Shenyang

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Shenyang
沈阳
—  Sub-provincial city  —
沈阳市
From top: Skyline of Shenyang, a building in Beiling Park, Zhongshan Square, Mukden Palace, and remains of the Xinle culture.
Location of Shenyang City in Liaoning and the PRC
Shenyang is located in China
Shenyang
Location in China
Coordinates: 41°44′N 123°53′E / 41.733°N 123.883°E / 41.733; 123.883
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceLiaoning
County-level
divisions
13
Government
 • Party SecretaryZeng Wei (曾维)
 • MayorLi Yingjie (李英杰)
Area
 • Sub-provincial city12,942 km2 (4,997 sq mi)
 • Urban3,464 km2 (1,337 sq mi)
Elevation55 m (180 ft)
Population (2010 census)
 • Sub-provincial city8,106,171
 • Density630/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
 • Urban5,743,718
 • Urban density1,700/km2 (4,300/sq mi)
Time zoneChina Standard Time (UTC+8)
Postal code110000
Area code(s)24
License plate prefixes辽A
GDP (2010)CNY 501.5 billion[1]
 - per capitaCNY 79,106[1]
Websiteshenyang.gov.cn
 
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Shenyang
沈阳
—  Sub-provincial city  —
沈阳市
From top: Skyline of Shenyang, a building in Beiling Park, Zhongshan Square, Mukden Palace, and remains of the Xinle culture.
Location of Shenyang City in Liaoning and the PRC
Shenyang is located in China
Shenyang
Location in China
Coordinates: 41°44′N 123°53′E / 41.733°N 123.883°E / 41.733; 123.883
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceLiaoning
County-level
divisions
13
Government
 • Party SecretaryZeng Wei (曾维)
 • MayorLi Yingjie (李英杰)
Area
 • Sub-provincial city12,942 km2 (4,997 sq mi)
 • Urban3,464 km2 (1,337 sq mi)
Elevation55 m (180 ft)
Population (2010 census)
 • Sub-provincial city8,106,171
 • Density630/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
 • Urban5,743,718
 • Urban density1,700/km2 (4,300/sq mi)
Time zoneChina Standard Time (UTC+8)
Postal code110000
Area code(s)24
License plate prefixes辽A
GDP (2010)CNY 501.5 billion[1]
 - per capitaCNY 79,106[1]
Websiteshenyang.gov.cn
Shenyang
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese沈阳
Traditional Chinese瀋陽
Hanyu PinyinShěnyáng
Literal meaningthe city to the north of Shen River or submerge light
Manchu name
Manchuᠮᡠᡴ᠋ᡩᡝ᠋ᠨ(Mukden)

Shenyang (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shěnyáng; Mandarin pronunciation: [ʂən˧˩jɑŋ˧˥]), or Mukden (Mukden1.png in Manchu), is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing (盛京) or Fengtian Fu (奉天府). Shenyang was first used by the Manchu people as their capital in the 17th century and is today the biggest city in the Northeast.

Along with its nearby cities, Shenyang is an important industrial centre in China, and serves as the transportation and commercial hub of China's northeast–particularly with Japan, Russia, and Korea. A titan of heavy industry since the 1930s, the city has been diversifying its industry and now has a solid industrial foundation, a good land and air transport network, abundant natural resources, and a skilled workforce. Investment subsidies are granted to multinational corporations (MNCs) that set up offices or headquarters in Shenyang.[2]

The sub-provincial city region includes the metropolitan area of Shenyang proper, Xinmin county-level city, and three counties.

Greater Shenyang was recently named as one of the 13 emerging megacities or megalopolises in China in a July 2012 report by the Economist Intelligence Unit; Supersized cities: China’s 13 megalopolises. The report pinpoints and highlights the demographic and income trends that are shaping these cities' development.

Contents

History

The city’s name, Shenyang, literally meaning "the city to the north of Shen River", comes from the Hun River on the city’s south side, which used to be called the Shen River. Archaeological findings show that human beings resided in present-day Shenyang as early as 7,200 years ago. The City of Shenyang was first established by Qin Kai, a general of Yan in the Warring States period about 300 BCE. It was named as Hou City (候城) at that time. It became known as the Shen Prefecture (瀋州) in the Jin Dynasty and Shenyang Circuit (瀋陽路) in the Yuan Dynasty. During the Ming Dynasty, it became Shenyang Zhongwei (瀋陽中衛).

