North American Aerospace Defense Command

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North American Aerospace Defense Command
Colorado Springs, Colorado, United States
North American Aerospace Defense Command logo.svg

NORAD Emblem
TypeAerospace Warning and Aerospace Control of North America
Coordinates38°42′N 104°48′W / 38.7°N 104.8°W / 38.7; -104.8 (NORAD Headquarters)Coordinates: 38°42′N 104°48′W / 38.7°N 104.8°W / 38.7; -104.8 (NORAD Headquarters)
Built1961 (Directorate)[1]
In use1958 – present
Canada / United States
Controlled byJoint operations of
Royal Canadian Air Force and United States Air Force and co-location with USNORTHCOM
GarrisonHeadquarters: Peterson Air Force Base
Directorate: Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station[2]
(west of Colorado Springs, CO)
CommandersGeneral Charles H. Jacoby, Jr., USA General Alain Parent CF
EventsMay 2006 NORAD Agreement Renewal
  (Redirected from NORAD)
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North American Aerospace Defense Command
Colorado Springs, Colorado, United States
North American Aerospace Defense Command logo.svg

NORAD Emblem
TypeAerospace Warning and Aerospace Control of North America
Coordinates38°42′N 104°48′W / 38.7°N 104.8°W / 38.7; -104.8 (NORAD Headquarters)Coordinates: 38°42′N 104°48′W / 38.7°N 104.8°W / 38.7; -104.8 (NORAD Headquarters)
Built1961 (Directorate)[1]
In use1958 – present
Canada / United States
Controlled byJoint operations of
Royal Canadian Air Force and United States Air Force and co-location with USNORTHCOM
GarrisonHeadquarters: Peterson Air Force Base
Directorate: Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station[2]
(west of Colorado Springs, CO)
CommandersGeneral Charles H. Jacoby, Jr., USA General Alain Parent CF
EventsMay 2006 NORAD Agreement Renewal
NORAD Regions and Sectors

North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD, /ˈnɔræd/) is a combined organization of the United States and Canada that provides aerospace warning, air sovereignty, and defense for North America.[3] Headquarters for NORAD and the NORAD/USNORTHCOM command center are located at Peterson Air Force Base in El Paso County, near Colorado Springs, Colorado. The nearby Cheyenne Mountain nuclear bunker has the Alternative Command Center.


CINCNORAD maintains the NORAD headquarters at Peterson Air Force Base near Colorado Springs, Colorado. The NORAD and USNORTHCOM Command Center at Peterson AFB serves as a central collection and coordination facility for a worldwide system of sensors designed to provide the commander and the leadership of Canada and the U.S. with an accurate picture of any aerospace or maritime threat.[4] NORAD has administratively divided the North American landmass into three regions: the Alaska NORAD (ANR) Region, under Eleventh Air Force; the Canadian NORAD (CANR) Region, under 1 Canadian Air Division, and the Continental U.S. (CONR) Region, under 1 AF/CONR-AFNORTH. Both the CONR and CANR regions are divided into eastern and western sectors.

Alaska NORAD Region[edit]

The Alaska NORAD Region (ANR) maintains 24-hour-a-day, seven-day-a-week capability to detect, validate and warn of any atmospheric threat in its area of operations from its Regional Operations Control Center (ROCC) at Elmendorf AFB, Alaska.

ANR also maintains the readiness to conduct a continuum of aerospace control missions, which include daily air sovereignty in peacetime, contingency and/or deterrence in time of tension, and active air defense against manned and unmanned air-breathing atmospheric vehicles in times of crisis.

ANR is supported by both active duty and reserve units. Active duty forces are provided by Eleventh Air Force and the Canadian Forces, and reserve forces provided by the Alaska Air National Guard. Both 11 AF and the CF provide active duty personnel to the ROCC to maintain continuous surveillance of Alaskan airspace.

