Kawasaki disease may be further classified as a medium-sized-vessel vasculitis, affecting medium- and small-sized blood vessels, such as the smaller cutaneous vasculature (veins and arteries in the skin) that range from 50 to 100 µm in diameter. Kawasaki disease is also considered to be a primary childhood vasculitis, a disorder associated with vasculitis that mainly affects children under the age of 18. A recent, consensus-based evaluation of vasculitides occurring primarily in children resulted in a classification scheme for these disorders, to distinguish them and suggest a more concrete set of diagnostic criteria for each. Within this classification of childhood vasculitides, Kawasaki disease is, again, a predominantly medium-sized vessel vasculitis.
It is also an autoimmune form of vasculitis, and is not associated with ANCA antibodies, unlike other vasculitic disorders associated with them (such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome). This categorization is considered essential for appropriate treatment.
Kawasaki disease often begins with a high and persistent fever that is not very responsive to normal treatment with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or ibuprofen. It is the most prominent symptom in Kawasaki disease, is a characteristic sign of the acute phase of the disease, is normally high (above 39-40°C), remittent, and is followed by extreme irritability. Recently, it is reported to be present in patients with atypical or incomplete Kawasaki disease; nevertheless, it is not present in 100% of cases. The first day of fever is considered the first day of illness, and the duration of fever is on average one to two weeks; in the absence of treatment, it may extend for three to four weeks. Prolonged fever is associated with higher incidence of cardiac involvement. It responds partially to antipyretic drugs and does not cease with the introduction of antibiotics. However, when appropriate therapy is started – intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin – the fever is gone after two days.
Cervical lymphadenopathy is seen in 50% to 75% of patients, whereas the other features are estimated to occur in 90% of patients, but sometimes it can be the dominant presenting symptom. According to the definition of the diagnostic criteria, at least one impaired lymph node ≥ 1.5 cm in diameter should be involved. Affected lymph nodes are painless or minimally painful, nonfluctuant, and nonsuppurative; erythema of the neighboring skin may occur. Children with fever and neck adenitis who do not respond to antibiotics should have Kawasaki disease considered as part of the differential diagnoses.
In the acute phase of the disease, changes in the peripheral extremities can include erythema of the palms and soles, which is often striking with sharp demarcation and often accompanied by painful, brawny edema of the dorsa of the hands or feet. It is why affected children frequently refuse to hold objects in their hands or to bear weight on their feet. Later, during the convalescent or the subacute phase, desquamation of the fingers and toes usually begins in the periungual region within two to three weeks after the onset of fever and may extend to include the palms and soles. Around 11% of children affected by the disease may continue skin-peeling for many years. One to two months after the onset of fever, deep transverse grooves across the nails may develop (Beau’s lines), and occasionally nails are shed.
The subacute phase begins when fever, rash, and lymphadenopathy resolve at about one to two weeks after the onset of fever, but irritability, anorexia, and conjunctival injection persist. Desquamation of the fingers and toes and thrombocytosis are seen during this stage, which generally lasts until about four weeks after the onset of fever. Coronary artery aneurysms usually develop during this time, and the risk for sudden death is highest.
The convalescent stage begins when all clinical signs of illness have disappeared, and continues until the sedimentation rate returns to normal, usually at six to eight weeks after the onset of illness.
The clinical presentation between adults and children differs, as adults' neck lymph nodes are more affected (93% of adults versus 15% of children), hepatitis (65% versus 10%), and arthralgia (61% versus 24-38%). Some patients have atypical presentations and may not have the classical symptoms. This occurs in particular in young infants; those patients are especially at higher risk for cardiac artery aneurysms.
X-ray showing aneurysmal enlargement of the coronary arteries, which is a complication in a Kawasaki syndrome
The cardiac complications are the most important aspect of Kawasaki disease. It is the main cause of heart disease acquired in childhood in the United States and Japan. In developed nations, it appears to have replaced acute rheumatic fever as the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children. Coronary artery aneurysms occur as a sequela of the vasculitis in 20-25% of untreated children. It is first detected at a mean of 10 days of illness and the peak frequency of coronary artery dilation or aneurysms occurs within four weeks of onset. Aneurysms are classified into small (internal diameter of vessel wall <5 mm), medium (diameter ranging from 5-8 mm), and giant (diameter > 8 mm). Saccular and fusiform aneurysms usually develop between 18 and 25 days after the onset of illness. Even when treated with high-dose IVIG regimens within the first 10 days of illness, 5% of children with Kawasaki disease develop at the least transient coronary artery dilation and 1% develop giant aneurysms. Death can occur due either to myocardial infarction secondary to blood clot formation in a coronary artery aneurysm or to rupture of a large coronary artery aneurysm. Death is most common two to 12 weeks after the onset of illness.
