Nagoya

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Nagoya
名古屋市
Designated city
City of Nagoya[1]
From top left: Nagoya Port, Higashiyama Zoo and Botanical Gardens, Central Nagoya, Nagoya Castle, Nagoya TV Tower
From top left: Nagoya Port, Higashiyama Zoo and Botanical Gardens, Central Nagoya, Nagoya Castle, Nagoya TV Tower
Flag of Nagoya
Flag
Official logo of Nagoya
Logo
Location of Nagoya in Aichi Prefecture
Location of Nagoya in Aichi Prefecture
Nagoya is located in Japan
Nagoya
Nagoya
 
Coordinates: 35°10′53.24″N 136°54′22.99″E / 35.1814556°N 136.9063861°E / 35.1814556; 136.9063861Coordinates: 35°10′53.24″N 136°54′22.99″E / 35.1814556°N 136.9063861°E / 35.1814556; 136.9063861
CountryJapan
RegionChūbu (Tōkai)
PrefectureAichi Prefecture
Government
 • MayorTakashi Kawamura
Area
 • Designated city326.43 km2 (126.04 sq mi)
Population (August 1, 2011)
 • Designated city2,266,249 (3rd)
 • Metro8,923,445 (3rd)
Time zoneJapan Standard Time (UTC+9)
- TreeCamphor laurel
(Cinnamomum camphora)
- FlowerLilium
Phone number052-972-2017
Address3-1-1 Sannomaru, Naka-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 460-0001
Websitewww.city.nagoya.jp
[2]
 
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For the small town in Batam, Indonesia, see Nagoya, Batam.
Nagoya
名古屋市
Designated city
City of Nagoya[1]
From top left: Nagoya Port, Higashiyama Zoo and Botanical Gardens, Central Nagoya, Nagoya Castle, Nagoya TV Tower
From top left: Nagoya Port, Higashiyama Zoo and Botanical Gardens, Central Nagoya, Nagoya Castle, Nagoya TV Tower
Flag of Nagoya
Flag
Official logo of Nagoya
Logo
Location of Nagoya in Aichi Prefecture
Location of Nagoya in Aichi Prefecture
Nagoya is located in Japan
Nagoya
Nagoya
 
Coordinates: 35°10′53.24″N 136°54′22.99″E / 35.1814556°N 136.9063861°E / 35.1814556; 136.9063861Coordinates: 35°10′53.24″N 136°54′22.99″E / 35.1814556°N 136.9063861°E / 35.1814556; 136.9063861
CountryJapan
RegionChūbu (Tōkai)
PrefectureAichi Prefecture
Government
 • MayorTakashi Kawamura
Area
 • Designated city326.43 km2 (126.04 sq mi)
Population (August 1, 2011)
 • Designated city2,266,249 (3rd)
 • Metro8,923,445 (3rd)
Time zoneJapan Standard Time (UTC+9)
- TreeCamphor laurel
(Cinnamomum camphora)
- FlowerLilium
Phone number052-972-2017
Address3-1-1 Sannomaru, Naka-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 460-0001
Websitewww.city.nagoya.jp
[2]

Nagoya (名古屋市 Nagoya-shi?) is the largest city in the Chūbu region of Japan. It is the third-largest incorporated city and the fourth most populous urban area in Japan. Located on the Pacific coast on central Honshu, it is the capital of Aichi Prefecture and is one of Japan's major ports along with those of Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Yokohama, Chiba, and Kitakyushu. It is also the center of Japan's third largest metropolitan region, known as the Chūkyō Metropolitan Area. As of 2000, Chūkyō Metropolitan Area has 8.74 million people, of which 2.27 million live in the city of Nagoya.[3]

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The city's name was historically written as 那古野 or 名護屋 (both read as Nagoya). One possible etymology for the city's name is the adjective nagoyaka (なごやか?), meaning 'peaceful'. [1]

The name Chūkyō (中京) is also used (chū (middle) + kyō (capital)), since it is the main city of the central Chūbu region. Various things are named after Chūkyō, for example the Chūkyō Industrial Area, Chūkyō Metropolitan Area, Chūkyō Television Broadcasting, Chukyo University and the Chukyo Racecourse.

Foundation[edit]

The Great Atsuta Shrine, which dates back to c. 100 CE and houses the holy sword Kusanagi, one of the imperial regalia of Japan
Nagoya Castle was constructed as the seat of the Owari branch of the ruling Tokugawa clan.

Oda Nobunaga and his protégés Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu were powerful warlords based in the Nagoya area who gradually succeeded in unifying Japan.

