Mykolaiv

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Mykolayiv
Миколаїв
City Council in Mykolayiv.
City Council in Mykolayiv.
Flag of MykolayivМиколаїв
Flag
Coat of arms of MykolayivМиколаїв
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): City of shipbuilders
Map of Ukraine with Mykolayiv highlighted
Map of Ukraine with Mykolayiv highlighted

Script errorLocation of Mykolayiv

Coordinates: 46°58′0″N 32°00′0″E / 46.96667°N 32.00000°E / 46.96667; 32.00000
Country
Oblast
Raion
Ukraine
Mykolayiv Oblast
Mykolayiv City Municipality
Founded1789
City rights1789
Government
 • MayorYuri Hranaturov (acting)
Area
 • Total260 km2 (100 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total498,748
 • Density1,918/km2 (4,970/sq mi)
Time zoneEET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST)EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code54000
Area code(s)+380 512
Licence plateBE
Websitegorsovet.mk.ua
 
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Coordinates: 46°58′N 32°0′E / 46.967°N 32.000°E / 46.967; 32.000

Mykolayiv
Миколаїв
City Council in Mykolayiv.
City Council in Mykolayiv.
Flag of MykolayivМиколаїв
Flag
Coat of arms of MykolayivМиколаїв
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): City of shipbuilders
Map of Ukraine with Mykolayiv highlighted
Map of Ukraine with Mykolayiv highlighted

Script errorLocation of Mykolayiv

Coordinates: 46°58′0″N 32°00′0″E / 46.96667°N 32.00000°E / 46.96667; 32.00000
Country
Oblast
Raion
Ukraine
Mykolayiv Oblast
Mykolayiv City Municipality
Founded1789
City rights1789
Government
 • MayorYuri Hranaturov (acting)
Area
 • Total260 km2 (100 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total498,748
 • Density1,918/km2 (4,970/sq mi)
Time zoneEET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST)EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code54000
Area code(s)+380 512
Licence plateBE
Websitegorsovet.mk.ua

Mykolayiv (Ukrainian: Миколаїв Ukrainian pronunciation: [mɪkoˈlɑjiu̯]), also known as Nikolayev (from Russian Николаев), is a city in southern Ukraine, administrative center of the Mykolayiv Oblast. Mykolayiv is arguably the main ship building center of Black Sea. Aside of its three shipyards within the city is located number of research centers specializing in shipbuilding such as the State Research and Design Shipbuilding Center, Zoria-Mashproekt, and others.

The city is an important transportation junction of Ukraine (sea port, commercial port, river port, highway and railway junction, airport).

Mykolayiv's orderly layout reflects the fact that its development has been well planned from the founding of the city. Its main streets, including the three main East-West Avenues, (including Lenin Prospect shown in the photo to the right) are very wide and tree lined. A significant part of Mykolayiv's land area is beautiful parks. Park Peremohy (Victory) is a large park on the peninsula just north of the city center of Mykolayiv, on the North side of the Inhul river.

Mykolayiv has a population of about 500,000.

Name of city[edit]

There are several variations of the city's name. In Ukrainian, the city is named Микола́їв, for which the transliteration is Mykolayiv. The Russian name is Никола́ев, which transliterates as Nikolaev or Nikolayev.

During the first year of the construction of wharf at the mouth of the Inhul river, the settlement that has grown next to it did not have a definite name. In correspondence between Prince Grigory Potemkin and Mikhail Faleev and other people, the wharf was variously called the Ingul Wharf, the Wharf on the Ingul, the Mouth of the Ingul, and other names. The name Mykolayiv is known from legal order (writ) Number 1065 by Prince Potemkin to Mikhail Faleev on the 27th of August (7 September per the old calendar), 1789 when the city was named after Saint Nicholas the patron of sailors and fishermen.[1]

In 1920 the Nikolaev council decided to rename the city Vernoleninsk, but the new name was not approved by the Government of the Soviet Union. Nevertheless, in German encyclopedic dictionaries in 1927 and 1932 on the map of European USSR, the city was named Vernoleninsk.

To distinguish Mykolayiv from the much smaller western city of Mykolayiv in Lviv Oblast, the latter is sometimes called “Mykolayiv on Dniester” after the major river it situated on, while the former is located on the Southern Buh, another major river, and may be called “Mykolayiv on Buh” as well.