Canadian NORAD Region[edit]

1 Canadian Air Division/Canadian NORAD Region Headquarters is at CFB Winnipeg, Manitoba. It is responsible for providing surveillance and control of Canadian airspace. The Royal Canadian Air Force provides alert assets to NORAD. CANR is divided into two sectors, which are designated as the Canada East Sector and Canada West Sector. Both Sector Operations Control Centers (SOCCs) are co-located at CFB North Bay Ontario. The routine operation of the SOCCs includes reporting track data, sensor status and aircraft alert status to NORAD headquarters.

Canadian air defense forces assigned to NORAD include 409 Tactical Fighter Squadron at CFB Cold Lake, Alberta and 425 Tactical Fighter Squadron at CFB Bagotville, Quebec. All squadrons fly the CF-18 Hornet fighter aircraft.[5]

In cooperation with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the United States drug law enforcement agencies, the Canadian NORAD Region monitors all air traffic approaching the coast of Canada. Any aircraft that has not filed a flight plan may be directed to land and be inspected by RCMP and Canada Border Services Agency.

Continental United States NORAD Region[edit]

The Continental NORAD Region (CONR) is the component of NORAD that provides airspace surveillance and control and directs air sovereignty activities for the Continental United States (CONUS).

CONR is the NORAD designation of the United States Air Force First Air Force/AFNORTH. Its headquarters is located at Tyndall AFB, Florida. 1 AF became responsible for the USAF air defense mission on 30 September 1990. AFNORTH is the United States Air Force component of United States Northern Command (NORTHCOM),

1 AF/CONR-AFNORTH comprises State Air National Guard Fighter Wings assigned an air defense mission to 1 AF/CONR-AFNORTH, made up primarily of citizen Airmen. The primary weapons systems are the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon aircraft

It plans, conducts, controls, coordinates and ensures air sovereignty and provides for the unilateral defense of the United States. It is organized with a combined First Air Force command post at Tyndall AFB and two Sector Operations Control Centers (SOCC) at Rome, New York for the US East ROCC and McChord Field, Washington for the US West ROCC manned by active duty personnel to maintain continuous surveillance of CONUS airspace.

In its role as the CONUS NORAD Region, 1 AF/CONR-AFNORTH also performs counter-drug surveillance operations.


NORAD (North American Air Defense), was recommended by the Joint Canadian-U.S. Military Group in late 1956, approved by the United States JCS in February 1957, and announced on 1 August 1957;[6] the "establishment of [NORAD] command headquarters" was on 12 September 1957,[7] at Ent Air Force Base's 1954 blockhouse. The 1958 international agreement designated the NORAD commander always be a US officer (Canadian vice commander), and "RCAF officers…agreed the command's primary purpose would be…early warning and defense for SAC's retaliatory forces."[8]:252 In late 1958, Canada and the U.S. started the "Continental Air Defense Integration, North (CADIN)", for the SAGE air defense network.[8]:253

The 25-ton North blast door in the Cheyenne Mountain nuclear bunker is the main entrance to another blast door (background) beyond which the side tunnel branches into access tunnels to the main chambers.

Canada's NORAD bunker with a SAGE AN/FSQ-7 computer was constructed 1959-63, and each of the USAF's eight smaller AN/FSQ-8s provided NORAD with data and could command the entire US air defense. The RCAF's 1950 "ground observer system, the Long Range Air Raid Warning System,"[9] was discontinued and on 31 January 1959, the US Ground Observation Corps was deactivated.[8]:222 The Cheyenne Mountain nuclear bunker's planned mission was expanded in August 1960 to "a hardened center from which CINCNORAD would supervise and direct operations against space attack as well as air attack"[10] (NORAD would be renamed North American Aerospace Defense Command in March 1981). The Secretary of Defense assigned on 7 October 1960, "operational command of all space surveillance to Continental Air Defense Command (CONAD) and operational control to North American Air Defense Command (NORAD)".[11]