In 1610, Tokugawa Ieyasu moved the capital of Owari Province from Kiyosu around seven kilometers (4.3 miles) to a more strategic location in present-day Nagoya.

Tokugawa period[edit]

Nagoya Castle, a new, large castle, was constructed partly from materials taken from Kiyosu Castle During the construction, the entire town of around 60,000 people, including the temples and shrines, moved from Kiyosu to the new, planned town around Nagoya Castle.[4] Around the same time not far away, the ancient Atsuta Shrine was designated as a way station called Miya (the Shrine) on the important Tōkaidō, a road that linked the two capitals of Kyoto and Edo (now Tokyo). A town thus developed around the temple to support travelers. The combination of these two castle and shrine towns forms what we now call Nagoya.

Industrialization[edit]

Through the following years Nagoya became an industrial hub for the surrounding region. Its economic sphere included the famous pottery towns Tokoname, Tajimi and Seto, as well as Okazaki, one of the only places where gunpowder was produced under the shogunate. Other industries in the area included cotton and complex mechanical dolls called karakuri ningyō.

Part of the modernization efforts of the Meiji Restoration saw a restructuring of Japan's provinces into prefectures and the government changed from family rule to that by government officials. Nagoya was proclaimed a city on October 1, 1889, and designated a city on September 1, 1956 by government ordinance.

World War II and modern era[edit]

Nagoya was the target of U.S. air raids during World War II, beginning on April 18, 1942, with an attack on a Mitsubishi Aircraft Works, the Matsuhigecho oil warehouse, the Nagoya Castle military barracks, and the Nagoya war industries plant.[5] The bombing of Nagoya in World War II continued through the spring of 1945, and included large scale firebombing. Nagoya Castle, which was being used as a military command post, was hit and mostly destroyed on May 14, 1945.[6] Reconstruction of the main building was completed in 1959.

In 1959, the city was flooded and severely damaged by the Ise-wan Typhoon.

Why Nagoya was a target in World War II[edit]

The population of Nagoya was estimated to be 1,500,000, ranking third among Japanese cities, and it was one of the three largest centers of the Japanese aircraft industry. It was estimated that 25% of all its workers are engaged in some phase of aircraft production. Important Japanese aircraft targets (numbers 193,194,198, 2010, and 1729) were within the city itself, while others (notably 240 and 1833) were to the north of Kagamigahara. It was estimated that the above-mentioned units produced between 40% and 50% of the total output of Japanese combat aircraft and combat aircraft engines. The Nagoya area also produced machine tools, bearings, railway equipment, metal alloys, tanks, motor vehicles, and processed foods during World War II.

Nagoya was the target for two of the Bomber Command’s attacks. Two incendiary attacks, one by day and one by night, left 15.3 square kilometres (5.9 sq mi) of the city devastated. The XXI Bomber Command established a new U.S. Army Air Force record with the greatest tonnage ever released on a single target in one mission—3,162 tons of incendiaries on Nagoya. It also destroyed or damaged twenty-eight of the numbered targets and raised the total area burned to almost one-fourth of the entire city.[7][full citation needed]

Geography[edit]

View of the Nōbi Plain, Kiso Three Rivers and Nagoya from Mount Sanpo and Mount Yoro

Nagoya lies north of Ise Bay on the Nōbi Plain. The city was built on low-level plateaus to ward off water damage. The plain is one of the most fertile areas of Japan, which allowed for the development of agriculture. The Kiso River flows to the west along the city border, and the Shōnai River comes in from the northeast and turns south towards the bay at Nishi Ward. The man-made Hori River was constructed as a canal in the 1610 and flows from north to south, and is a part of the Shōnai River system. The rivers allowed for trade to develop with the hinterland. The Tempaku River feeds from a number of smaller river in the east, flows briefly south at Nonami and then west at Ōdaka into the bay.

The geographic location and the position of the city in the centre of Japan allowed it to develop economically and politically over the centuries.

Sightseeing[edit]

Nagoya's two most famous sightseeing spots are Atsuta Shrine and Nagoya Castle.[8]

Other Nagoya attractions include:

Nagoya is also a starting point for short visits in the surrounding area, such as Inuyama, Little World Museum of Man, Meiji Mura, Kasadera Kannon, Toyohashi and Arimatsu. Reachable within a two hour radius by car or train are Gifu, Gujo Hachiman, Gifu, Ise Shrine, Takayama, Gifu, Gero Onsen and the hill stations in the Kiso Valley Magome and Tsumago.