In 1625, the Manchu leader Nurhaci moved his capital to Shenyang, or Simiyan hoton ᠰᡳᠮᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᡥ᠋ᠣᡨ᠋ᠣᠨ, as it is called in Manchu. The official name was changed to Shengjing (盛京) in Chinese, or Mukden Mukden1.png in Manchu, in 1634. The name derives from the Manchu word, mukdembi ᠮᡠᡴ᠋ᡩᡝ᠋ᠮᠪ᠊ᡳ᠋, meaning "to rise", and this is reflected by its Chinese name, which means "rising capital". A major city needed a major building and in 1626 under Nurhaci's orders the Imperial Palace emerged as Shenyang's symbolic center. It featured more than 300 ostentatiously decorated rooms and 20 gardens as both a symbol of power and grandeur.

After the fall of the Ming Dynasty in 1644, Manchu rule moved west inside the great wall and was established in China proper in Beijing. However, it retained considerable importance as the previous capital and the spiritual home of the Qing dynasty through the centuries. Treasures of the royal house were kept at its palaces, and the tombs of the early Qing rulers were once among the most famous monuments in China. In 1657, Fengtian Prefecture (奉天府, pinyin: Fèngtiān fǔ; Manchu: Abkai imiyangga fu ᠠᠪᡴᠠᡳ ᡳᠮᡳᠶᠠᠨ᠋ᡤᡤᠠ᠋ ᡶ᠋ᡠ or Fungtyian ᡶ᠋ᡠᠨ᠋ᡤᡨ᠋ᠶᡳᠠᠨ, "obeying heaven") was established in the Shenyang area, and Fengtian was sometimes used synonymously with Shenyang/Mukden. In 1914, the city changed back to its old name Shenyang. Shenyang continued to be known as Mukden in some English sources (sometimes spelled Moukden) through much of the 20th century.

With the building of the South Manchurian Railway, Mukden became a Russian stronghold, which occupied it after the Boxer Rebellion.[3][4] During the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), Mukden was the site of the Battle of Mukden from on 19 February 1905 – 10 March 1905. It was the largest battle since the battle of Leipzig in 1813. Following the Japanese victory, the Japanese concession at Mukden was one of the chief bases for Japanese economic expansion into southern Manchuria. It was also the seat of the Chinese viceroy of the three Manchurian provinces. In the 1920s, Mukden was the capital of the warlord Zhang Zuolin, who was killed when his train was blown up near Mukden at a Japanese-guarded railway bridge.

In the early 20th century, Shenyang began expanding out of its old city walls. Shenyang Railway Station on the South Manchurian Railway and the Shenyang North Railway Station (today's old north station) on the Jingfeng railway became new commercial centers of Shenyang. Several factories were built by Chang Tso-lin to manufacture ammunition in the northern and eastern suburbs. These factories laid the foundation for Shenyang's industrial development.

The Mukden Incident (18 September 1931), which gave the Japanese the pretext to create the Manchukuo state, took place near Shenyang. During the Manchukuo era (1932–1945) the city was called Fengtian in Chinese again, and Mukden in English. During the Japanese occupation, Shenyang was developed into a heavy industry center. Japan was able to exploit resources in Manchuria using the extensive network of railroads. For example, vast expanses of Manchurian forest were chopped down.

Soviet forces occupied Shenyang in early August 1945 on the surrender of Japan. The Soviets were replaced by the Nationalist Chinese, who were flown in on U.S. transport planes. During the Chinese Civil War, Shenyang remained a Kuomintang stronghold from 1946 to 1948, although the Chinese communists controlled the surrounding countryside. It was captured by the communists on 30 October 1948 following a series of offensives known as the Liaoshen Campaign.

Over the past 200 years or so, Shenyang somehow managed to grow and increase its industrial might, despite consecutive wars by Russia and Japan in the late 19th century and early 20th century, the second world war, and the China's Civil War (Shenyang became the main battleground between the Communists and Nationalists). The city had never come to an economic halt until 1990th, when its massive factories went bankrupt and left millions jobless, which was well documented in the film Tie Xi Qu: West of the Tracks.

Xinle Remains

Xinle Civilization

The remains of the Xinle culture, a Neolithic period society over 7,200 years old, are located in a museum in the north part of Huanggu District. It is complemented by a recreated village on site. A wood-sculptured bird unearthed there is the earliest cultural relic in Shenyang, as well as one of oldest wood sculptures found anywhere in the world.

