National Autonomous University of Mexico

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National Autonomous University of Mexico
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Escudo-UNAM-escalable.svg
Official seal
MottoPor mi raza hablará el espíritu
Motto in EnglishFor my race the spirit shall speak
Established22 September 1910[1][2][3][4][5][6]
TypePublic university
EndowmentUS$2.4 billion (2012)[7]
Academic staff36,750 (As of 2012)[8]
Students324,413 (2011–2012 academic year)[8]
Undergraduates187,195 (As of 2012)[8]
Postgraduates26,169 (As of 2012)[8]
LocationMexico City, Mexico
19°19′44″N 99°11′14″W / 19.32889°N 99.18722°W / 19.32889; -99.18722Coordinates: 19°19′44″N 99°11′14″W / 19.32889°N 99.18722°W / 19.32889; -99.18722
CampusUrban, 7.3 km2 (2.8 sq mi), main campus only
ColorsBlue and gold         
Athletics41 varsity teams[9]
MascotCougar
Websitewww.unam.mx/index/en
 
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National Autonomous University of Mexico
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Escudo-UNAM-escalable.svg
Official seal
MottoPor mi raza hablará el espíritu
Motto in EnglishFor my race the spirit shall speak
Established22 September 1910[1][2][3][4][5][6]
TypePublic university
EndowmentUS$2.4 billion (2012)[7]
Academic staff36,750 (As of 2012)[8]
Students324,413 (2011–2012 academic year)[8]
Undergraduates187,195 (As of 2012)[8]
Postgraduates26,169 (As of 2012)[8]
LocationMexico City, Mexico
19°19′44″N 99°11′14″W / 19.32889°N 99.18722°W / 19.32889; -99.18722Coordinates: 19°19′44″N 99°11′14″W / 19.32889°N 99.18722°W / 19.32889; -99.18722
CampusUrban, 7.3 km2 (2.8 sq mi), main campus only
ColorsBlue and gold         
Athletics41 varsity teams[9]
MascotCougar
Websitewww.unam.mx/index/en

The Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) (National Autonomous University of Mexico) is a university in Mexico.[8] UNAM was founded on 22 September 1910 by Justo Sierra[1][2][3][4] as a liberal alternative to the Roman Catholic-sponsored Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico (founded on 21 September 1551 by a royal decree of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and brought to a definitive closure in 1867 by the liberals).[10][dead link] UNAM's autonomy, granted in 1929, has given it the freedom to define its own curriculum and manage its own budget without interference from the government. This has had a profound effect on academic life at the university, which some claim boosts academic freedom and independence.[11]

The UNAM generates a number of different publications in diverse areas, such as mathematics, physics and history. It is also the only university in Mexico with Nobel Prize laureates among its alumni: Alfonso García Robles (Peace), Octavio Paz (Literature), and Mario Molina (Chemistry).

Besides being one of the most recognized universities in Latin America, it is one of the largest and the most artistically detailed. Its main campus is a World Heritage site that was designed by some of Mexico's best-known architects of the 20th century. Murals in the main campus were painted by some of the most recognized artists in Mexican history such as Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros.

History[edit]

Justo Sierra, founder.

The university was founded on 22 September 1910 by Justo Sierra,[1][2][3][4] then Minister of Education in the Porfirio Díaz regime, who sought to create a very different institution from its 19th-century precursor, the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico, which had been founded on 21 September 1551 by a royal decree signed by Crown Prince Phillip on behalf of Charles I of Spain[12] and brought to a definitive closure in 1867 by Benito Juárez and his fellow Liberals.[10][dead link][citation needed] Instead of reviving what he saw as an anachronistic institution with strong ties to the Roman Catholic Church,[13] he aimed to create a new university, secular in nature and national in scope, that could reorganize higher education within the country, serve as a model of positivism and encompass the ideas of the dominant Mexican liberalism.[2]

The project initially unified the Fine Arts, Business, Political Science, Jurisprudence, Engineering, Medicine, Normal, and the National Preparatory schools;[14] its first rector was Joaquin Eguía y Lis.[15]