The JCS placed the Ent AFB Space Detection and Tracking System (496L System with "Philco 2000/Model 212" computer)[12] "under the operational control of CINCNORAD on December 1, 1960";[13] during Cheyenne Mountain nuclear bunker excavation, and the "joint SAC-NORAD exercise…Sky Shield II"--and on 2 September 1962--"Sky Shield III" were conducted for mock penetration of NORAD sectors.[14] NORAD command center operations moved from Ent AFB to the 1963 partially underground "Combined Operations Center" for Aerospace Defense Command and NORAD[15] at the Chidlaw Building. NORAD had an exhibit at the 1964 World's Fair,[16] and on 30 October 1964, "NORAD began manning" the Cheynne Mountain Combat Operations Center[13] and by 1965, about 250,000 US and Canadian personnel were involved in the operation of NORAD,[not in citation given][17] On 1 January 1966, Air Force Systems Command turned the COC over to NORAD[18] (the NORAD Cheyenne Mountain Complex was accepted on 8 February.)[13]:319

1968 reorganization[edit]

U.S. Department of Defense realignments for the NORAD command organization began by 15 November 1968 (e.g., Army Air Defense Command (ARADCOM))[19] and by 1972, there were eight NORAD "regional areas...for all air defense",[20] and the NORAD Cheyenne Mountain Complex Improvements Program (427M System)[18]became operational in 1979.[21]

False alarms[edit]

On at least three occasions, NORAD systems failed such as on 9 November 1979, when a technician in NORAD loaded a test tape but failed to switch the system status to "test", causing a stream of constant false warnings to spread to two "continuity of government" bunkers as well as command posts worldwide.[22] On 3 June 1980, and again on 6 June 1980, a computer communications device failure caused warning messages to sporadically flash in U.S. Air Force command posts around the world that a nuclear attack was taking place.[23] During these incidents, Pacific Air Forces properly had their planes (loaded with nuclear bombs) in the air; Strategic Air Command did not and took criticism because they did not follow procedure, even though the SAC command knew these were almost certainly false alarms (as did PACAF).[citation needed] Both command posts had recently begun receiving and processing direct reports from the various radar, satellite, and other missile attack detection systems, and those direct reports simply did not match anything about the erroneous data received from NORAD.[citation needed]

NORAD/USNORTHCOM Alternative Command Center prior to the Cheyenne Mountain Realignment.[24]

1980 reorganization[edit]

Following the 1979 Joint US-Canada Air Defense Study, the command structure for aerospace defense was changed, e.g., "SAC assumed control of ballistic missile warning and space surveillance facilities" on 1 December 1979 from ADCOM.[25]:48 The Aerospace Defense Command major command ended 31 March 1980. and its organizations in Cheyenne Mountain became the "ADCOM" specified command under the same commander as NORAD,[15] e.g., HQ NORAD/ADCOM J31 manned the Space Surveillance Center. By 1982, a NORAD Off-site Test Facility[26] was located at Peterson AFB.[27] The DEW Line was to be replaced with the North Warning System (NWS); the Over-the-Horizon Backscatter (OTH-B) radar was to be deployment; more advanced fighters were deployed, and E-3 Sentry AWACS aircraft were planned for greater use. These recommendations were accepted by the governments in 1985. The United States Space Command was formed in September 1985 as an adjunct but not a component of NORAD.

Post–Cold War[edit]

In 1989 NORAD operations expanded to cover counter-drug operations, e.g., tracking of small aircraft entering and operating within the US and Canada.[28] DEW line sites were replaced between 1986 and 1995 by the North Warning System. The Cheyenne Mountain site was also upgraded but none of the proposed OTH-B radars are currently in operation.

After the September 11, 2001 attacks, the NORAD Air Warning Center's mission "expanded to include the interior airspace of North America."[29]

The Cheyenne Mountain Realignment[30] was announced on 28 July 2006, to consolidate NORAD's day-to-day operations at Peterson Air Force Base[31] with Cheyenne Mountain in "warm standby" staffed with support personnel.