Old City

Shenyang used to have two city walls.[5] The inner city wall was built in 1625. Most of it was rebuilt on the old city wall of Ming Dynasty, and the city wall gates were increased from four to eight. The outer city wall was built in 1680 to protect the urban area outside the inner city wall, which also had eight gates. The total length of the outer city wall is around 16 km (9.9 mi). Nearly all of the city walls were demolished after 1949. Two gates and one corner tower of the inner city wall have been rebuilt during the 1990s.

Around 2.5 km (1.6 mi) outside Shenyang outer city wall, there were four pagodas and four temples; East Pagoda/Yongguang Temple, South Pagoda/Guangci Temple, West Pagoda/Yanshou Temple, and North Pagoda/Falun Temple. They were built in 1643. The four Pagodas are identical Buddha-stupa as high as 26 m (85 ft). Only the North Pagoda and Temple is well preserved. As for the East and the South, only the pagodas are left. The West Pagoda was rebuilt in 1998.

Both Temple of Heaven and Temple of Earth also were to be found in the old city during the Qing Dynasty, smaller replicas of Beijing's counterparts. Neither exists today.

Geography and climate

Satellite image of Shenyang-Fushun urban agglomeration
(larger western part is Shenyang, eastern part is Fushun), Landsat 5, 2010-09-29.
Shenyang
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
6
 
−5
−16
 
 
7
 
−1
−12
 
 
18
 
7
−4
 
 
39
 
17
4
 
 
54
 
23
11
 
 
92
 
27
17
 
 
166
 
29
21
 
 
162
 
28
19
 
 
75
 
24
12
 
 
43
 
16
4
 
 
19
 
6
−4
 
 
9.8
 
−2
−12
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: CMA[6]

Shenyang ranges in latitude from 41° 11' to 43° 2' N and in longitude from 122° 25' to 123° 48' E, and is located in the central part of Liaoning Province. The western parts of the city's administrative area are located on the alluvial plain of the Liao River, while the eastern part consists of the hinterlands of the Changbai Mountains, and is covered with forests. The highest point in Shenyang is 414 metres (1,358 ft) and the lowest point only 7 metres (23 ft). The main urban area is located to the north of Hun River, a major tributary of the Liao River. The average elevation of the urban area is 29 metres (95 ft). North Canal and South Canal flow to the north and south of the urban area respectively, which follows the historic course of Hun River.

Shenyang's climate is a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Koppen Dwa) characterised by hot, humid summers, due to the monsoon, and dry, cold winters, due to the Siberian anticyclone. The four seasons in Shenyang are distinctive. Nearly half of the annual rainfall occurs in July and August. Monthly mean temperatures range from −11 °C (12.2 °F) in January to 24.7 °C (76.5 °F) in July, for an annual average of 8.4 °C (47.1 °F). The frost-free period is 183 days, which is relatively long considering the severity of the winters.[7] Extreme temperatures range from −33.1 °C (−28 °F) to 39.3 °C (103 °F).[8]

Districts and zones

In general, agriculture, animal husbandry, and agricultural product processing dominate northeastern Shenyang; eastern Shenyang is an auto parts hub; southern Shenyang is a high-tech industrial base; and western Shenyang is home to heavy machinery manufacturing. The city center specialises in retail and financial services.[2]

The following is a list of districts and zones in the prefecture.

Map of Shenyang showing major districts and landmarks, as well as major roads

The sub-provincial city of Shenyang has direct jurisdiction over 10 districts (区 qu), 1 county-level cities (市 shi) and 3 Counties (县 xian):

Map#NameHanziHanyu PinyinPopulation
(2010)
Area (km²)Density (/km²)
Shenyang mcp.png
City proper
1Shenhe District沈河区Shěnhé Qū713,5691833,889
2Heping District和平区Hépíng Qū644,2442130,476
3Dadong District大东区Dàdōng Qū704,8725112,549
4Huanggu District皇姑区Huánggū Qū804,6003720,270
5Tiexi District铁西区Tiěxī Qū849,8133920,769
Suburban
6Sujiatun District苏家屯区Sūjiātún Qū428,715776541
7Dongling District东陵区Dōnglíng Qū286,055896458
8Shenbei New District沈北新区Shěnběi Xīnqū318,041852329
9Yuhong District于洪区Yúhóng Qū381,033774452
Satellite cities
10Xinmin新民市Xīnmín Shì700,2703,315208
Rural
11Liaozhong County辽中县Liáozhōng Xiàn540,3961,670317
12Kangping County康平县Kāngpíng Xiàn353,0612,173161
13Faku County法库县Fǎkù Xiàn449,9962,320194