Many risk factors predicting coronary artery aneurysms have been identified, including persistent fever after IVIG therapy, low hemoglobin concentrations, low albumin concentrations, high white-blood-cell count, high band count, high CRP concentrations, male sex, and age less than one year. Coronary artery lesions resulting from Kawasaki disease change dynamically with time. Resolution one to two years after the onset of the disease has been observed in half of vessels with coronary aneurysms.Narrowing of the coronary artery, which occurs as a result of the healing process of the vessel wall, often leads to significant obstruction of the blood vessel and lead to the heart not receiving enough blood and oxygen. This can eventually lead to heart muscle tissue death (myocardial infarction).
MI caused by thrombotic occlusion in an aneurysmal, stenotic, or both aneurysmal and stenotic coronary artery is the main cause of death from Kawasaki disease. The highest risk of MI occurs in the first year after the onset of the disease. MI in children presents with different symptoms from those in adults. The main symptoms were shock, unrest, vomiting, and abdominal pain; chest pain was most common in older children. Most of these children had the attack occurring during sleep or at rest, and around one-third of attacks were asymptomatic.
As the cause(s) of Kawasaki disease remain unknown, the illness is more accurately referred to as Kawasaki syndrome. Like all autoimmune diseases, its cause is presumably the interaction of genetic and environmental factors, possibly including an infection. The specific cause is unknown, but current theories center primarily on immunological causes. Evidence increasingly points to an infectious etiology, but debate continues on whether the cause is a conventional antigenic substance or a superantigen. Researchers at Boston Children's Hospital reported, "some studies have found associations between the occurrence of Kawasaki disease and recent exposure to carpet cleaning or residence near a body of stagnant water; however, cause and effect have not been established."
Other data show a clear correlation between Kawasaki disease and tropospheric wind patterns; winds blowing from central Asia correlate with Kawasaki disease cases in Japan, Hawaii, and San Diego. This association with tropospheric winds has been shown to be modulated at seasonal and interannual timescales by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation phenomenon, further indicating the agent responsible for the disease is a wind-borne pathogen. Efforts are underway to identify the suspected pathogen in air-filters flown at altitude above Japan.
An association has been identified with an SNP in the ITPKC gene, which codes an enzyme that negatively regulatesT-cell activation. Regardless of where they are living, Japanese children are more likely than other children to contract the disease, which suggests genetic susceptibility. The HLA-B51 serotype has been found to be associated with endemic instances of the disease.
Criteria for Diagnosis of Kawasaki Disease
Fever of ≥5 days' duration associated with at least four† of these five changes
Kawasaki disease can only be diagnosed clinically (i.e., by medical signs and symptoms). No specific laboratory test exists for this condition. It is difficult to establish the diagnosis, especially early in the course of the illness, and frequently children are not diagnosed until they have seen several health care providers. Many other serious illnesses can cause similar symptoms, and must be considered in the differential diagnosis, including scarlet fever, toxic shock syndrome, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and childhood mercury poisoning (infantile acrodynia).
Classically, five days of fever plus four of five diagnostic criteria must be met establish the diagnosis. The criteria are:
erythema of the lips or oral cavity or cracking of the lips;
rash on the trunk;
swelling or erythema of the hands or feet;
red eyes (conjunctival injection);
swollen lymph node in the neck of at least 15 mm.
Many children, especially infants, eventually diagnosed with Kawasaki disease, do not exhibit all of the above criteria. In fact, many experts now recommend treating for Kawasaki disease even if only three days of fever have passed and at least three diagnostic criteria are present, especially if other tests reveal abnormalities consistent with Kawasaki disease. In addition, the diagnosis can be made purely by the detection of coronary artery aneurysms in the proper clinical setting.
A physical examination will demonstrate many of the features listed above.
Angiography was historically used to detect coronary artery aneurysms, and remains the gold standard for their detection, but is rarely used today unless coronary artery aneurysms have already been detected by echocardiography.
Children with Kawasaki disease should be hospitalized and cared for by a physician who has experience with this disease. When in an academic medical center, care is often shared between pediatric cardiology, pediatric rheumatology, and pediatric infectious disease specialists (although no specific infectious agent has been identified as yet). Treatment should be started as soon as the diagnosis is made to prevent damage to the coronary arteries.
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is the standard treatment for Kawasaki disease and is administered in high doses with marked improvement usually noted within 24 hours. If the fever does not respond, an additional dose may have to be considered. In rare cases, a third dose may be given to the child. IVIG by itself is most useful within the first seven days of onset of fever, in terms of preventing coronary artery aneurysm.
Salicylate therapy, particularly aspirin, remains an important part of the treatment (though questioned by some) but salicylates alone are not as effective as IVIG. Aspirin therapy is started at high doses until the fever subsides, and then is continued at a low dose when the patient returns home, usually for two months to prevent blood clots from forming. Except for Kawasaki disease and a few other indications, aspirin is otherwise normally not recommended for children due to its association with Reye's syndrome. Because children with Kawasaki disease will be taking aspirin for up to several months, vaccination against varicella and influenza is required, as these infections are most likely to cause Reye's syndrome.