The new university's challenges were mostly political, due to the ongoing Mexican Revolution and the fact that the federal government had direct control over the university's policies and curriculum; some resisted its establishment on philosophical grounds. This opposition led to disruptions in the function of the university when political instability forced resignations in the government, including that of President Díaz. Internally, the first student strike occurred in 1912 to protest examination methods introduced by the director of the School of Jurisprudence, Luis Cabrera. By July of that year, a majority of the law students decided to abandon the university and join the newly created Free School of Law.[15]

In 1914 initial efforts to gain autonomy for the university failed.[15] In 1920, José Vasconcelos became rector. In 1921, he created the school's coat-of-arms: the image of an eagle and a condor surrounding a map of Latin America, from Mexico's northern border to Tierra del Fuego, and the motto, "The Spirit shall speak for my race". Efforts to gain autonomy for the university continued in the early 1920s. In the mid-1920s, a second wave of student strikes opposed a new grading system. The strikes included major classroom walkouts in the law school and confrontation with police at the medical school. The striking students were supported by many professors and subsequent negotiations eventually led to autonomy for the university. The institution was no longer a dependency of the Secretariat of Public Education; the university rector became the final authority, eliminating much of the confusing overlap in authority.[16]

Palacio de la Autonomía, located off Moneda Street east of the Zocalo.

In 1943 initial decisions were made to move the university from the various buildings it occupied in the city center to a new and consolidated university campus; the new Ciudad Universitaria (lit. University City) would be in San Ángel, to the south of the city.[17] The first stone laid was that of the faculty of Sciences, the first building of Ciudad Universitaria. President Miguel Alemán Valdés participated in the ceremony on 20 November 1952. The University Olympic Stadium was inaugurated on the same day. In 1957 the Doctorate Council was created to regulate and organize graduate studies.[18]

Another major student strike, again over examination regulations, occurred in 1966. Students invaded the rectorate and forced the rector to resign. The Board of Regents did not accept this resignation, so the professors went on strike, paralyzing the university and forcing the Board's acceptance. In the summer, violent outbreaks occurred on a number of the campuses of the University-affiliated preparatory schools; police took over a number of high school campuses, with injuries. During August 1968, protests formed on the main campus against the police actions on the main campus and in the center of the city. The protests grew into a student movement that demanded the resignation of the police chief, among other things. More protests followed in September, gaining frequency and numbers. During a meeting of the student leaders, the army fired on the Chihuahua building in Tlatelolco, where the student organization supposedly was. They also fired on the crowd that was outside, with many dead, wounded and detained. Protests continued after that. Only ten days later, the 1968 Olympic Games opened at the University Stadium. The University was shut down for the duration. Finally, some progress was made toward restoring order.[19]

The 1970s and 1980s saw the opening of satellite campuses in other parts of Mexico and nearby areas, to decentralize the system. There were some minor student strikes, mostly concerning grading and tuition.[20][21] The last major student strike at the university occurred in 1999–2000 when students shut down the campus for almost a year to protest a proposal to charge students the equivalent of US$150 per semester for those who could afford it. Referendums were held by both the university and the strikers, but neither side accepted the others' results. Acting on a judge's order, the police stormed the buildings held by strikers on 7 February 2000, putting an end to the strike.[22][23][24]

In 2009 the university was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award for Communication and Humanities[25] and began the celebration of its centennial anniversary with several activities that will last until 2011.[26]

Campuses[edit]

University City[edit]

Mural El pueblo a la universidad, la universidad al pueblo. Por una cultura nacional neohumanista de profundidad universal (The people to college, college to the people. On a national culture neohumanist universal depth), (1952 - 1956), David Alfaro Siqueiros, along Rectorate tower of the UNAM.

"Ciudad Universitaria" (University City) is UNAM's main campus, located within the Coyoacán borough in the southern part of Mexico City. It was designed by architects Mario Pani, Enrique del Moral, Domingo García Ramos, Armando Franco Rovira, Ernesto Gómez Gallardo and others, and it encloses the Estadio Olímpico Universitario, about 40 faculties and institutes, the Cultural Center, an ecological reserve, the Central Library, and a few museums. It was built during the 1950s on an ancient solidified lava bed to replace the scattered buildings in downtown Mexico City, where classes were given. It was completed in 1954, and is almost a separate region within Mexico City, with its own regulations, councils, and police (to some extent), in a more fundamental way than most universities around the world.