Shenhe District

Brightly lit buildings along Qingnian Street in the southern portion of Shenhe District

Shenhe District (沈河区/瀋河區) is the central area of Shenyang. There is the "central temple" near the Middle Street (one of the most famous commerce streets in China), built during the Ming Dynasty shows the center of ancient Shenyang. Most of Shenhe District is within the old city wall. It is 18 km2 (4,448 acres) and a population of 610,000 thousand. Shenhe District is the site of the Mukden Palace. It is also the site of Zhang Zuolin's former home and headquarters, Shengjing Ancient Cultural Street. In the western Shenhe locates Muslim town. South Pagoda is located in southern Shenhe. There are a lot of high-end hotels located in Shenhe–such as Sheraton, Kempinsky, Lexington, Marriott (which is the first Marriott Hotel directly named "Marriott" in mainland China; due to finance conflicts, this hotel is not administrated by the Marriott group). The major thoroughfare of Qingnian Street separates the southern portion of Shenhe District from the southern portion of Heping District.

Heping District

Zhongshan Square

Heping District (和平区/和平區) is located in the center of Shenyang. It has an area of 21 km2 (5,189 acres) and a population of 640 thousand. The downtown Heping district has all manner of businesses that are brightly lit by neon at night.

The district, better known as downtown, sprung up around Shenyang Railway Station (known locally as the South Station), former hub of the Southern Manchurian Railway. At the center of the district, is the famous Zhongshan Square (Zhongshan Guangchang, 中山广场), featuring one of China's largest statues of Chairman Mao - a record of the era of cultural revolution. Northwest of Zhongshan Square lies the Xita Korean Neighborhood or Koreatown. Many of the boulevards in this area are lined of very large trees of ginkgos, which become golden in color and produce their distinctive fruits in autumn.

Dadong District

Dadong District (大东区/大東區) is an industrial district. It has an area of 51 km2 (12,602 acres) and a population of 640,000 thousand. It is the largest district of the urban Shenyang city area. It is also the home of the 9.18 Museum and the North and East Pagoda.

Huanggu District

Beiling park

Huanggu district (皇姑区/皇姑區) has an area of 37 km2 (9,143 acres) and a population of 750,000 . It is the site of the large, historical tomb of Huang Taiji (of the Qing Dynasty), called Beiling park (Chinese: 北陵公园).

Huanggu district also hosts the Liaoning Mansion Hotel. It is also the place of the government of Liaoning province.

Huanggu's name comes from Huanggutun ("tun" means village), where the Huanggutun Incident took place.

Tiexi District

Tiexi district (铁西新区/鐵西新區) is famous for its industry. This mixed-use district also contains large blocks of residential complexes, so as well as strips of small to medium-sized shopping. It has an area of 39 km2 (9,637 acres) and a population of 810,000 thousand.

It is featured in a 9-hour epic documentary film West of the Tracks (the literal meaning of Tiexi) by a young filmmaker Wang Bing. It shows the transition in this rust belt district - a palimpsest of not only Chinese but also world history. The first factories of this place were built in 1934 by the Japanese to produce war goods for the Imperial Army and nationalized after World War II. As late as the early 1980s, the factories here employed about one million workers, but all of them went jobless in the 1990s.[9]

Tiexi is also home to the Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Area, a state-level development zone. This new development area combined with Tiexi District has a population of 1 million people, a total area of 126 km (0.05 sq mi), and enjoys the same administrative rank as municipality. (Administrative Committee of Shenyang)

Hunnan New District

Launched in 1988 as the Shenyang National New and High-Tech Industrial Development Zone and elevated to a national-level zone in 1991, the Hunnan New District (浑南新区/渾南新區), in Southeast Shenyang, focuses on electronic and information technology products such as software, computers, network systems, communication equipments, and audio/visual equipment; advanced manufacturing technologies, especially for autos, medical equipments; advanced materials and biological and pharmaceutical products. The zone has hosted more than 5,700 enterprises, including 700 foreign-invested enterprises. Foreign companies such as the General Electric Co., Tyco International, and Mitsubishi Corp. operate in the zone. Cureently, Shenyang is working on expanding the city and shift the central government to the Hunnan New District. Thus, Hunnan New District is now called as Hunnan New City.