Wards[edit]

A map of Nagoya's Wards

Nagoya has 16 wards:


Climate[edit]

Nagoya has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with hot summers and cool winters. The summer is noticeably wetter than the winter, although appreciable precipitation falls throughout the year.

Climate data for Nagoya, Aichi (1981~2010; records 1891~2012)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)21.0
(69.8)
22.6
(72.7)
25.8
(78.4)
30.5
(86.9)
34.8
(94.6)
35.8
(96.4)
38.9
(102)
39.9
(103.8)
38.0
(100.4)
32.7
(90.9)
27.2
(81)
21.3
(70.3)
39.9
(103.8)
Average high °C (°F)9.0
(48.2)
10.1
(50.2)
13.9
(57)
19.9
(67.8)
24.1
(75.4)
27.2
(81)
30.8
(87.4)
32.8
(91)
28.6
(83.5)
22.8
(73)
17.0
(62.6)
11.6
(52.9)
20.7
(69.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)4.5
(40.1)
5.2
(41.4)
8.7
(47.7)
14.4
(57.9)
18.9
(66)
22.7
(72.9)
26.4
(79.5)
27.8
(82)
24.1
(75.4)
18.1
(64.6)
12.2
(54)
7.0
(44.6)
15.8
(60.4)
Average low °C (°F)0.8
(33.4)
1.1
(34)
4.2
(39.6)
9.6
(49.3)
14.5
(58.1)
19.0
(66.2)
23.0
(73.4)
24.3
(75.7)
20.7
(69.3)
14.1
(57.4)
8.1
(46.6)
3.1
(37.6)
11.9
(53.4)
Record low °C (°F)−10.3
(13.5)
−9.5
(14.9)
−6.8
(19.8)
−2.1
(28.2)
2.8
(37)
8.2
(46.8)
14.0
(57.2)
14.4
(57.9)
9.5
(49.1)
1.5
(34.7)
−2.7
(27.1)
−7.2
(19)
−10.4
(13.3)
Rainfall mm (inches)48.4
(1.906)
65.6
(2.583)
121.8
(4.795)
124.8
(4.913)
156.5
(6.161)
201.0
(7.913)
203.6
(8.016)
126.3
(4.972)
234.4
(9.228)
128.3
(5.051)
79.7
(3.138)
45.0
(1.772)
1,535.4
(60.448)
Snowfall cm (inches)5
(2)
8
(3.1)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
14
(5.5)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.5 mm)6.87.510.210.411.412.813.08.711.99.57.26.9116.3
Avg. snowy days6.45.42.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.02.616.4
 % humidity64615960657174707168666566.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours170.1170.0189.1196.6197.5149.9164.3200.4151.0169.0162.7172.22,092.8
Source #1: [11]
Source #2: [12] (records)

Demographics[edit]

One of the earliest censuses, carried out in 1889, gave Nagoya's population as 157,496. It reached the 1 million mark in 1934 and, as of December 2010, the city had an estimated population of 2,259,993 with a population density of 6,923 persons per km². Also as of December 2010 there were estimated to be 1,019,859 households in the city—a significant increase from 153,370 at the end of World War II, in 1945.[13]

The total area is 326.45 square kilometres (126.04 sq mi). Its metropolitan area extends into Mie and Gifu prefectures, with a total population of about 9 million people, with only Osaka and Tokyo being larger.

Transportation[edit]

Chubu International Airport, constructed on an artificial island

Nagoya is served by Chūbu Centrair International Airport (NGO) built on the artificial island off shore of Tokoname and by Nagoya Airfield (Komaki Airport, NKM) near the city boundary with Komaki and Kasugai. On February 17, 2005, all of Nagoya Airport's commercial international flights moved to Centrair Airport. Nagoya Airfield is now used for general aviation and airbase facility as well as the main Fuji Dream Airlines hub.

Nagoya Station, the world's largest train station by floor area, is on the Tōkaidō Shinkansen, Tōkaidō Main Line, and Chūō Main Line, among others. The Nagoya Railroad and Kintetsu provide regional rail service to points in the Tōkai and Kansai regions. The city is also serviced by the Nagoya Subway.

Nagoya Port is the largest port by international trade value in Japan. Toyota Motor Corporation uses Nagoya Port for export of their products.