Former NORAD Regions/Sectors

Commanders and deputy commanders[edit]

The Commander of NORAD is always a United States Department of Defense Officer confirmed by the US Senate and from 2002 has simultaneously headed USNORTHCOM, while the Deputy Commander is always Canadian. During the course of NORAD's history there have been four different United States commands associated with NORAD:[citation needed]

Name of CommandAbbreviationsEmblemAssociation startedAssociation endedType of combatant commandNotes
Air Defense Command
Aerospace Defense Command
USAF - Aerospace Defense Command.png15 November 195731 March 1980specified commandAir Defense Command re-designated as Aerospace Defense Command, 15 January 1968. A new JCS Unified Command Plan designated ADC as a specified command and changed its name to the Aerospace Defense Command (ADCOM) on 1 July 1975. ADCOM inactivated on 31 March 1980 as specified command. Some components of ADCOM were reassigned to the Aerospace Defense Center, a USAF direct reporting unit assigned to Headquarters, NORAD that inactivated on 1 October 1986.
Air Defense, Tactical Air CommandADTACAdtac-patch-1980.jpg1 October 19791 July 1987Air DivisionResource management responsibility of ADCOM's atmospheric defense units transferred to Tactical Air Command; ADTAC established under TAC at Air Division echelon level for command of transferred ADCOM forces.
United States Space CommandUSSPACECOMUnited States Space Command emblem.gif23 September 19851 October 2002functional unified commandmerged with United States Strategic Command
United States Northern CommandUSNORTHCOMUnited States Northern Command emblem.png1 October 2002continuingregional unified command


The NORAD commander is an American four-star General, or equivalent. Since 2004 commanders have included Admirals.

NORAD Commanders
NumberNamePhotoStart of termAssociation endedNotable positions held before or after
1General Earle E. Partridge, USAFEarle Everard Partridge.jpg19571959World War I enlisted Army combat veteran, participated in two major ground offensives on Western Front; USMA class 1924; USAAF CS Fifteenth Air Force DC Eighth Air Force World War II; Commander USAF Far East Air Forces, 1954.
2General Laurence S. Kuter, USAFGen-Laurence-S--Kuter.jpg19591962Commander 1st Bombardment Wing, Eighth Air Force; DC, Northwest African Tactical Air Force; Commander Atlantic Division, Air Transport Command; Commander, Military Air Transport Service; Commander, Far East Air Forces
3General John K. Gerhart, USAFJohn K Gerhart.jpg19621965
4General Dean C. Strother, USAFDean Coldwell Strother.jpg19651966U.S. Military Representative, NATO Military Committee, 1962–1965
5General Raymond J. Reeves, USAFRaymond J Reeves.jpg19661969
6General Seth J. McKee, USAFSeth J McKee.jpg19691973
7General Lucius D. Clay, Jr., USAFLucius D Clay Jr.jpg19731975
8General Daniel James, Jr., USAFJames DanielChappie.jpg19751977
9General James E. Hill, USAFGEN Hill, James E (cropped).jpg19771979
10General James V. Hartinger, USAFJames V Hartinger.jpg19801984
11General Robert T. Herres, USAFGeneral Robert Herres, military portrait, 1984.JPEG198419871st Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1987–1990)
12General John L. Piotrowski, USAFJohn L Piotrowski.jpg1987199022nd Vice Chief of Staff of the Air Force (1985–1987)
13General Donald J. Kutyna, USAFDonald Kutyna.jpg19901992Member of the Rogers Commission (1986–1988)
14General Charles A. "Chuck" Horner, USAFCharles Horner.jpgJune, 1992September, 1994Commander, 9th Air Force, and Commander, U.S. Central Command Air Forces (1987–1992), he led U.S. and allied air operations for Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm.
15General Joseph W. Ashy, USAFJoseph ashy.jpgSeptember, 1994August, 1996
16General Howell M. Estes III, USAFHowell M Estes III.jpgAugust, 199614 August 1998
17General Richard B. Myers, USAFRichard Myers official portrait 2.jpg14 August 199822 February 20005th Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (2000–2001)
15th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (2001–2005)
18General Ralph E. "Ed" Eberhart, USAFEberhart re.jpg22 February 20005 November 200427th Vice Chief of Staff of the Air Force (1997–1999)
19Admiral Timothy J. Keating, USNUS Navy 041105-D-0000X-001 Adm. Timothy J. Keating.jpg5 November 200423 March 2007Director of the Joint Staff (2003–2004)
Commander, U.S. Pacific Command (2007–2009)
20General Victor E. Renuart Jr., USAFVictor E. Renuart Jr. 2010.jpg23 March 200719 May 2010Senior Military Assistant to the Secretary of Defense (2006–2007)
21Admiral James A. Winnefeld, Jr., USNWinnefeld 2010 2.jpg19 May 20103 August 2011Director for Strategic Plans and Policy, The Joint Staff which he concurrently served as the Senior Member, U.S. Delegation to the U.N. Military Staff Committee (2008–2010)
22General Charles H. Jacoby, Jr., USAJacoby 2013.jpg3 August 2011Director for Strategic Plans and Policy, J5