Dongling District

Dongling (东陵区/東陵區) means the eastern tomb, referring to Qing Tombs dedicated to the first emperor of Qing Dynasty Nurhachi and his empress (a UNESCO site).

The district, adjacent to the Hunnan New District, is located on the east and south of Shenyang. It hosts the international airport and is rapidly becoming high-end residential areas, as suburbs of Shenyang are growing steadily. Two corridors along two major highways, one leading to the eastern tomb and Fushun, the other leading to the international airport, have luxury apartments, fine neighborhoods and sleek commercial developments being built.

Demographics

Shenyang's Koreatown: Xita (西塔)

Shenyang has a population of 8.1 million and its urban population is 5.74 million. By urban population, it is the largest city in northeastern China and among top ten largest cities in China.

An ethnically and culturally diverse city, Shenyang has 38 of China's 56 recognised ethnic groups, including the Han Chinese majority that make up 91.26% of Shenyang's population. The 37 minority groups are Manchu, Korean, Hui, Xibe, Mongolian, Zhuang, Miao, Tujia, Dong, Daur, Bai, Uyghur, Tibetan, Yi, Taiwanese Aboriginal People, She, Bouyei, Yao, Akha, Kazakh, Dai, Li, Shui, Nakhi, Jingpo, Kyrgyz, Tu, Mulao, Qiang, Maonan, Gelao, Russian, Evenks, Tatars, Oroqen, Nanai and Lhoba.[10] Most of these groups are not native to the Shenyang area; some, like the Manchus and the Xibe, are.

Not only is Shenyang a multi-ethnic city, it is also a place where many foreigners, especially from Japan and Korea live. Shenyang has numerous temples, mosques, churches, and other religious sites.

Economy

Entrance to Zhong Jie, a shopping street in central Shenyang.

Shenyang is an important industrial centre in China and is the core city of Shenyang Economic Zone, a New Special Reform Zone. It has been focused on heavy industry, particularly aerospace, machine tools, heavy equipment and defence, and recently on software, automotive and electronics.[citation needed] The heavy industry started in the 1920s and was well developed before the second world war. During the first five-year plan (1951–1956) many factories were built in Tiexi district. At its peak in the 1970s, Shenyang was one of the top three industrial centres in China, alongside Shanghai and Tianjin. After the 1980s, the heavy industry had declined gradually and the city became a rust-belt city. However, the economy of the city has revived significantly in recent years, thanks to the central government's "Revitalize Northeast China" campaign and the rapid development of software and auto manufacture industries.[citation needed]

Meanwhile, the services sector — especially banking — has been developing in Shenyang. Shenyang has a few foreign banks, such as South Korea's Hana Bank, the Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ of Japan. Hong Kong's Bank of East Asia Ltd., Singapore's United Overseas Bank Ltd., and HSBC Holdings. In 2006, the city hosted a total of 1,063 banks and bank branches and 144 insurance-related companies. By 2010, it aims to attract 30 foreign banks and 60 non-bank financial institutions.[2]

The city has been identified by the Economist Intelligence Unit in the November 2010 Access China White Paper as a member of the CHAMPS (Chongqing, Hefei, Anshan, Maanshan, Pingdingshan and Shenyang), an economic profile of the top 20 emerging cities in China.[11]

Major companies

Numerous major industrial companies have their headquarters in Shenyang. Brilliance Auto is a major Chinese automobile manufacturer, and most of its production plants are also located in Shenyang. Shenyang Aircraft Corporation produces airplanes for civilian use as well as for the PLAAF. Neusoft Group is the biggest software company in China. Shenyang Machine Tool Group is the largest machine tool manufacturer in China. Tyco International, General Motors, and Michelin Shenyang Tire Corporation, are expanding their operations in Shenyang due to a deep pool of skilled technical labor; good transportation; low land-use fees; and solid local support.