In June 2007, its main campus, Ciudad Universitaria, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[27]

Satellite campuses[edit]

Apart from Ciudad Universitaria, UNAM has several campuses in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (Acatlán, Aragón, Cuautitlán, Iztacala, and Zaragoza), as well as many others in several locations across Mexico (in Santiago de Querétaro, Morelia, Mérida, Ensenada, Cuernavaca and Leon), mainly aimed at research and graduate studies. It also has four small extension schools in the United States and Canada, focusing on the Spanish language, English language, Mexican culture, and, in the case of UNAM Canada, French language: UNAM San Antonio, Texas; UNAM Chicago, Illinois; Los Angeles; Gatineau, Quebec.

Central Library of the UNAM, at the University City

Museums and buildings of interest[edit]

Palacio de Minería[edit]

Colegio de Minería (College of Mining) building on Tacuba street in the historic center of Mexico City.
Part of the "megaofrenda" at UNAM for Day of the Dead.

Under the care of UNAM's Engineering Faculty, the Colonial Palace of Mining is located in the historical center of Mexico City. Formerly the School of Engineering, it has three floors, and hosts the International Book Expo ("Feria Internacional del Libro" or "FIL") and the International Day of Computing Security Congress ("DISC"). It also has a permanent exhibition of historical books, mostly topographical and naturalist works of 19th century Mexican scientists, in the former library of the School of Engineers. It also contains several exhibitions related to mining, the prime engineering occupation during the Spanish colonization. It is considered to be one of the most significant examples of Mexican architecture of its period, conceived by Manuel Tolsa during de Spanish colonial rule in a neoclassical style (18th century).

Casa del Lago[edit]

The House of the Lake, in Chapultepec Park, is a place devoted to cultural activities, including dancing, theatre, and ballet. It also serves as meeting place for university-related organizations and committees.

Museum of San Ildefonso[edit]

This museum and cultural center is considered to be the birthplace of the Mexican muralism movement.[28][29] San Ildefonso began as a prestigious Jesuit boarding school, and after the Reform War, it gained educational prestige again as National Preparatory School, which was closely linked to the founding of UNAM. This school, and the building, closed completely in 1978, then reopened as a museum and cultural center in 1994, administered jointly by UNAM, the National Council for Culture and Arts and the government of the Federal District of Mexico City. The museum has permanent and temporary art and archaeological exhibitions, in addition to the many murals painted on its walls by José Clemente Orozco, Diego Rivera and others.[30][31] The complex is located between San Ildefonso Street and Justo Sierra Street in the historic center of Mexico City .[28]

Chopo University Museum[edit]

The Chopo University Museum possesses an artistic architecture, large crystal panels and two iron towers designed by Gustave Eiffel. It opened with part of the collection of the now-defunct Public Museum of Natural History, Archeology and History, which eventually became the National Museum of Cultures.[32] It served the National Museum of Natural History for almost 50 years, and is now devoted to the temporary exhibitions of visual arts.

National Astronomical Observatory[edit]

The National Astronomical Observatory is located in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir mountain range in Baja California, about 130 km south of United States-Mexican border. It has been in operation since 1970, and it currently has three large reflecting telescopes.

Organization[edit]

Rectorate tower of the UNAM.
Central Library of the UNAM
Faculty of Engineering gardens
Faculty of Sciences.

UNAM is organized in faculties, rather than departments. Both undergraduate and graduate studies are available. UNAM is also responsible for the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria (ENP) (National Preparatory School), and the Colegio de Ciencias y Humanidades (CCH) (Science and Humanities College), which consist of several high schools, in Mexico City. Counting ENEP, CCH, FES (Facultad de Estudios Profesionales), higher-secondary, undergraduate and graduate students, UNAM has over 324,413 students, making it one of the world's largest universities.[8]

Faculties and national schools[edit]

UNAM recognizes two different types of university schools: faculties and national schools. Only faculties have postgraduate studies. Currently, most of the schools, either inside or outside the University City, have this title. A national school is an institution that cannot offer all postgraduate studies (Master's degrees and Doctorates). This is the case of the National School of Music, the National School of Arts, the National School of Nursery and Obstetrics, and the National School of Social Work.[33]