Corticosteroids have also been used, especially when other treatments fail or symptoms recur, but in a randomized controlled trial, the addition of corticosteroid to immune globulin and aspirin did not improve outcome. Additionally, corticosteroid use in the setting of Kawasaki disease is associated with increased risk of coronary artery aneurysm, so its use is generally contraindicated in this setting. In cases of Kawasaki disease refractory to IVIG, cyclophosphamide and plasma exchange have been investigated as possible treatments, with variable outcomes.
IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra) can prevent coronary lesion in the mouse KD model. This prevention shows even with three-days-delay in treatment in mice.
Treatments exist for iritis and other eye symptoms. Another treatment may include the use of infliximab (Remicade). Infliximab works by binding tumour necrosis factor alpha.
With early treatment, rapid recovery from the acute symptoms can be expected, and the risk of coronary artery aneurysms is greatly reduced. Untreated, the acute symptoms of Kawasaki disease are self-limited (i.e. the patient will recover eventually), but the risk of coronary artery involvement is much greater. Overall, about 2% of patients die from complications of coronary vasculitis. Patients who have had Kawasaki disease should have an echocardiogram initially every few weeks, and then every one or two years to screen for progression of cardiac involvement.
Laboratory evidence of increased inflammation combined with demographic features (male sex, age less than six months or greater than eight years) and incomplete response to IVIG therapy create a profile of a high-risk patient with Kawasaki disease. The likelihood that an aneurysm will resolve appears to be determined in large measure by its initial size, in which the smaller aneurysms have a greater likelihood of regression. Other factors are positively associated with the regression of aneurysms, including being younger than a year old at the onset of Kawasaki disease, fusiform rather than saccular aneurysm morphology, and an aneurysm location in a distal coronary segment. The highest rate of progression to stenosis occurs among those who develop large aneurysms. The worst prognosis occurs in children with giant aneurysms. This severe outcome may require further treatment such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty,coronary artery stenting,bypass grafting, and even cardiac transplantation.
A relapse of symptoms may occur soon after initial treatment with IVIG. This usually requires rehospitalization and retreatment. Treatment with IVIG can cause allergic and nonallergic acute reactions, aseptic meningitis, fluid overload and, rarely, other serious reactions. Overall, life-threatening complications resulting from therapy for Kawasaki disease are exceedingly rare, especially compared with the risk of nontreatment. Also, evidence indicates Kawasaki disease produces altered lipid metabolism that persists beyond clinical resolution of the disease.
Kawasaki disease affects boys more than girls, with people of Asian ethnicity, particularly Japanese and Korean people, most susceptible, as well as people of Afro-Caribbean ethnicity. The disease was rare in Caucasians until the last few decades, and incidence rate fluctuates from country to country.
Currently, Kawasaki disease is the most commonly diagnosed pediatric vasculitis in the world. By far, the highest incidence of Kawasaki disease occurs in Japan, with the most recent study placing the attack rate at 218.6 per 100,000 children <5 years of age (about one in 450 children). At this present attack rate, more than one in 150 children in Japan will develop Kawasaki disease during their lifetimes.
However, its incidence in the United States is increasing. Kawasaki disease is predominantly a disease of young children, with 80% of patients younger than five years of age. About 2,000-4,000 cases are identified in the U.S. each year (9 to 19 per 100,000 children younger than 5 years of age).
In the United Kingdom, estimates of incidence rate vary because of the rarity of Kawasaki disease. However, it is believed to affect fewer than one in every 25,000 people. Incidence of the disease doubled from 1991 to 2000, however, with four cases in per 100,000 children in 1991 compared with a rise of eight cases per 100,000 in 2000.
The disease was first reported by Tomisaku Kawasaki in a four-year-old child with a rash and fever at the Red Cross Hospital in Tokyo in January 1961, and he later published a report on 50 similar cases. Later, Kawasaki and colleagues were persuaded of definite cardiac involvement when they studied and reported 23 cases, of which 11 (48%) patients had abnormalities detected by an electrocardiogram. In 1974, the first description of this disorder was published in the English-language literature. In 1976, Melish et al. described the same illness in 16 children in Hawaii. Melish and Kawasaki had independently developed the same diagnostic criteria for the disorder, which are still used today to make the diagnosis of classic Kawasaki disease.
A question was raised whether the disease only started during the period between 1960 and 1970, but later a preserved heart of a seven-year-old boy who died in 1870 was examined and showed three aneurysms of the coronary arteries with clots, as well as pathologic changes consistent with Kawasaki disease. Kawasaki disease is now recognized worldwide. In the United States and other developed nations, it appears to have replaced acute rheumatic fever as the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children.