GDP and economic data

Statistically, the total GDP of the city of Shenyang is 383.66 Billion yuan in year 2009 (ranked 1st out of the 58 cities and counties in Liaoning province). The GDP per capita of the city of Shenyang is 78490 yuan in 2009 (ranked 3rd out of all 58 cities and counties in Liaoning province).[12]

Initiatives and special zones

Shenyang Finance and Trade Development Zone

Shenyang Finance and Trade Development Zone was founded in 1992. It is the only finance and trade development zone except Lujiazui in Shanghai and is the nucleus zone of Shenyang Central Business Zone. It covers an area of 1.12 million m², among which there is more than 600,000 m² constructable. The total investment planned is more than 20 billion Yuan and more than 60 high-stories international and multifunctional symbol buildings are planned to be built. So far, the zone has transferred more than 400,000 m² ground, introduced over 40 large projects and actually made use of over 200 million USD foreign investment. It has become the sample zone of international finance and modern service trade and the regional finance, trade and infomation center of Northeast China.[13]

Shenyang Economic & Technological Development Zone

Shenyang High-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Infrastructure

Transportation

Shenyang is served by air, rail, a two-line subway system, and an extensive network of streets and expressways, with bus service throughout the city.

Shenyang is the railway hub of Northeast China. Eight railways connect Shenyang with Beijing, Dalian, Changchun, Harbin and Fushun. The city is also served by the Qinshen Passenger Railway, a high-speed railway connecting Shenyang and Qinhuangdao. In early 2007, a 200 km/h (120 mph) high-speed train decreased travel time between Beijing and Shenyang to around 4 hours. In August 2007, construction work started on the Harbin-Dalian high-speed passenger railway–which is expected to be completed in 2013–connecting Shenyang with other major cities in Northeast China, Harbin, Changchun and Dalian.[14] Shenyang has two major railway stations: Shenyang North Railway Station and Shenyang Railway Station. The Shenyang North Railway Station was built in 1990, replacing the old north railway station, which was built in 1927 and still stands today. The north railway station is used mostly for express and high-speed train service. Shenyang Railway Station (also known locally as the "Shenyang South Railway Station", though the real "Shenyang South Railway Station" is at Sujiatun) has a history of more than 100 years, built by Russian in 1899 and expanded later by Japanese. Today, it focuses on regular service and is being refurbished with a large archway and new terminal, reducing access to the boarding platforms by rerouting customers under and over ground while construction is completed.

In 2011, a direct container rail service carries car parts 11,000 km (6,835 mi) from Leipzig, Germany to Shenyang through Siberia in 23 days every day.[15]

The Qingnian Street bridge over the Hun He leads to Shenyang Taoxian International Airport and further points.

The Shen-Da Expressway connecting Shenyang and Dalian is the first expressway built in China. It is the fastest highway (8-lane) linking one of the largest port city to Shenyang. Shendan Expressway is a 4-lane expressway to Benxi and Dandong. It also serves Shenyang Taoxian International Airport. Shenyang is connected by several major expressways. The Jingshen 8 lane Expressway goes to the city of Beijing, some 658 km (409 mi) away. There are other expressways to Fushun, Changchun and Xinmin. There are many long-distance and express bus routes to Beijing and other cities in the northeast.

International airport

The city is served by the Shenyang Taoxian International Airport (沈阳桃仙国际机场, airport code SHE), located in Dongling District. There are three other airports in Shenyang, none of them open to public: Dongta airport is the oldest airport in Shenyang, openned in 1920s and retired in 1980s. Beiling airport is used by Shenyang Aircraft Corporation for test flights. Yuhong airport is for military use only.[citation needed]

City

In the Manchukuo era, the initial road transportation network was laid out, as is now in the central districts of Shenyang. The roads follow a northwest-to-southeast orientation due to the southern Manchurian railway, which runs in that direction. Lately, Shenyang develops a large beltway system, consisting of three existing beltways, two beltways under construction and a planned beltway.[citation needed] The Middle Loop was planned in as early as 1930s and finally complete in 1985. The 2nd and 3rd Loop (Shenyang Round City Expressway) were finished in 1990s. The southern part of the 2nd Ring and 3rd loop are express beltways.[citation needed] The 3rd loop is an 82 km (51 mi) expressway, the first express beltway in China. The 4th loop will complete in 2013. The 6th loop (also known as G91 or Central Liaoning Express Beltway) is under construction, with a total length of 405 km (252 mi), which make it the longest beltway in the world when complete. 5th loop was also planned.[citation needed] Inside the city there is an east-to-west expressway through the city center, most of which is elevated.

In Shenyang, there are more than 160 bus routes.[16] Shenyang used to have about 20 trolley bus routes, one of the biggest trolley bus networks in China. The entire network was demolished in 1999 after a series of electrocution accidents.

