SkyDome in 1995, the Argos received $300,000 from the organizers to waive their exclusivity on football at the stadium.[97] In 1994, Labatt Brewing Company, then owner of the Blue Jays and Argonauts, considered purchasing the Tampa Bay Buccaneers and relocating them to Toronto's SkyDome following the death of club owner Hugh Culverhouse,[98][99] with Richard Peddie, who was President of Labatt's sports division, saying that he hoped to acquire a team for the city.[100][101] Toronto was one of five finalist cities who had groups bidding to purchase the franchise.[102] Toronto interests also pursued the LA Rams before they relocated to St. Louis in 1995.[103] Toronto was one of several cities that Art Modell considered relocating the Cleveland Browns to in 1995 prior to choosing Baltimore.[104] By this time, the Godfrey led group was hoping for a team by the 1998 season, with Tagliabue saying the city was on the short list for expansion candidates.[105] In 1997, the Minnesota Vikings went up for sale and a Toronto group inquired about purchasing the team.[106]

When the NFL decided to expand to 32 teams in 1998, Toronto was one of three finalists (along with Houston and Los Angeles) considered.[107][108][109][110] At the time, Tagliabue said that "the CFL and NFL could fit together in Canada."[111] By this time there were questions whether SkyDome was a suitable long-term NFL venue, with Godfrey developing plans for a new stadium near Downsview Park.[112][21] Then Toronto mayor Mel Lastman ruled out funding from the city, saying "no money for professional sports".[113] It was speculated that if Toronto's bid to host the 2008 Summer Olympics were successful, the stadium constructed for the games could be repurposed for a NFL club.[114] When it became clear that Toronto was not likely to be the successful bidder, Godfrey suggested that "I don't think they'll leave L.A. or Houston out for, say, 10 years. I will, though, grab hold of the coattails of whoever is left out this time around and hopefully go in with them."[21]

When Rogers Communications purchased the Toronto Blue Jays in 2000, Godfrey was named President and CEO. At the time, Godfrey's stated that "part of my responsibilities are to chase an NFL team and other sports options".[115] Ted Rogers, President and CEO of Rogers Communications, had held discussion with Godfrey's with regards to owning an NFL team as far back as 1994, said that "We think the city deserves an NFL team. We want to be part of that."[115][116][117] Corporate ownership is forbidden under the NFL's ownership policy, so his company would not be able to buy the team like with the Blue Jays. Rather he would have had to have purchased it as an individual. By this time Godfrey had switched his focus from an expansion team to the relocation of an existing team, saying "I used to think an expansion franchise was the way to go but I'm quite certain now that our best chance would be to acquire an existing franchise. There are four or five franchises in the NFL that could move, and I see no reason why Toronto can't get one of them in the not-too-distant future."[118] Late that year it was reported that Rogers had targeted the Arizona Cardinals to relocate to Toronto, with plans for the SkyDome to undergo a significant renovation to make it acceptable for the NFL, including removing the SkyDome hotel so it could be replaced with extra seats.[119]

Godfrey has stated that in 2005 the NFL gave him and Tanenbaum permission to discuss the sale of the New Orleans Saints with team owner Tom Benson.[120] However, following Hurricane Katrina, which ravaged New Orleans and severely damaged the Louisiana Superdome, Godfrey stated that "the Saints became a symbol for that community. Whatever deal there might have been disappeared."[120] The Saints and Louisiana struck a deal to repair and renovate the Superdome, securing the Saints ties to New Orleans.[121] In 2006 it was reported that Benson had rejected an offer of $1 billion from a group from Canada.[122] In 2005, then-NFL commissioner Paul Tagliabue stated that Toronto would be considered for expansion,[123] though a year later he said that "I don't see any expansion on the horizon".[1] However, he left the door open to including Toronto in the NFL International Series.[1]

In 2006, Larry Tanenbaum said that he and Ted Rogers were "highly interested" in bringing an NFL franchise to Toronto and that he was going to "pursue it more rigorously" as soon as the NFL gave him the word.[122] In 2007 it was reported that the owners of the Argos, David Cynamon and Howard Sokolowski, fearing the NFL was preparing to move a team to Toronto, had developed plans to acquire an NFL team themselves and relocate it to Toronto in partnership with other CFL owners to ensure that it was done in a manner to protect the Canadian league.[124] Later that year Rogers Communication would lease the Bills from Ralph Wilson for the Toronto Series. Rogers wouldn't comment on whether the step was a prelude to moving the franchise permanently to Toronto, saying "We didn't say we weren't interested, and we didn't say that we were."[125] Wilson would not commit to keeping the team in Buffalo, saying "I can't speculate what's going to happen in the future," and adding "But don't worry. Don't worry right now. Does that answer your questions?"[125]