Administrative status[edit]

Mykolayiv is the administrative center of the Mykolayiv Oblast (province), as well as that of both the Mykolayivskyi and Zhovtnevyi raions (districts) within the oblast. However, Mykolayiv is also a city of oblast subordinance, and is thus subject directly to the oblast authorities rather to the raion administration housed in the city itself.

Geographic characteristics[edit]

Bird's-eye view on the city.

Mykolayiv is located on a peninsula in Ukraine's steppe region 65 kilometers (40 mi) from the Black Sea along the estuary of the Southern Buh river (where it meets the Inhul River).[2]

Both the Inhul River and the Southern Buh river follow very winding courses just before they join at the north east corner of Mykolayiv. This has created several long and narrow peninsulas just north of Mykolayiv, and the main part of Mykolayiv is itself on a peninsula at a 180 degree bend in the Southern Buh River.

Mykolayiv is in a primarily flat terrain area (the steppe grain producing region of southern Ukraine). The nearest mountains to Mykolayiv are 300 kilometres (186 miles) south, at the Southern end of the Crimean Peninsula. The lack of any mountain barriers north of Mykolayiv means that very cold Arctic winds can blow South, unimpeded by any terrain elevation, to Mykolayiv in Winter.

The area of the city is 260 square kilometres (100 sq mi).[3]

Mykolayiv is in the second time zone (Eastern European Time).

Ecology[edit]

Mykolayiv’s environmental issues are typical for many cities in Ukraine: pollution of water, the air, and groundwater; drinking water quality, noise, waste management, and conservation of biological diversity in the city.[4] One of Mykolayiv’s most urgent problems is the disposal of solid household waste.[5]

The city has 18 preserved sites, totaling about 12 square kilometres (5 sq mi):[6]

Climate[edit]

The city's climate is moderately continental with mild winters and hot summers.[2][7] Mykolayiv’s average temperature is 10 °C (50 °F). The lowest average temperature is in January −3.1 °C (26 °F), the highest in July 22.3 °C (72 °F).[7]

Mykolayiv has an average of 472 mm (19 in) of precipitation per year, with the lowest precipitation in October, and the most in July. Mykolayiv has snow cover every year, but its height is low.[7]

Average relative humidity is 73% for the year; the lowest humidity is in August (60%); the highest in December (86%).[7] The lowest cloud are seen in August; the highest are in December.[7]

The prevailing winds come from the North, the least frequent source of wind is the Southeast. The maximum wind speed is in February, the lowest is from July through September. In January, the average wind speed is 4.1 m/s (meters per second); in July, the average is 3.1 m/s.[7]

Climate data for Mykolayiv
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)−1
(30)
0
(32)
5
(41)
14
(57)
21
(70)
25
(77)
27
(81)
26
(79)
20
(68)
14
(57)
8
(46)
2
(36)
14
(57)
Daily mean °C (°F)−3.1
(26.4)
−1.8
(28.8)
2.6
(36.7)
10.2
(50.4)
16.5
(61.7)
20.4
(68.7)
22.3
(72.1)
21.8
(71.2)
16.9
(62.4)
10.3
(50.5)
4.4
(39.9)
−0.1
(31.8)
10.0
(50)
Average low °C (°F)−6
(21)
−5
(23)
0
(32)
6
(43)
11
(52)
15
(59)
17
(63)
16
(61)
11
(52)
6
(43)
0
(32)
−2
(28)
6
(43)
Precipitation mm (inches)35.7
(1.406)
35.4
(1.394)
29.0
(1.142)
32.3
(1.272)
43.5
(1.713)
54.2
(2.134)
56.2
(2.213)
41.0
(1.614)
39.5
(1.555)
21.5
(0.846)
36.4
(1.433)
42.6
(1.677)
467.3
(18.399)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)6.46.15.55.56.56.55.14.14.33.35.97.466.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours68.273.5120.9180.0263.5288.0306.9294.5231.0167.469.052.72,115.6
Source #1: Meteoprog.ua[7]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory .[8]

History[edit]

View of the city of Mykolayiv, paiting by Fedor Alexeev, 1799.