Deputy commanders[edit]

In recent years deputy commanders have always been Canadian air force lieutenant generals. Prior to the 1968 unification of the Canadian Forces, the deputy commanders were RCAF Air Marshals.[32]

NORAD Deputy Commanders
NumberNamePhotoStart of termAssociation endedNotable positions held before or after
1Air Marshal Roy Slemon, CB, CBE, CDAir Marshal Roy Slemon.jpg12 September 195714 August 1964Chief of the Air Staff (1953–1957)
2Air Marshal Clarence Rupert Dunlap, CBE, CDAir Marshal Clarence Dunlap.jpg15 August 196425 August 1967Deputy Chief of Staff (Operations) at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (1958–1962), Chief of the Air Staff (1962–1964)
3Air Marshal William R. MacBrien OBE, CDAVM W R MacBrien.jpg26 August 196722 January 1969
4Lieutenant-General Frederick Ralph Sharp CMM, DFC, CDGeneral Frederick Ralph Sharp.jpg23 January 196914 September 1969Chief of the Defence Staff (1969–1972)
5Lieutenant-General Edwin ReynoSeptember 1969August 1972Chief of Personnel of the Canadian Forces (1966–1969)
6Lieutenant-General Reginald J. Lane, DSO, DFC, CDSeptember 1972October 1974Deputy Commander of Mobile Command (1969–1972)[33]
7Lieutenant-General Richard C . Stovel, AFC, CDOctober 1974September 1976
8Lieutenant-General David R. AdamsonSeptember 1976August 1978
9Lieutenant-General Kenneth E. Lewis18 August 197824 June 1980
10Lieutenant-General Kenneth J. ThorneycroftJune 1980May 1983
11Lieutenant-General Donald C. MacKenzieMay 1983August 1986
12Lieutenant-General Donald M. McNaughtonAugust 1986August 1989
13Lieutenant-General Robert W. Morton, CMM, CDAugust 1989August 1992[34]
14Lieutenant-General Brian L. SmithAugust 1992August 1994[34]
15Lieutenant-General J. D. O'BlenisAugust 1994August 1995
16Lieutenant-General L. W. F. CuppensAugust 1995April 1998
17Lieutenant-General G C Macdonald, CMM, MVO, CDLieutenant General George Macdonald.pngApril 1998August 2001Vice Chief of Defence Staff, Canadian Forces (2001-2004)
18Lieutenant-General Ken R. Pennie, CMM, CDLieutenant-General K R Pennie.jpg8 August 200114 July 2003Chief of the Air Staff (2003–2005)
19Lieutenant-General Rick Findley, CMM, MSC, CDEric A. Rick Findley official portrait.jpg14 July 20032 August 2007Chief of Staff for Personnel, Training, and Reserves; Chief of Staff for Operations at 1 Canadian Air Division; Director of Combat Operations at NORAD
20Lieutenant-General Charles Bouchard, OC, CMM, MSC, CDLt Gen Charlie Bouchard (close-up).jpg2 August 200710 July 2009Deputy Commander for Continental NORAD Region, Deputy Commander of Allied Joint Force Command Naples
21Lieutenant-General Marcel Duval, CMM, CDMarcel Duval.jpg10 July 200915 August 2011Canadian Contingent Commander Middle East; Commander of 1 Wing
21Lieutenant-General Thomas J. Lawson, CMM, CDLieutenant-General Thomas J Lawson.jpg15 August 20114 September 2012Chief of the Defence Staff (2012–present)
22Lieutenant-General Alain Parent, OMM, CDLieutenant-General J A J Parent.jpg4 September 2012Commander of 1 Canadian Air Division and Canadian NORAD Region