In 2008, Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment (MLSE) considered bringing a NFL team to Toronto and building them a new stadium, but abandoned the idea when they concluded that the project would not generate sufficient financial return to justify the significant cost of the project.[126]

In March 2010 it was reported that a Toronto group was one of three parties attempting to buy the St. Louis Rams (the others being Shahid Khan and the Dave Checketts-Rush Limbaugh partnership),[127] though the team was ultimately sold to Stan Kroenke.

In 2011, Toronto Mayor Rob Ford stated that he supported an NFL team in Toronto, but he ruled out public financing for a new stadium.[128] He and his brother Doug Ford, a member of the Toronto City Council, planned on presenting a proposal to league owners regarding relocation of either the Jaguars or the Saints to Toronto, with the intention of building a new stadium.[129]

In July 2013, Tim Leiweke, the new President of MLSE, which owns the Maple Leafs, Raptors and Toronto FC, stated of the organization's involvement in attracting an NFL team for Toronto, "it is a safe bet to say we’ll have some role there, to be determined, but that’s on our radar screen", and that "we’d go out of our way to make it work here."[130][131] NFL rules prohibit corporations, such as MLSE, from having an ownership stake in a team.[131] Leiweke later stated "We can’t own a team (per NFL rules), but we do have more expertise on how to build (stadiums) than anyone ... MLSE can play a role. We’re not the lead here. Our job is to augment whatever group may come together."[132] It has been reported that MLSE is interested in building and managing the proposed NFL stadium, with MLSE minority owner Larry Tanenbaum and Edward Rogers III, son of Ted Rogers, part of the group which would own the team.[133][134] Jon Bon Jovi, a rock musician who previously owned the Arena Football League's Philadelphia Soul and has numerous ties to both Lieweke and other NFL owners, has expressed interest in buying an NFL franchise and has been speculated as a potential partner for Lieweke's efforts.[135] MLSE reportedly has already begun designing the stadium.[134] The potential acquisition of the Argos by MLSE is thought to enhance the likelihood of Toronto receiving an NFL franchise,[136] with former President of MLSE Richard Peddie saying "everything I'm hearing is that that the NFL is telling them that if you want an NFL team, you better make sure the Argos are okay."[137] Leiweke has said that moving into a renovated BMO Field "will help turn [the Argos] around" and that "there's no way the NFL comes here without the CFL being unbelievably successful first.”[138]

Potential candidates for relocation[edit]

The NFL's dealings with Toronto have led to speculation that the league may consider placing a franchise in Toronto permanently. The Bills are the most frequently suggested team for such a move, due in part to Buffalo's proximity to Ontario.[120] In addition, the Bills play in one of the league's smallest markets,[139] and their games are often blacked out due to not being sold out[139][140][141] even with only 7 home games to sell during the Bills in Toronto series. The difficulties selling tickets for Bills games, particularly late in the season when western New York's weather becomes much poorer, was part of the reason why capacity was decreased by 7,000 in the 1998 renovation of Ralph Wilson Stadium.[142] Western New York's economic problems have forced the Bills to keep their average ticket prices among the lowest in the NFL,[143][144] and the team refused to take advantage of the loosening of blackout restrictions in 2012.[145]

The team's home, Ralph Wilson Stadium, is 40 years old. The team's lease was most recently renewed in March 2013 through the 2022 season in conjunction with an agreement for a $130 million upgrade to the stadium, with $95 million coming from the county and state.[146] The team's lease provides for a one-time $28.4 million option to buy out the final three years after the 2019 season.[147][148][149] Outside of that window there is no opt-out, and a $400 million pre-agreed liquidated damages penalty is specified in case the team were able to break the contract in a court.[150] It has also been reported that the lease stipulates that the team will not "sell, assign or otherwise transfer the team to any person who, to the Bills' knowledge, has an intention to relocate, transfer or otherwise move the team" without government consent.[151] The lease indicates that the Bills' future in the stadium is unlikely beyond the end of the lease and that a newer, more modern stadium would need to be constructed to keep the team in Buffalo. NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell has described the lease as a "short-term solution".[152] A committee has been formed by the Bills and various levels of government to study the possibility of a "substantial renovation" of the existing stadium or constructing a replacement,[153][154][155] hoverer there are doubts that the Buffalo region can afford the $800+ million cost of a new stadium.[156]