List of faculties, national schools, and institutes[edit]

Academics[edit]

Rankings[edit]

University rankings
Global
Times[34]351-400

According to the 2009 THES - QS World University Rankings, the University is the 190th best-ranked university in the world and the second best in Ibero-America.[35] According to the 2008 Academic Ranking of World Universities, developed by the Institute of Higher Education of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, UNAM is ranked in the 152–200 tier,[36] and holds second place among Ibero-American universities in a tie between the University of Buenos Aires and Brazilian University, below the University of São Paulo (101–151 tier).[36] The university was also ranked joint 169th with University of São Paulo in the 2011 QS World University Rankings.[37]

Research[edit]

UNAM has excelled in many areas of research and houses many of Mexico's premiere research institutions. In recent years, it has attracted students and hired professional scientists from all over the world, most notably from Russia, India, and the United States,[citation needed] creating a unique and diverse scientific community.

Scientific research at UNAM is divided between faculties, institutes, centers and schools, and covers a range of disciplines in Latin America. Some of the more noted institutes include: the Institute of Astronomy, the Institute of Biotechnology, the Institute of Nuclear Sciences, the Institute of Ecology, the Institute of Physics, the Institute of Cell Physiology, the Institute of Geophysics, the Institute of Engineering, the Institute of Materials Research, the Institute of Chemistry, the Institute of Biomedical Sciences, and the Applied Mathematics and Systems Research Institute.

Research centers tend to focus on multidisciplinary problems particularly relevant to Mexico and the developing world, most notably, the Center of Applied Sciences and Technological Development, which focuses on connecting the sciences to real-world problems (e.g., optics, nanosciences), and Center of Energy Research, which conducts world-class research in alternative energies.

All research centers are open to students from around the world. The UNAM holds a number of programs for students within the country, using scientific internships to encourage research in the country.

UNAM's scientific output continues to grow; despite numerous attempts by the Mexican government to curtail its budget, the University currently produces 60% of all scientific publications in Mexico.[citation needed]

As for basic sciences, UNAM currently has two Howard Hughes Medical Institute Scholars and an endowment from the NIH extramural research program.[citation needed]

Students and faculty[edit]

Sports, clubs, and traditions[edit]

Professional football club[edit]

A view of university's University Olympic Stadium

UNAM's football club, Club Universidad Nacional, participates in Liga MX, the top division of Mexican football. The club recently became two-time consecutive champions of the Apertura, and the Clausura in 2004. Their home ground is the Estadio Olímpico Universitario.

Cultural traditions[edit]

The University has as an annual tradition to make a large display of Day of the Dead offerings (Spanish: ofrenda) all over the main square of Ciudad Universitaria. Each school builds an offering, and in the center, there is usually a large offering made according to a theme corresponding to the festivities of the University for that year.[38]

Political activism[edit]

UNAM students and professors are regarded throughout Mexico as politically aware and politically active. While most of its students usually adhere to left-wing political ideologies and movements, the University has also borne a number of prominent right-wing and neoliberal politicians, such as Carlos Salinas de Gortari and Manuel Gómez Morín.

Student associations[edit]

The UNAM contains several associations of current students and alumni that provide extra-curricular activities to the whole community, enriching the University's activities with cultural, social, and scientific events.

Noted alumni[edit]

See also Category:National Autonomous University of Mexico alumni

Many of the most prominent figures in the economical, political, scientific, and artistic life in Mexico were members of the UNAM alumni or faculty:

Heads of state[edit]

Politicians[edit]

Diplomats[edit]

Artists, writers, and humanists[edit]

Physicians and surgeons[edit]

Scientists[edit]

Businesspeople[edit]

Athletes[edit]

Noted faculty[edit]