Economy[edit]

Port of Nagoya

Nagoya is the center of Greater Nagoya which earned nearly 70 percent of Japan's trade surplus as of 2003.[14]

Nagoya's main industry is the automotive business, as many Japanese automotive companies are based out of Nagoya, akin to how many U.S. automakers are based out of Detroit. Toyota's luxury brand Lexus is headquartered in Nagoya. Mitsubishi Motors has an R & D division in Okazaki located in a suburb of Nagoya. Many Japanese automotive suppliers such as Denso, Aisin Seiki Co., Toyota Industries, JTEKT or Toyota Boshoku etc. are headquartered in Nagoya or suburbs of Nagoya. Furthermore, major automotive suppliers such as Magna International or PPG also have a presence in Nagoya.

JR Central, which operates the Tōkaidō Shinkansen, is headquartered in Nagoya, as is the fine ceramics company Noritake. As well Brother Industries which is known for office machines such as multifunction printers, NGK which is known for spark plugs and related products, Nippon Sharyo which is known for manufacturing rolling stock including the Shinkansen bullet trains and Hoshizaki Electric which is known for commercial ice machines and refrigeration equipment are also headquartered here. The Japanese confectionery company Marukawa is headquartered in Nagoya. There is also a sizable aerospace, machine tool and electronics industry in the area.[15]

Aerospace-related firms operating in Nagoya include Boeing, Pratt & Whitney, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Bodycote, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Spirit AeroSystems, and Fuji Heavy Industries.

Robot technology is another rapidly developing industry. Mechanized puppets, called "karakuri ningyo", are a traditional craft in the Nagoya area. In addition to the aerospace and robotics industries, a materials engineering industry is also developing in this area.[16]

The World Expo 2005, also known as Aichi Expo was held just outside of Nagoya in the neighboring cities of Nagakute and Seto. The event was held from March 25 to September 25, 2005.

The city also offers large venues for conferences and congresses. The Nagoya Congress Center and the Nagoya International Exhibition Hall are the largest venues.

Education[edit]

Nanzan University

Nagoya has a large number of primary and secondary schools, which are mostly state-run. A large number of state and private colleges and universities exist throughout the city as well, with many located on the eastern side of the city. Some educational institutions were founded during the opening of the Meiji era according to a Western system, with more to follow during the Taishō and Shōwa eras. Nagoya University was set up in 1871 as a medical school. Nanzan University was set up by the Jesuits in 1932 as a high school and expanded throughout the decades to include Nanzan Junior College and the Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture. Some universities specialise in engineering and technology such as Nagoya University Engineering school, Nagoya Institute of Technology and Toyota Technological Institute, since the city is a hub of industrial activity, and receive support and grants from companies such as Toyota.

The old Nagoya Court of Appeals building, today the city archive

Other colleges and universities include Aichi Prefectural College of Nursing & Health, Aichi Shukutoku Junior College, Aichi Toho University, Chukyo University, Daido University, Doho University, Kinjo Gakuin University, Kinjo Gakuin University Junior College, Meijo University, Nagoya City University, Nagoya College of Music, Nagoya Future Culture College, Nagoya Gakuin University, Nagoya Management Junior College, Nagoya Women's University, St. Mary's College, Nagoya, Sugiyama Jogakuen University, Sugiyama Jogakuen University Junior College, Tokai Gakuen Women's College. Various universities from outside Nagoya have set up satellite campuses, such as Tokyo University of Social Welfare.

The Hōsa Library dates back to the 17th century and houses 110,000 items including classic literature, an heirloom of the Owari Tokugawa bequeathed to the city. The Nagoya City Archives have a large collection of documents and books. Tsuruma Central Library is a public library and Nagoya International Center has a collection of foreign-language books.

Culture[edit]

Culture runs deep in Nagoya, as it was a major trading city and political seat of the Owari lords, the most important house of the Tokugawa clan. The Owari lords actively encouraged trade and the arts under their patronage, especially Tokugawa Muneharu, the 7th lord of Owari, who took a keen interest in drama and plays and lived a lavish lifestyle. Under his rule, famous actors and actresses began to come to Nagoya, creating a bustling city life. The patronage of the arts and culture was emulated and supported by the wealthy merchants of the city. The cultural life continued to flourish after the end of the feudal Edo period and the beginning of the modern Meiji era. The destruction brought on by World War II however was unprecedented in the history of the city. Many old buildings and artefacts were destroyed during the American bombing raids and subsequent fires, grave losses of Japan's cultural heritage. Nevertheless the economical and thus financial power of the region and the city in the post-war years has reconstructed and rekindled the artistic and cultural scene.