The history of the city has always been closely connected to ship building.[9] The town was founded in 1789 by the Russian Governor General of Novorossiya, Prince Grigory Potemkin, initially as a shipyard called simply a New Shipyard on the Ingul river. Prince Potemkin signed an order to construct a shipyard on August 27, 1789, which is considered to be the city's birth date.[citation needed] The shipyard was to undertake the repair of naval ships in the Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792). Later Potemkin ordered the shipyard to be named Nikolaev to commemorate the date when Ochakov fell to the Russian troops under his command on December 6, 1788, close to the day of Saint Nicholas (Nikolay) December 19, in the Russian Orthodox Church calendar.[citation needed]

The Russian Empire's Black Sea Navy Headquarters was in Mykolayiv for more than 100 years until the Russian Navy moved it to Sevastopol, near the Southern tip of Ukraine's Crimean Peninsula. During the Crimean War Mykolayiv became the main rear base to support Russia’s efforts in the war. Most businesses that were created in the city belonged to the military industrial complex, and, in this regard, Mykolayiv, was closed to foreign visitors for many decades.[10]

In March 1816, Admiral Aleksey Greig was appointed to the post of Governor of the city. While in that post until 1833, he did much for Mykolayiv. Port facilities were built. A credit society (cooperative) was established, and Mykolayiv increased its seaborne trade.[citation needed] Morskoii (Marine) Boulevard was built in the city, along with sidewalks. In addition, open men's and women's colleges were, built, as was a shelter. In 1820, Admiral Greig founded the Marine Astronomical Observatory in Mykolayiv. In 1826, he, for the first time in the history of the Russian Navy, set up the Russian Naval headquarters in Mykolayiv. The headquarters included fleet combat training during peacetime and the development of plans for military operations during wartime.[citation needed]

From 1860 to 1871, the military Governor of Mykolayiv was Bogdan von Glazenap. His highest command in the town was in 1862. He encouraged foreign vessels to call at the commercial port and encouraged foreigners to come to Mykolayiv to live. Therefore foreign governments established foreign consulates in Mykolayiv. This led to the transformation of Mykolayiv into a large commercial port.[citation needed]

Shipyard in Mykolayiv circa 1900.

By the late 19th century, Mykolayiv’s port ranked third in the Russian Empire, after Saint Petersburg and Odessa, in terms of trade with foreign countries. In addition, grain export suppliers of the steppe region (of Ukraine and Southern Russia) were first in the Russian Empire. Mykolayiv had become a great industrial center in the South of Ukraine.[10]

Mykolayiv was major Jewish centre of Russian Empire in 19th century.[citation needed] In the 19th century, the Czarist governments had largely banned Russian Empire Jews from living East of the Dnieper River. Mykolayiv is in the area west of the Dnieper, which was were Jews were legally allowed to reside (the legal area of Jewish residence was known as the Pale of Settlement). The Lubavitcher Rebbe, Menachem Mendel Schneerson (the seventh leader in the Chabad-Lubavitch dynasty) was born in Mykolayiv on April 18, 1902.

In 1918, Mykolayiv survived its first occupation by foreign troops. In 1920, Soviet power was established there.[10]

With the beginning of World War II Mykolayiv was occupied on August 16, 1941. In September, German forces massacred over 35,000 non-combatants, many of them Jews, in the city and its region. During the occupation, an underground partisan sabotage group, the Mykolayiv Center conducted guerilla activities. On March 28, 1944 the city was liberated, in part because of Soviet Coronel Olshansky's paratroopers and their daring raid, during which the majority of his troops were killed.

In the post-war period Mykolayiv became one of shipbuilding centers of the USSR, with three shipyards: Black Sea, 61 Kommunara, and Okean.

An asteroid discovered by the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory was named in honor of the city.

Soviet-era apartment blocks in the Namyv neighborhood of Mykolayiv.

In March 2012, Mykolayiv gained international notoriety for lawlessness and police corruption following the rape and murder of Oksana Makar.[11] Her three attackers were apprehended, but two were released because of family connections to local government officials. After a media outcry and public protests, all three attackers were charged with her murder.

Awards[edit]

The Soviet Government awarded Mykolayiv the Order of the Red Banner of Labour on the 31st of December, 1970, for successfully fulfilling its assignments for the development of industrial production, in the USSR's five-year economic plan.

Administrative districts[edit]

Mykolayiv is divided into four districts:

The Central District is located in the northwest of the city. It includes the historic center of Mykolayiv, Rocket tract, Temvod, Salt, Northern, Ternovka (in Ternovca also acts village council), Matveevka, Varvarovka.

The Zavodskiy District is located in the west of the city. In this area, many industrial enterprises are concentrated. It also includes neighborhoods Lescaut and Alluviation, as well as towns of Velykaya Koreniha and Malaya Koreniha.