See also Category:National Autonomous University of Mexico faculty

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. "UNAM Through Time". "Later, on April 26, [1910] he set the National University's founding project in motion. The new institution would be composed of the National Preparatory High School and the School of Higher Studies, along with the schools of Jurisprudence, Medicine, Engineering and Arts (including Architecture). The project was approved and the National University of Mexico was solemnly inaugurated on September 22. The universities of Salamanca, Turkey and Berkeley were its 'godmothers'." 
  2. ^ a b c d Justo Sierra (1910-09-22). "Discurso en el acto de la inauguración de la Universidad Nacional de México, el 22 de septiembre de 1910" (PDF) (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2008-10-03. "¿Tenemos una historia? No. La Universidad mexicana que nace hoy no tiene árbol genealógico" 
  3. ^ a b c Annick Lempérière. "Los dos centenarios de la Independencia mexicana (1910–1921): de la historia patria a la antropología cultural" (PDF) (in Spanish). University of Paris I. "La universidad soñada por Justo Sierra, ministro de Instrucción Pública, última creación duradera del régimen porfirista, se inauguró al mismo tiempo que la Escuela Nacional de Altos Estudios, que debía ceder su lugar a las humanidades, junto a los programas científicos de los cursos porfiristas. El discurso inaugural de Sierra iba a tono con el espíritu de las celebraciones. La universidad naciente no tenía nada en común, insistía, con la que la precedió: no tenía 'antecesores', sino 'precursores'." 
  4. ^ a b c Javier Garciadiego. "De Justo Sierra a Vasconcelos. La Universidad Nacional durante la Revolución Mexicana" (PDF) (in Spanish). El Colegio de México. "El mayor esfuerzo en la vida de Sierra fue, precisamente, revertir tal postura; así, se afanó obsesivamente en crear una universidad de ese tipo, pues era la institución que mejor encabezaba "los esfuerzos colectivos de la sociedad moderna para emanciparse integralmente del espíritu viejo". Al margen de numerosas diferencias sustanciales con los liberales, los positivistas, que dominaron el sistema nacional de instrucción pública superior desde 1865, también eran contrarios al establecimiento de una universidad, tanto por conveniencias políticas como por principios doctrinales. Esto hace más admirable el esfuerzo de don Justo, pues era un miembro destacado —canonizado, dice O'Gorman— del grupo de positivistas mexicanos. Su lucha no fue sólo pedagógica sino también política. Si bien no se puede coincidir con [Edmundo] O'Gorman respecto al carácter de Sierra como jerarca del positivismo mexicano, pues siempre fue cuestionado por los más ortodoxos como un pensador ecléctico, falto de disciplina, es de compartirse la admiración que profesa a don Justo, pues su lucha por la fundación de la Universidad Nacional implicó serios distanciamientos de sus principales compañeros políticos e intelectuales, ya fueran liberales o positivistas." 
  5. ^ Manuel López de la Parra. "La casi centenaria UNAM" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2009-02-01. ""Ciertamente no ha transcendido el hecho de que la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; autónoma desde 1929, está próxima a cumplir su primer centenario de vida académica, pues fue inaugurada el 22 de septiembre de 1910, en ocasión de los festejos del primer centenario del inicio de la Revolución de Independencia durante los últimos tiempos del Gobierno de don Porfirio Díaz, y con base en un proyecto elaborado por don Justo Sierra, por entonces, secretario de Instrucción Pública y Bellas Artes con la participación técnica de don Ezequiel A. Chávez, de acuerdo con el modelo típico de las universidades europeas, precisamente con mucho de la Universidad de París; por ese entonces la influencia europea estaba presente, y en especial, la cultura francesa." 
  6. ^ Marissa Rivera. "Arrancan festejos por los 100 años de la UNAM" (in Spanish). "El rector José Narro anuncia el programa de actividades para conmemorar los 100 años de UNAM, que iniciaron este miércoles y concluirán el 22 de septiembre de 2011." 
  7. ^ UNAM. "Portal de Estadística Universitaria". Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Retrieved November 19, 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f "La UNAM en numeros". Retrieved August 22, 2012. 