Museums[edit]

The Tokugawa Art Museum, which houses some of the finest art treasures of Japan

Nagoya has a wide array of different kinds of museums, ranging from the traditional to modern art, from handicrafts to industrial high-tech, from natural to scientific museums.

Nagoya Castle has a collection of objects from the Owari Tokugawa era. The main tower is a museum that details the history of the castle and the city. The Honmaru Palace, destroyed in World War II, is slated for reconstruction by 2016 and will again be a prime example of the Shoin-zukuri architecture of the feudal era. The Tokugawa Art Museum is a private museum belonging to the Owari Tokugawa, who lived in Nagoya castle for 16 generations. Among other things, it contains 10 designated national Treasures of Japan, including some of the oldest scrolls of The Tale of Genji.[17] The Nagoya Noh Theatre houses various precious objects of Noh theatre. The Nagoya City Museum showcases the history of the town.

Paintings and sculpture are also exhibited at the Nagoya City Art Museum, as well as modern art in the Aichi Arts Center. The Aichi Arts Center also is the venue of rotating exhibitions. The city is also home to the Nagoya/Boston Museum of Fine Arts, a sister museum to the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, which was founded to bring aspects of the MFA's collection to Japan.

Textile Machinery Pavilion in the Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry and Technology

The art of porcelain and ceramics can be seen at the Noritake Garden. Toyota has two museums in the city, the Toyota Automobile Museum which shows vintage cars, and the Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry and Technology, which showcases the long history of the company when it started as a textile mill.

The Nagoya City Tram & Subway Museum has a number of old trams and subway cars, as well as the Nagoya City Science Museum. The SCMaglev and Railway Park opened in March 2011 with various trains from the Central Japan Railway Company.

Arts museums that are located close to Nagoya in Aichi prefecture are the Aichi Prefectural Ceramic Museum and the Toyota Municipal Museum of Art. Meiji Mura is an open-air museum with salvaged buildings from the Meiji, Taisho and Showa eras.

Other museums in the city include the International Design Centre Nagoya, the Japan Spinning Top Museum and the Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ Money Museum.

Theatres[edit]

Aichi Arts Center in Sakae

Noh theatre and Kyōgen have a deep-rooted tradition that dates back to the feudal times of the Owari Tokugawa. The Nagoya Noh Theater at Nagoya Castle continues that tradition and is a prominent feature in the cultural life of the city, with monthly performances.

One of the grand stages of Kabuki in Japan is Misono-za, which also hosts various other Japanese theatre plays and entertainment forms such as concerts.

In the 1992, the large, modern Aichi Arts Center was opened in Sakae. It is the main venue for performing arts, featuring a main hall that can be used for opera and theatre, and a concert hall. The Nagoya Philharmonic Orchestra gives its performances there, as well as many visiting guest orchestras from abroad.

Cultural Path[edit]

The civic authorities try to promote tourism and have taken steps to safeguard architectural heritage by earmarking them as important cultural assets. Apart from the castle, temples, shrines and museums in the city, a "Cultural Path" was instituted in the 1980s, located between the Tokugawa Art Museum and Nagoya Castle. This old residential area has some historic buildings such as the Nagoya City Archives, the Nagoya City Hall main building, the Aichi Prefectural Office main building, the Futaba Museum, the former residence of Sasuke Toyoda, the former residence of Tetsujiro Haruta and the Chikaramachi Catholic Church. Most buildings date from the Meiji and Taisho era and are protected historical sites.

Festivals[edit]

Daidō-chōnin Matsuri in Ōsu

Apart from the main national festivals and holidays, there are festivals in Nagoya which are unique to the city and region.

Major events include the Atsuta Festival at Atsuta Shrine in June, the Port Festival at Nagoya Port in July, the Nagoya Castle Summer Festival in August at Nagoya Castle and the Nagoya Festival held in October at the Hisaya Ōdori Park. Various smaller festivals exist and different wards and areas of the city have their own local festivals as well, such as the Daidō-chōnin Matsuri (大須大道町人祭 Street Performer's Festival?) in Ōsu.

Dialect[edit]

The Nagoya dialect (名古屋弁 Nagoya-ben?) is a dialect of the Japanese language spoken in the western half of Aichi Prefecture, centering on the city of Nagoya. It is also called Owari dialect (尾張弁 Owari-ben?) since the area was formerly part of Owari Province. The Nagoya dialect is relatively near to standard Japanese and has proximities to the Kansai dialect, albeit with its own distinct pronunciation and vocabulary.

Handicrafts[edit]

The industry of Japanese handicrafts in the city dates back hundreds of years and is still kept alive today.