In popular culture[edit]

1955 Sears ad with the misprinted telephone number that led to the NORAD Tracks Santa Program

Beginning in 1955 when a local Sears store in Colorado misprinted the telephone number for Santa, Air Defense Command[35] NORAD Tracks Santa follows Santa Claus' Christmas Eve journey around the world.[36][37]

Cheyenne Mountain is a setting of the 1983 film WarGames and the Stargate television series.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ NORAD Official History
  2. ^ Cheyenne Mountain Directorate Official Page
  3. ^ NORAD - Fact Sheet
  4. ^ Organizational History
  5. ^
  6. ^ Sturm, Thomas A. (January 1965). Command and Control for North American Air Defense, 1959-1963 (Report). Liaison Office, USAF History Division. pp. 14-7. (cited by Schaffel p. 251 & 315)
  7. ^ McMullen, Richard F. (1965) (ADC Hist Study 35). Command and Control Planning, 1958-1965 (Report). pp. 1-2. (cited by Schaffel p. 252 & 315)
  8. ^ a b c Schaffel, Kenneth (1991). "Emerging Shield: The Air Force and the Evolution of Continental Air Defense 1945-1960" (45MB pdf). General Histories (Office of Air Force History). ISBN 0-912799-60-9. Retrieved 2011-09-26.
  9. ^ Canadian Long Range Early Warning (letter to HQ WADF), HQ CONAC, 16 October 1950  (cited by Schaffel p. 138 & 304)
  10. ^ title tbd (Report). Air Research and Development Command. (cited by Schaffel, p. 262)
  11. ^ Sturdevant, Rick W (1995). Launius, Roger D. ed. Organizing for the Use of Space: Historical Perspectives on a Persistent Issue (Report). AAS History Series. Volume 18. Univelt for the American Astronautical Society. ISSN 0730-3564.
  12. ^ Weeden, Brian C; Cefola, Paul J. Computer Systems and Algorithms for Space Situational Awareness: History and Future Development (Report). Retrieved 2012-09-02.
  13. ^ a b c Leonard, Barry (2011[verification needed]). History of Strategic and Ballistic Missile Defense: Volume II: 1956-1972 ( PDF (also available at Google Books)). Retrieved 2012-09-01. "The missile and space surveillance and warning system currently[specify] consists of five systems and a space computational center located in the NORAD Cheyenne Mountain complex. The five systems are: the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System; the Defense Support Program (DSP) formerly called Project 647; the Forward Scatter over the Horizon Radar (440L [AN/FRT-80 transmitter, AN/FSQ-76 receiver]) system; the Sea-Launched Ballistic Missile Warning System; and the Space Detection and Warning System. … In July of 1961, the National Space Surveillance and Control Center (NSSCC) was discontinued as the new SPADATS Center became operational at Ent AFB, Colorado. Officially, this marked the beginning of aerospace operations by CINCNORAD.262" 
  14. ^ pdf 17
  15. ^ a b "NORAD Chronology". Retrieved 2012-07-28.  (see also chronology)
  16. ^ Newton, Dorr E., Jr (1964), Memorandum for All Personnel Assigned to NORAD Exhibit, North American Air Defense Command 
  17. ^ Renuart, Victor E., Jr (2009). "The Enduring Value Of NORAD". Joint Force Quarterly 54: 92–6.  Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Sept. 2012.
  18. ^ a b Del Papa, Dr. E. Michael; Warner, Mary P (October 1987). A Historical Chronology of the Electronic Systems Division 1947-1986 (Report). Retrieved 2012-07-19. "McNamara…reasoned that Soviet missiles could eliminate air defense systems in a first strike… the policy that emerged [sic] embraced the most extreme option: massive retaliation, popularly referred to…as mutual assured destruction (MAD). … 1966…NORAD…Combat Operations Center…integrated several distinct systems into a single workable unit to provide the NORAD Commander with the necessary information and control to perform his mission. … the Space Defense Center combining the Air Force's Space Track and the Navy's Spasur."