  9. ^ "Dirección General de Actividades Deportivas y Recreativas - Inicio". Deportes.unam.mx. Retrieved 2013-08-17. 
  10. ^ a b Javier Garciadiego. "De Justo Sierra a Vasconcelos. La Universidad Nacional durante la Revolución Mexicana" (PDF) (in Spanish). "Durante el siglo XIX los gobiernos liberales consideraron una "obligada muestra" de sus convicciones suprimir la Universidad, heredera de la Nacional y Pontificia, como para los conservadores reinstalarla era signo de lealtad a sus principios." 
  11. ^ Elizalde,Guadalupe, Piedras en el Camino de la UNAM, EDAMEX, 1999 p.49.
  12. ^ Méndez Arceo, Sergio (1990). La Real y Pontificia Universidad de México: antecedentes, tramitación y despacho de las reales cédulas de erección (in Spanish). Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. pp. 93–100. ISBN 968-36-1704-2. OCLC 25290441. 
  13. ^ Justo Sierra. "Discurso en el acto de la inauguración de la Universidad Nacional de México, el 22 de septiembre de 1910" (PDF) (in Spanish). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. 
  14. ^ "UNAM through time – 1960". Retrieved 2009-10-18. [dead link]
  15. ^ a b c "UNAM through time – 1910". Retrieved 2009-10-18. [dead link]
  16. ^ "UNAM through time – 1920". Retrieved 2009-10-18. [dead link]
  17. ^ "UNAM through time – 1940". Retrieved 2009-10-18. [dead link]
  18. ^ "UNAM through time – 1950". Retrieved 2009-10-18. [dead link]
  19. ^ "UNAM through time – 1960". Retrieved 2009-10-18. [dead link]
  20. ^ "UNAM through time – 1970". Retrieved 2009-10-18. [dead link]
  21. ^ "UNAM through time – 1980". Retrieved 2009-10-18. [dead link]
  22. ^ Preston, Julia (1999)University Officials Yield to Student Strike in Mexico June 8. Retrieved on February 14, 2006. New York Times.
  23. ^ Preston, Julia (2000) Big Majority Votes to End Strike at Mexican University January 21, 2000. Retrieved on February 14, 2006 New York Times.
  24. ^ Mexican Police Storm University February 7, 2000. Retrieved on February 14, 2006, from BBC.
  25. ^ "The National Autonomous University of Mexico, Prince of Asturias Award Laureate for Communication and Humanities". Oviedo: Prince of Asturias Foundation. 2009-06-10. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  26. ^ "UNAM celebra desde ahora su centenario" [UNAM now celebrates its centennial]. Milenio (in Spanish) (Mexico City: Milenio). 2009-10-16. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 
  27. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre (2007-06-29). "UNESCO". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2013-08-17. 
  28. ^ a b Galindo, Carmen; Magdelena Galindo (2002). Mexico City Historic Center. Mexico City: Ediciones Nueva Guia. pp. 86–91. ISBN 968-5437-29-7. 
  29. ^ Horz de Via (ed), Elena (1991). Guia Oficial Centro de la Ciudad d Mexico. Mexico City: INAH-SALVAT. pp. 46–50. ISBN 968-32-0540-2. 
  30. ^ "San Ildefonso en el tiempo". Retrieved 2009-04-24. 
  31. ^ Bueno de Ariztegui (ed), Patricia (1984). Guia Turistica de Mexico Distrito Federal Centro 3. Mexico City: Promexa. pp. 80–84. ISBN 968-34-0319-0. 
  32. ^ "Museo Nacional de las Culturas, En la Ciudad de Mexico, Una ventana al Mundo" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2009-03-26. 
  33. ^ "Unidades Académicas". Retrieved September 17, 2010. 
  34. ^ "Top 400 – The Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2013–2014". The Times Higher Education. 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013. 
  35. ^ The Times - Quacquarelli Symonds (2009). "THES - QS World University Rankings 2009 - Top 200 Universities". Retrieved 2009-10-07. 
  36. ^ a b Institute of Higher Education (2008-08-15). "Top 500 World Universities (101-200)". Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-09-24. 
  37. ^ "QS World University Rankings - 2011". Top Universities. 2012-12-19. Retrieved 2013-08-17. 
  38. ^ "Noticias - En Día de Muertos en la UNAM imponen récord; decenas de calles del DF tienen nombres alusivos a La Catrina". Cronica.com.mx. Retrieved 2013-08-17. 
  39. ^ "Colegio Nacional". Colegio Nacional. Retrieved 2013-08-17. 
  40. ^ [1][dead link]
  41. ^ "#1 Carlos Slim Helu & family". Forbes. 2010-03-10. 

External links[edit]