Cuisine[edit]

Nagoya is known for unique local cuisine Nagoya meshi. Some famous Nagoya foods:

Sports[edit]

Nagoya is home to several professional sports teams:

ClubSportLeagueVenueEstablished
Chunichi DragonsBaseballCentral LeagueNagoya Dome1936
Nagoya GrampusFootballJ. LeagueMizuho Athletic Stadium,
Toyota Stadium
1993
Nagoya OceansFutsalF. LeagueTaiyo Yakuhin Arena2006

In 2007, the Chunichi Dragons won the Japan Series baseball championship. In 2010, Nagoya Grampus won the J. League championship, their first in team history.

Nagoya is also home of the Shonai FC amateur football club and Nagoya Barbarians semi-pro rugby football club. Since 1984 the city has hosted the Nagoya Marathon; an annual marathon race for women.

A honbasho or sumo tournament is held every July at the Aichi Prefectural Gymnasium. See also The Crowns golf tournament.

International relations[edit]

The Nagoya International Center promotes international exchange in the local community.

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Nagoya is twinned with five cities around the world:[18]

The sister city relationship with Nanjing in China was suspended from February 21, 2012,[20] following public comments by Nagoya mayor Takashi Kawamura denying the Nanking Massacre.[21]

Notable people[edit]

Historical figures[edit]

The three samurais who unified Japan in the 16th century all have strong links to Nagoya.

Other samurai

Inventors and industrialists[edit]

Executive officers[edit]

Writers[edit]

Musicians and composers[edit]

Actors[edit]

Sports stars[edit]

Manga artists[edit]

Nagoya in films[edit]

Nagoya, especially Nagoya Castle, has been featured in three Godzilla movies, King Kong vs. Godzilla, Mothra vs. Godzilla, and Godzilla vs. Mothra. The city is also featured in the Gamera movie, Gamera vs. Gyaos and the main setting of the 2003 film Gozu, the 1995 film The Hunted starring Christopher Lambert, and the 1992 film Mr. Baseball starring Tom Selleck. Nagoya was the setting for the 2007 movie, Ashita e no yuigon (translated as Best Wishes for Tomorrow), in which a Japanese war criminal sets out to take responsibility for the execution of U.S. airmen.[22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nagoya's official English Name
  2. ^ "平成23年6月1日現在の世帯数と人口(全市・区別)" (in Japanese). Retrieved 19 June 2011. 
  3. ^ "Population of Japan". Japanese Statistics Bureau. 2000. Retrieved 2007-04-20. 
  4. ^ "Kiyosu Castle". Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  5. ^ The First Heroes by Craig Nelson
  6. ^ Preston John Hubbard (1990). Apocalypse Undone. Vanderbilt University Press. p. 199. 
  7. ^ 21st Bomber Command, Tactical Mission Report NO. 44, ocr.pdf, March 20, 1945.
  8. ^ "Nagoya Sightseeing". JapanVisitor. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  9. ^ "Midland Square". December 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-20. 
  10. ^ "The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ Money Museum". Nagoya International Center. 
  11. ^ "気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値)". Japan Meteorological Agency. 
  12. ^ "観測史上1~10位の値( 年間を通じての値)". Japan Meteorological Agency. 
  13. ^ "平成22年12月1日現在の世帯数と人口(全市・区別)" [Population and Number of Households as of 1 December, Heisei 22] (in Japanese). Nagoya City. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 7 January 2011. 
  14. ^ "Report of Chubu Bureau of Economy, Trade and Industry METI (in Japanese)" (PDF). 
  15. ^ "Greater Nagoya Initiative, Industry, Innovation". 
  16. ^ "GREATER NAGOYA INITIATIVE, Industry, Growth Sectors". 
  17. ^ "Yamasa.org's Tokugawa Art Museum page". 
  18. ^ "Nagoya's Sister Cities". Retrieved 2007-04-20. 
  19. ^ Pessotto, Lorenzo. "International Affairs - Twinnings and Agreements". International Affairs Service in cooperation with Servizio Telematico Pubblico. City of Torino. Archived from the original on 2013-06-18. Retrieved 2013-08-06. 
  20. ^ Wang, Chuhan (22 February 2012). "Nanjing suspends official contact with Nagoya". CNTV. 
  21. ^ Fackler, Martin (22 February 2012). "Chinese City Severs Ties After Japanese Mayor Denies Massacre". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 26 February 2012. 
  22. ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1052343/

External links[edit]