  19. ^ title tbd (Report). "On November 15, 1968, as part of the internal reorganization of the Army Air Defense Command (ARADCOM), the 47th Artillery Brigade was transferred east. the Army Air Defense command at Fort MacArthur became the 19th Artillery Group (Air Defense). This change was made to align ARADCOM units in accordance with a reorganization of the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD)."
  20. ^ North American Air Defense Command. "Chapter1: Air Defense Doctrine and Procedures". U. S. Army Air Defense Digest (Hillman Hall, Fort Bliss, Texas). "Currently, the North American Continent is divided into eight regional areas (fig 2) of air defense responsibility· Each region commander is responsible to CINCNORAD for all air defense activity within his designated area. … The average number of unknowns in the system has steadily declined over the years until now the number is approximately 40 per month." 
  21. ^ (webpage transcription of chapter) FY97 DOT&E Annual Report (Report). Retrieved 2012-09-09. "CMU also upgrades and provides new capability to survivable communication and warning elements at the National Military Command Center (NMCC), U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM), and other forward user locations. CMU additionally provides at Offutt, AFB an austere backup to Cheyenne Mountain ballistic missile warning. … Granite Sentry provides a Message Processing Subsystem and a Video Distribution Subsystem, and it upgrades the NORAD Computer System display capability and four major centers: (1) the Air Defense Operations Center, (2) the NORAD Command Center, (3) the Battle Staff Support Center, and (4) the Weather Support Unit. Granite Sentry also processes and displays nuclear detection data provided from the Integrated Correlation and Display System."
  22. ^ The 3 am Phone Call: False Warnings of Soviet Missile Attacks during 1979–80 Led to Alert Actions for U.S. Strategic Forces, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 371, National Security Archive, Washington, D.C.: George Washington University, 1 March 2012,
  23. ^ "NORAD's Missile Warning System: What Went Wrong? (MASAD-81-30)". U.S. Government Accountability Office. U.S. GAO. 15 May 1981. Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
    "Attack Warning: Better Management Required to Resolve NORAD Integration Deficiencies (IMTEC-89-26)". U.S. Government Accountability Office. U.S. GAO. 7 July 1989. Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
  24. ^ [who?]. "Saturday June 9 – Colorado Springs CO". Colorado Trip 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-30. 
  25. ^ Winkler, David F; Webster, Julie L (June 1997). Searching the Skies: The Legacy of the United States Cold War Defense Radar Program (Report). U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories. Retrieved 2012-03-26.
  26. ^ "Brigadier General David A. Cotton". Archived from the original on 2012-12-12. Retrieved 2012-12-17. 
  27. ^
  28. ^ FAS: Cheyenne Mtn Complex
  29. ^ "AWC [Air Warning Center]". Cheyenne Mountain Complex. NORAD Public Affairs. Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  30. ^ D'Agostino, Davi M (21 May 2007). Defense Infrastructure: Full Costs and Security Implications of Cheyenne Mountain Realignment Have Not Been Determined [GAO--07-803R] (Report). United States General Accounting Office. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
  31. ^ "After 4 Decades, a Cold War Symbol Stands Down, 29 July. 2006, by Kirk Johnson". New York Times. 29 July 2006. Retrieved 31 December 2009. 
  32. ^ Veale, Thomas F. (2008). Guarding What You Value Most: North American Aerospace Defense Command, Celebrating 50 Years. Government Printing Office. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-16-080436-6. 
  34. ^ a b Royal Military Colleges Class of
  35. ^ "North American Aerospace Defense Command – NORAD Tracks Santa". NORAD. Retrieved 31 December 2009. 
  36. ^ Pellerin, Cheryl. "NORAD Gears Up to Track Santa Claus". Informatics. Scientific Computing. Retrieved 8 December 2011. 
  37. ^ Official NORAD Santa Tracker (multi-lingual) and official seasonal hotline: 1-877-Hi-NORAD[verification needed]

External links[edit]