The Leninskiy District is located in the east of Mykolayiv. Among other things, it includes the new Horticulture, YUTZ, New Watering, Old Watering. The district has a zoo, bus and railway stations.

The Korabelniy District is located in the south of the city. It includes a broad beam, Zhovtneve, Balabanovka, Kulbakino.

Official symbols[edit]

Mykolayiv adopted its current coat of arms on September 26, 1997. Mykolayiv had adopted its previous coat of arms in 1883. In creating its modern coat of arms, the city removed the coat of arms of neighboring Kherson Governorate.

Mykolayiv adopted its current flag on July 2, 1999. It is a white flag with the city’s coat of arms and two wavy horizontal bars.

Mykolayiv adopted its anthem on September 11, 2004.

Economy[edit]

Shipbuilding[edit]

61 Kommunara shipyard

Today Mykolayiv is a major shipbuilding center of Ukraine (as, earlier, of the whole Soviet Union) and an important river port. The city has three major shipyards one of which is capable of building large navy ships. Other important industries are mechanical engineering, power engineering, metallurgy and last 10 years - food industry.

Mykolayiv was closed to foreign visitors until the late 1980s because of many clandestine Soviet Navy projects (as well as the Mykolayiv Air Force base, turbine factory and military port). The majority of the Soviet Navy's surface ships including its only aircraft carrier, the Kuznetzov were built in Mykolayiv.

In May 2011, Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych visited Mykoliav and said that Ukraine is serious about reviving and further developing of its shipbuilding industry in the Mykolayiv region.[12]

Other industries[edit]

File:City Center, Mykolayiv.jpg
Modern-built shopping mall in the Mykolayiv city center.

Electronic industries are located in the city. The enterprise “Zoriya - Mashproekt” manufactures equipment used in ships and products used for transportation of natural gas and generation of electricity.[citation needed]

One of the largest enterprises in the city is Mykolayiv Aluminia Factory, which produces aluminia, raw material for the production of aluminum.

In addition to heavy industry, the city has a developed food processing industry, including a juice maker, Sandora, a dairy products maker, Laktalis-Mykolayiv, and a brewery, Yantar. The enterprise Nibulon is one of the leaders in the Ukrainian agrarian market.

Ukrainian military presence[edit]

Mykolayiv, being an important strategic city in southern Ukraine has a significant Ukrainian military presence, including the shipyards that build Ukraine's surface navy ships, the Mykolayiv Ukrainian Navy base, the “MARP” aircraft repair factory (Mykolayiv), and the Kulbakino army base (in the Mykolayiv Oblast, outside of the city of Mykolayiv).[citation needed]

Previously for many years after World War II the city had been home to the 92nd Guards Motor Rifle Division, the former 92nd Guards Rifle Division.

Transportation[edit]

Mykolayiv is one of Ukraine's most important transportation junctions. It is a major commercial river and sea port, and a major highway and rail junction.[13] Mykolayiv also has a dual-function passenger and freight airport, but passenger service at the airport is not significant, compared to Ukraine's major airports. In addition to the airport and sea and river port, Mykolayiv has two train stations, and an intercity bus station.

Air[edit]

Mykolayiv Airport (IATA code NLV), one of the largest and most technically well-equipped airports in the South of Ukraine[citation needed], serves the city. The airport, located South East of Mykolayiv, is mainly used for air freight and only has limited passenger service. Russian airline UTAir Aviation offers flights from Mykolayiv to Moscow (Vnukovo - VKO airport). In addition, there are one-hour passenger flights from Odessa (the nearest major airport) to Mykolayiv. Almost all airline passenger service in the South West of Ukraine (where Mykolayiv is located) is through Odessa International Airport: to reach Mykolayiv by airplane, tourists generally reach Odessa by plane, and then take a bus, taxi or train, for approximately 2 hours, to Mykolayiv. Odessa, the largest city in South West Ukraine, is 132 km (82 miles) from Mykolayiv.[14]

Bus travel long distance[edit]

Mykolayiv is an 8.5 hour bus ride from Kiev's main bus station.[15] Ukrainian private national bus companies Gyunsel and Avtoluks operate overnight buses from Kiev to Mykolayiv seven nights per week. The bus station in Mykolayiv is located at Prospekt (Avenue) Oktyabrskii 21 (Prospekt Zhovtevny 21 in Ukrainian).

Roads[edit]

The main north-south highway that passes through Mykolayiv is H (or M)-14.