Owner Ralph Wilson promised that he would not move the team during his lifetime;[148] he died March 25, 2014 with the franchise still in his hands and without a long-term succession plan.[154][157] Wilson did not express any desire for his family to inherit the team permanently,[148] and following his death the club put out a press release confirming that it would be sold at some point.[158] It was reported that the team (along with the rest of Wilson's estate) would be put in a trust governed by his widow[158][159] along with his niece, chief financial officer and attorney.[160] The trust is expected to continue to own the franchise for up to two years pending a sale.[148][161][161] Other reports, citing sources within the Bills, have suggested that the sale could take place as soon as October 2014.[162] It has been widely presumed that Wilson's heirs will sell the team to the highest bidder to pay the significant inheritance tax,[149][155][163] and the franchise is thought to be worth more in a large market than in Buffalo.[161][164]

There is speculation that Toronto interests, such as Tanenbaum, Ed Rogers or the Lieweke/Bon Jovi consortium, would bid for the franchise in hopes of moving it to Toronto.[148][149][150][165] These groups would have to compete with several ownership groups who intend to keep the franchise in Buffalo. Businessmen who have expressed an interest in purchasing the team and keeping it in Buffalo include Terrence Pegula, owner of the Buffalo Sabres; Tom Golisano, CEO of Paychex and former Sabres co-owner; Jerry and Lou Jacobs, Delaware North Companies principals (their father, Jeremy, owns the Boston Bruins); Howard Milstein, who has twice bid unsuccessfully on NFL franchises and has significant business holdings in Niagara Falls; and Donald Trump, who formerly owned the New Jersey Generals.[148][155][161][166][167] Niagara Falls, New York, located between the two cities, has been proposed as a compromise location.[168] Any sale of the team would require the approval of 24 of 32 NFL teams, as would the relocation (though Al Davis was able to move the Oakland Raiders to Los Angeles in 1982 against the league's wishes), and a relocation fee, which has been speculated to be $100-$200 million, could be charged by the NFL.[148][149][150][155][161][168] However, this could be offset by an increase in franchise value in a larger market;[161][164] a Los Angeles or Toronto franchise could command a major premium, such as the cases of the Los Angeles Clippers and Toronto Maple Leafs, both of which commanded sale prices of at least four times the value of typical teams in their leagues when they were sold in 2014 and 2010 respectively.[169] Goodell has said the two votes would be held separately.[152] Of the owners who have made their position known, Jerry Jones is believed to be in favor of the Bills moving to Toronto, while John Mara, Robert Wood Johnson IV, the Green Bay Packers Board of Directors, and Shahid Khan have indicated they would most likely be against moving the team.[170]

The Jacksonville Jaguars have also been named as potential candidates for relocation to Toronto.[171] The Jaguars play in one of the NFL's smallest markets and have had trouble selling out EverBank Field. In the 2009 season all but one of their home games was blacked out. However in 2010 a public relations push raised their ticket sales considerably, and Jacksonville had no blackouts that year.[139] The Jaguars have not faced blackouts since. Automobile parts tycoon Shahid Khan purchased the team in 2011, and made a commitment to keep them in Jacksonville. The Jaguars are locked into a stadium lease through 2027[172] and host an annual home game in London as part of the NFL International Series beginning in 2013.[173]

As of April 2014, the Oakland Raiders,[174] San Diego Chargers and St. Louis Rams[172] are considered to be the most movable franchises in the short term, as all three have leases at their current stadium that either expire or they can escape from in the next year.[166] All three are seen as potential candidates for relocation.[175][176]

The Rams' lease with the St. Louis Convention and Visitors Commission, which manages the Edward Jones Dome, stipulates that the stadium must be considered "top-tier" and superior to at least three-quarters of other NFL stadiums through the 2015 season. On July 2, 2013, the CVC announced that they were rejecting the Rams' renovation proposal to get the stadium up to this standard.[177] If the issue is not resolved, the Rams' can break their lease following the 2014 season.