Shenyang has been planning subway system since 1940. On November 18, 2005, the construction of the first Shenyang Metro subway line finally started[17] and the construction of the second line started on November 18, 2006. The first (east-west) line was opened September 27, 2010 and the second (north-south) was opened on January 9, 2012. Construction is difficult due to the rocky ground on which Shenyang is built.

Health care systems

Shenyang has 731 medical and healthcare centers, 63,000 healthcare staff and 3.02 healthcare worker per 1,000 people. There are 34,033 hospital beds and 45,680 various kinds of medical and technical personnel, among whom there are 17,346 licensed doctors, 1,909 assistant licensed doctors, and 16887 certified nurses.[18] The average expected life-span of the people in Shenyang is 73.8.

Shenyang is home to China Medical University Hospital, 202 Hospital, China Medical University 1st,2nd and 4th Hospital, Liaoning Tumor Hospital, Shenyang No.7 People's Hospital, Shenyang Orthopaedics Hospital, Shenyang Army General Hospital, North Hospital, and various other hospitals and clinics.

CMU is one of the top 10 medical universities in China and listed with IMED. Its diplomas are accredited worldwide.[19]

Environment

Shenyang has many parks. Self-organizing groups advocating sustainable travel such as local rail revival, walking and cycling, reduction in energy demand and waste generally, protection of wildlife, cleaning the river and lakes, and the development of environmental technologies in the city, are increasingly popular.

Military

Shenyang holds the headquarters of the Shenyang Military Region and the Air Force of Shenyang Military Region. Shenyang is also famous for its defense industries.

Life and culture

Shenyang dialect

People native to Shenyang speak the Shenyang dialect, a variant of Northeastern Mandarin. The Shenyang dialect is similar to the other Northeastern dialects and also to the national standard of Mandarin, Putonghua, but has some words unique to the city. Some people prefer to think of it as a strong accent rather than a different dialect. Shenyang dialect is used heavily by several famous skit actors such as Zhao Benshan in their performance, and has become a stereotype for northeast natives.

Art

Two northeast folk dances, Er Ren Zhuan and Yang Ge, are very popular in Shenyang. Dawutai Theatre is famous for its Er Ren Zhuan and Chinese skit performances by Zhao Benshan and his students.

Shenyang is home of many performance art organizations, such as Shenyang Acrobatic Troupe of China,[20] Liaoning Song and Dance Ensemble [2], and Liaoning Ballet [3]. Many artists are from Shenyang, such as Zimei, Na Ying and the pianist Lang Lang.

Museums

9.18 Incident Museum

Sports

Shenyang is famous for its football tradition. The local football team is the Liaoning F.C., in the Chinese Super League. Another Chinese Super League team, Shenyang Jinde moved to Changsha in 2007. Shenyang Olympic Sports Centre Stadium was a venue for the football preliminary of 2008 Summer Olympics.

Shenyang Sport University [4] is a famous professional sports university in China. The university is the training base for winter sports in China and has many Olympic champions.

Religion

Cuisine

Traditional meals in the region are Suan cai (also called Chinese sauerkraut), stewed chicken and mushroom, and meat pie. Korean food (such as rice cake and cold noodle) is a part of Shenyangers' diet as there is a sizeable ethnic Korean population in the city. Also, as the area was traditionally occupied by Manchus, the cuisine in Shenyang was fundamentally influenced by Manchu food.

Notable people

Tourism

Attractions

Shopping areas

Shopping and dining on Taiyuan Street

Shenyang has many shopping areas that provide people necessities, luxuries and entertainments. One of the shopping districts is Middle Street which is like the Fifth Avenue in New York City. Middle Street features many western-style stores and restaurants, including Wal-mart, Pizza Hut (which is a fancy restaurant in Shenyang), Louis Vuitton flagship store, Häagen-Dazs retail store, etc. The largest shopping mall in Shenyang is also located on Middle Street, selling products from all around the world.

Taiyuan Street(Chinese: 太原街)is another shopping area which is similar to Middle Street. Taiyuan Street also features many restaurants and theaters for people to enjoy. Many spend their holidays shopping on these two streets.

There is also a very large underground shopping center, offering lots of items, especially fashion jewelries, accessories and clothing.

Another area, Wu'ai Market, (simplified Chinese: 五爱市场; traditional Chinese: 五愛市場), features a large multi-story shopping center with a size comparable to that of many city blocks. It contains hundreds, if not thousands, of mini or boutique stores that open very early in the morning and close in the early afternoon. It is famous for wholesaling cheap clothes and household items.