The main East-West Highway that passes through Mykolayiv is E-58 M-14 (West and then South to Odessa), and South East to Kherson, a major port on the Dneper River, just before it flows into the Black Sea. The E-58 M-14 then continues East to the major industrial city and port in South Eastern Ukraine, Mariupol'.

The main highways to and from Mykolayiv are from Kherson (65 km (40 mi)), Odessa (120 km (75 mi)), Uman (320 km (199 mi)), Chişinău (Kishniev), Moldova (325 km (202 mi)), the Crimean Peninsula (350 km (217 mi), Kiev (500 km (311 mi), Kharkiv (520 km (323 mi), Lviv (350 km (217 mi) (Western Ukraine). Ukraine's roads, including those leading from Mykolayiv, tend to be poorly maintained and can be very dangerous.

Bridges[edit]

Mykolayiv, being located at the confluence of two major rivers, has two main bridges.

Varvarivskyi Bridge.

The Varvarivskyi Bridge over Southern Bug is a swing bridge with Europe's largest span (134 m).[16] It is also the southernmost bridge over the Southern Bug. The bridge connects the North coast of Mykolayiv to its Tsentralnyi Raion, located on the West Bank of the river. The Odeske Highway crosses the bridge and then continues south-west to Odessa.

Another major bridge is the Inhul Bridge crossing the Inhul river. The bridge leads from the North coast of Mykolayiv, and goes North-North East to the peninsula on the North side of the Inhul, just north of Mykolayiv. On the North Side of the Inhul river, the Heroyiv Stalingrada Highway crosses the bridge, streaming into the Pushkinska Street on the other side.

Rail[edit]

Overnight train travel in sleeper-berth passenger trains is a very common way to travel long distances in Ukraine, cheaper, more comfortable and faster than buses - and more environment-friendly, for the matter. There are nightly trains from Kiev's main passenger train station to Mykolayiv.[17]

In addition to Kiev, trains from Mykolayiv regularly run to the two closest major cities to Mykolayiv: Odessa (south west of Mykolayiv); and Kherson (south of Mykolayiv).[18] Direct trains to Moscow (26 hours), Kiev (8-10), Lviv (18), Odesa (5), the Crimea (8 hours) depart every day. Train departures timetable. All trains have coach cars.

Mykolayiv's passenger train station is called Mykolayiv - Passenger (in Russian: Николаев-пассажирский). It at the intersection of Mira Avenue and Prospekt (Avenue) Novzavodskaya 5 (in Ukraine and Russia, street address numbers are placed after the street name).[18] From the city square outside the railway station, buses depart to all other parts of Mykolayiv.

Mykolayiv's freight train station is called Mykolayiv-Gruzovoi (Freight) (in Russian: "Николаев-грузовой"). It is located at Privokzalnaya Ploschad' (Square).[18]

Water-borne travel[edit]

Though a major Ukrainian commercial sea port, Mykolayiv has no regular passenger water-borne service. Large ocean-going ships can reach Mykolayiv year round, via the Southern Buh River. The Southern Buh River, which flows into the Black Sea 65 kilometres (40 miles) south of Mykolayiv, is 1.5 km (0.9 miles) wide in Mykolayiv. Mykolayiv's passenger river port is at Varvarovskii Spusk (Descent) 5 (In Russian: Варваровский спуск, 5).[18]

Local transportation[edit]

Tram in Mykolayiv.

The main forms of city transport are fixed-route marshrutkas, buses, trolley buses, and trams.

Education[edit]

There are several universities in Mykolayiv. The main universities are: Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding (leading shipbuilding university in Ukraine), Petro Mohyla Black Sea State University, Sukhomlinsky National University of Mykolayiv and Mykolayiv State Agrarian University.

There are 10 higher education institutions in Mykolayiv of level III or IV accreditation. 65 general education schools, lycees, gymnasium schools, 3 evening schools, and 12 private learning institutions are in the city.

Society[edit]

Religion[edit]

Mykolayiv is the headquarters of the Mykolayiv Episcopate of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate), which has 18 churches (temples) in the city.

Mykolayiv is also the headquarters of the Mykolayiv Episcopate of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyivan Patriarchate.

Religious organizations and other faiths are broadly represented in the city.

Culture[edit]

There are three performing arts theaters in Mykolayiv: the Academic Ukrainian Theater of Drama and Musical Comedy, the Mykolayiv State Puppet Theater, and the Mykolayiv Academic Art Russian Drama Theater. In addition, the Mykolayiv Oblast Philharmonic performs in the city.