The death of the Raiders' long-time owner Al Davis has made the team's future in Oakland less clear.[178] The team has insisted that they cannot remain in their current stadiums for the long term.[179] They have been discussing constructing a new stadium on the grounds of their current stadium, Coliseum. Their lease there expires after the 2014 season, following a one year extension.[174]

Playing in one of the oldest facilities in the league, the Chargers have the right to terminate their lease with Qualcomm Stadium between Feb. 1 and May 1 every year until 2020.[180] Their efforts to build a new stadium in both downtown San Diego and in the suburbs of Chula Vista, Escondido, Oceanside, and Mission Valley have all failed thus far.[181]

Another team that has been speculated as potential relocation candidate is the Tampa Bay Buccaneers.[182]

Potential roadblocks[edit]

Bringing an NFL team to Toronto would be quite expensive, with teams worth US$1 billion.[122] Additionally, an NFL team in Toronto would have to pay its players in U.S. dollars while collecting a significant fraction of its revenues in Canadian dollars, the same anomaly that other Canadian teams face.

Another major issue is the stadium. Although Godfrey believed that the Rogers Centre could be home to an NFL franchise,[122] it is unclear if it would be suitable long-term. The retractable roof stadium has a capacity of 54,088 when configured for CFL games, which is larger than the NFL's 50,000-seat minimum but would be the smallest capacity stadium in the league during the regular season, the current smallest being Chicago's Soldier Field with 61,500 seats. While extra seats could be added due to the shorter NFL field (an NFL exhibition at the SkyDome in 1995 was attended by almost 55,800 fans), a large-scale expansion would require lowering the playing surface. As a result, a new football stadium, which would cost roughly $1 billion, would likely need to be built.[150] Then-mayor David Miller and mayor Rob Ford have stated that funding for a new stadium would not come from the City of Toronto.[122] It has been suggested that personal seat license could be sold to fund the new stadium.[183][184][185][186]

Another obstacle to Toronto acquiring an NFL teams is the league's determination to return a team to Los Angeles, which NFL official Eric Grubman calls "one of our top goals".[187] This objective will likely take precedence over moving a team to Toronto.[188]

Relocation of a team to Toronto would face resistance from the Bills, since such a large portion of their fans come from Canada.[129] Toronto falls within the NFL's definition of the Bills' home territory. In 1991, Wilson said "A Toronto club wouldn't hurt us". He went on to say "as far as I know, Toronto isn't in Buffalo's territory" and that "I wouldn't veto expansion to Toronto, anyway, even if I could."[189] However, in 1995 Wilson was quoted as saying "Some day, I'm sure Toronto will have a team. It would be a great franchise up here .. but Toronto is Bills territory." When asked whether he expected financial compensation from a Toronto based NFL team, he replied "yes I do. A team in Toronto would definitely have an effect on our team".[190] However, according to Godfrey, then-NFL commissioner Paul Tagliabue's position was that "there are no such things as territorial rights in the NFL."[120]

Any NFL team that entered the Toronto market would have to deal with the Canadian Football League (CFL)'s Toronto Argonauts, as well as the Hamilton Tiger-Cats, who play in nearby Hamilton, Ontario, both of which—as well as the CFL—have objected to a NFL team in Canada. The NFL has been reluctant to hurt the CFL.[120] The World Football League (WFL) intended to place a franchise in Toronto known as the Toronto Northmen, but after the Canadian Parliament began debating the Canadian Football Act, which would have banned foreign football leagues from playing in Canada in an attempt to protect the CFL, the WFL moved the team to Memphis, Tennessee. Similar bills have been introduced to Parliament since the Bills Toronto Series was announced.[191]

Since much of the NFL's revenue comes from television rights fees, there could be resistance from the networks to moving a team from the US to Canada, where the home town fans won't increase US television viewership.[149] When Bassett was considering bringing a team to the city in the 1970s, he suggested a solution to this problem: "I say to the NFL teams, don't cut me in on your American TV revenues. Keep your millions to yourself. I say to them, just give me the TV rights for Canada."[73] A report prepared for the Godfrey-O'Keefe group attempting to bring an NFL team to Toronto said that the then chief counsel of the NFL, and future NFL Commissioner, Paul Tagliabue had suggested that "any of the communities within the U.S. where the NFL might respond, will not significantly increase TV viewership" but that "a Canadian team would offer significant over-the-air and cable opportunities for new viewers, this would be particularly attractive to the NFL."[96] In 1987, Commissioner Rozelle was asked "Do you think you'd be jeopardizing the value of your network TV package, by having one or more Canadian teams?" to which he responded "I wouldn't think so."[82]

It as been suggested that one of the reasons the NFL would not want to put a franchise in Canada and risk putting the CFL out of business is that the CFL offers antitrust protection as a competing league. However, Rozelle said in 1987 that "I can't see where a league operating in Canada could possibly help us in any anti-trust trials."[82]

See also[edit]


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External links[edit]