The information technology center is in Sanhao street (Chinese: 三好街), in the southern part of the city.

There are also many large superstores located throughout the city that sell everything from meat and dairy to clothes and electronics.

Research and education

Shenyang has one of the highest concentrations of educational institutes in China. Roughly 30 colleges and universities and numerous research and training institutions are located in Shenyang.

Research

High schools

Colleges and universities

Defunct universities

FengYong University (Chinese: 馮庸大學): the first private university in China that follows western setups funded by Mr Feng Yong. It contains the departments of Engineering, Law and Education.

International relations

Consulates in Shenyang

Japan, Russia, South Korea, and the United States have consulates in Shenyang's Heping District; North Korea has a consulate in Huanggu District. France recently announced it will open a consulate general's office in Shenyang.[2]

Twin towns and sister cities

Shenyang is twinned with:

Partnerships

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Today, Shenyang - China's Shenyang government portal: 今日沈阳--中国沈阳政府门户网" (in Chinese). Shenyang City People's Government. Archived from the original on December 18, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071218202150/http://www.shenyang.gov.cn/web/resource/jrsy-gz/cs.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-25. 
  2. ^ a b c d "china business review.". china business review. 2009. http://chinabusinessreview.net/public/0709/criticaleye.html. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  3. ^ The Century illustrated monthly magazine, Volume 68. NEW YORK: The Century Co.. 1904. p. 581. http://books.google.com/books?id=93gAAAAAYAAJ&q=nest+soup#v=snippet&q=mukden%20russians%20day%20before%20formally&f=false. Retrieved 2011-07-06. (Original from Harvard University)
  4. ^ Making of America Project (1904). The Century: a popular quarterly, Volume 68. NEW YORK: Scribner & Co.. p. 581. http://books.google.com/books?id=fOfUAAAAMAAJ&q=russians+mukden+formally#v=snippet&q=russians%20mukden%20formally&f=false. Retrieved 2011-07-06. (Original from the University of Michigan)
  5. ^ "Map of Mukden in 1912". http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/moukden_1912.jpg. Retrieved 2010-01-22. 
  6. ^ a b "中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年)" (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. http://cdc.cma.gov.cn/shuju/index3.jsp?tpcat=SURF&dsid=SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_MMON_19712000_CES&pageid=3. Retrieved 2010-01-22. 
  7. ^ "A city full of vitality--Shenyang.China". People′s Government of Shenyang. http://www.shenyang.gov.cn/web/resource/hlzd-yw/hlzd-yw-01.htm. Retrieved 2011-03-12. 
  8. ^ Extreme Temperatures around the World. Accessed 2010-10-27
  9. ^ ""West of the Tracks" by Jie Li". Ejumpcut.org. 1999-02-22. http://www.ejumpcut.org/archive/jc50.2008/WestofTracks/index.html. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 
  10. ^ [1][dead link]
  11. ^ "The Rise Of The ‘Champs’ - New Report Maps Business Opportunity In China’S Fastest Growing Cities". Sourcewire.com. 2010-11-09. http://www.sourcewire.com/releases/rel_display.php?relid=60590. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 
  12. ^ Liaoning Statistical Yearbook. []. 2009. 
  13. ^ "investment guide on Shenyang". cnn shenyang. http://www.cnnshenyang.com/invest/investmentguide.asp. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  14. ^ "Work begins on Harbin-Dalian passenger-only rail line". People's Daily Online. 2007-08-24. http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/6247071.html. 
  15. ^ DB Schenker to launch daily freight train to China Railway Gazette International, 30 September 2011. Accessed: 4 October 2011.
  16. ^ 沈阳公交线路表(市区线路)-心·路[dead link]
  17. ^ "沈阳地铁官方网站". Symtc.com. http://www.symtc.com. Retrieved 2010-01-22. 
  18. ^ "Teach Travel China Liao Ning". Ttcln.com. 2009-10-19. http://ttcln.com/food_drink1.asp?id=81#top. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 
  19. ^ "beth health center US/CMU program". beth health. http://www.bethhealth.com/faq.html#q3. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  20. ^ http://www.sy1951.com/english/
  21. ^ Sustainable Cities Programme - UN-HABITAT

References

External links

Coordinates: 41°47′44″N 123°26′53″E / 41.79556°N 123.44806°E / 41.79556; 123.44806