Mykolayiv has the following museums: Mykolayiv Regional Museum of Local History, The Museum of Shipbuilding and Fleet, the Museum of the World War II Partisan Movement, the V. V. Vereshchagin Art Museum.

Four movie theaters operate in Mykolayiv: Yunost' (Youth), Rodina (Motherland), Pioneer, Multiplex. Movies shown include the latest Hollywood films dubbed into Ukrainian and modern Russian films.

Media[edit]

Popular publications include “Vecherniy Nikolayev" (Evening Mykolayiv), "Nikolaevsckie Novosti" (Mykolayiv News), and "Yuzhnaya Pravda" (Southern Truth). Many publications have an Internet version, but exist in an independent Internet publication.

Television programs that are broadcast in Mykolayiv include movies, news, dramas (some of which originated in other countries, such as Mexico and the USA and are dubbed into Russian), (some of which also originate in other countries and are dubbed into Russian) cartoons, and professional sporting events such as Ukrainian football (soccer)> Mykolayiv has the following TV channels: 1+1; 2+2; 5 Kanal; ICTV; Inter; Real Estate TV; Tonis: K1: Kanal Ukraina; Kultura (Ukraina); CTB; TV: TET; and TRK. http://www.vipiko.tv/cgi-bin/html.cgi?id_paket=697.

Sports[edit]

Mykolayiv is represented within Ukrainian Bandy and Rink-bandy Federation.[19]

MFC Mykolaiv (Municipal Football Club "Mykolayiv", Ukrainian: Муніципальний футбольний клуб "Миколаїв") is a Ukrainian football club. The club has been demoted three times from the Ukrainian Premier League. MFС Mykolayiv's best achievement in the Ukrainian Premier League was 13th place (in 1994–95). MFC Mykolayiv reached 1st place in Druha Liha group A in 2010-11 season and was promoted to Persha Liha. Mykolayiv's main football stadium is at the west end of Lenin Prospekt, near the west end of the peninsula that Mykolayiv is on.[citation needed]

Mykolayiv's professional basketball team is MBC Mykolaiv. The team has won or finished second or third in several international tournaments since 1988, and won the Ukrainian Championship in 1992. MBC Mykolayiv is part of the Ukrainian Basketball SuperLeague, which is the top professional basketball league in Ukraine.[citation needed]

International relations[edit]

Mykolayiv is part of the International Black Sea Club, The World Council of Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI), and the International Assembly of Capitals and Major Cities of the CIS (certain countries that were part of the former Soviet Union) countries.

Mykolayiv’s 10 sister cities:[20]

Notable residents[edit]

Solomon Rufus Davis (Desyatnik) 1916-2006 - political scientist in Australia, born in Nikolayev

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Official city's website (history section)
  2. ^ a b Благоустройство города, gorsovet.mk.ua
  3. ^ Mykolayiv City Council: Nikolaev. Socio-economic characteristics
  4. ^ Состояние окружающей природной среды, gorsovet.mk.ua
  5. ^ Обращение с отходами, gorsovet.mk.ua
  6. ^ Объекты природно-заповедного фонда, gorsovet.mk.ua
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Климат Николаева (meteoprog.ua)
  8. ^ Climatological Information for Mykolayiv, Ukraine, Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  9. ^ "BBC Sport - Olga Kharlan's school - School No 4, Mykolayiv, Ukraine". BBC News. 2010-09-10. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  10. ^ a b c History of the city, gorsovet.mk.ua
  11. ^ http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/breaking-news/teen-dies-after-horror-gang-rape/story-e6frf7jx-1226314071818
  12. ^ "Marine Log: Yanukovych seeks shipbuilding revival". Kyivpost.com. 2011-05-18. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  13. ^ "Nikolaev Ukraine city overview, history, attractions, photos". Ukrainetrek.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  14. ^ Ukraine travel guide
  15. ^ "Расписание автобусов - НИКОЛАЕВ". Transport.turne.com.ua. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  16. ^ "History". Kyivdiprotrans Institute. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  17. ^ Заказ гостиниц. "Расписание поездов: Николаев - Киев, стоимость билета, заказ железнодорожных билетов на поезд. Купить жд билеты Николаев - Киев". Tutu.ru. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  18. ^ a b c d "Вокзалы Николаева". Rtpp.com.ua. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  19. ^ "Google Translate". Translate.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  20. ^ International Cooperation, gorsovet.mk.ua

External links[edit]

Template:Cities in Mykolayiv Oblast