^ abcFujiwara H, Fujiwara T, Kao TC, Ohshio G, Hamashima Y (June 1986). "Pathology of Kawasaki disease in the healed stage. Relationships between typical and atypical cases of Kawasaki disease". Acta Pathologica Japonica36 (6): 857–67. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1827.1986.tb03119.x. PMID3766134.
^Rigante D (2006). "Clinical overview of vasculitic syndromes in the pediatric age". European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences10 (6): 337–45. PMID17274537.
^Martínez Ruiz M, del Castillo Martín F, Borque Andrés C, et al. (October 2003). "Incidencia y características clínicas de la enfermedad de Kawasaki" [Incidence and clinical characteristics of Kawasaki's disease]. Anales De Pediatría (in Spanish) 59 (4): 323–7. doi:10.1016/S1695-4033(03)78190-9. PMID14519302.
^Svobodová D, Slaný J, Pískovský T (2008). "Kawasakiho choroba a její oční příznaky" [Kawasaki disease and its ocular manifestations]. Časopis lékařů českých (in Czech) 147 (3): 162–4. PMID18401983.
^Bachmeyer C, Turc Y, Curan D, Duval-Arnould M (January 2000). "Anterior uveitis as the initial sign of adult Kawasaki syndrome (mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome)". American Journal of Ophthalmology129 (1): 101–2. doi:10.1016/S0002-9394(99)00285-8. PMID10653425.
^Smith LB, Newburger JW, Burns JC (February 1989). "Kawasaki syndrome and the eye". The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal8 (2): 116–8. PMID2468129.
^ abcKubota M, Usami I, Yamakawa M, Tomita Y, Haruta T (June 2008). "Kawasaki disease with lymphadenopathy and fever as sole initial manifestations". Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health44 (6): 359–62. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1754.2008.01310.x. PMID18476929.
^ abScardina GA, Fucà G, Carini F et al. (December 2007). "Oral necrotizing microvasculitis in a patient affected by Kawasaki disease". Medicina Oral, Patología Oral Y Cirugía Bucal12 (8): E560–4. PMID18059239.
^Stamos JK, Corydon K, Donaldson J, Shulman ST (March 1994). "Lymphadenitis as the dominant manifestation of Kawasaki disease". Pediatrics93 (3): 525–8. PMID8115224.
^ abLópez Neyra A, Alvarez-Coca González J, Pérez Suárez E, Martínez Pérez J, Rubio Villanueva JL (December 2007). "Líneas de Beau y enfermedad de Kawasaki" [Beau's lines and Kawasaki disease]. Anales De Pediatría (in Spanish) 67 (6): 610–1. doi:10.1016/s1695-4033(07)70817-2. PMID18053534.
^González Pascual E, Villanueva Lamas J, Ros Viladoms J, Pons Odena M, Ruiz García-Diego S (January 1999). "[Kawasaki disease. A report of 50 cases]". Anales Españoles De Pediatría (in Spanish; Castilian) 50 (1): 39–43. PMID10083641.
^ abHirose O, Misawa H, Kijima Y et al. (March 1981). "[Two-dimensional echocardiography of coronary artery in Kawasaki disease (MCLS): detection, changes in acute phase, and follow-up observation of the aneurysm (author's transl)]". Journal of Cardiography (in Japanese) 11 (1): 89–104. PMID7264399.
^Boven K, De Graeff-Meeder ER, Spliet W, Kuis W (August 1992). "Atypical Kawasaki disease: an often missed diagnosis". European Journal of Pediatrics151 (8): 577–80. doi:10.1007/BF01957725. PMID1505575.
^Suzuki A, Kamiya T, Kuwahara N et al. (1986). "Coronary arterial lesions of Kawasaki disease: cardiac catheterization findings of 1100 cases". Pediatric Cardiology7 (1): 3–9. doi:10.1007/BF02315475. PMID3774580.
^Durongpisitkul K, Gururaj VJ, Park JM, Martin CF (December 1995). "The prevention of coronary artery aneurysm in Kawasaki disease: a meta-analysis on the efficacy of aspirin and immunoglobulin treatment". Pediatrics96 (6): 1057–61. PMID7491221.
^Kobayashi T, Inoue Y, Morikawa A (February 2008). "[Risk stratification and prediction of resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin in Kawasaki disease]". Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine (in Japanese) 66 (2): 332–7. PMID18260333.
^Akagi T, Kato H, Inoue O, Sato N, Imamura K (August 1990). "Valvular heart disease in Kawasaki syndrome: incidence and natural history". American Heart Journal120 (2): 366–72. doi:10.1016/0002-8703(90)90081-8. PMID2382613.
^Gidding SS, Shulman ST, Ilbawi M, Crussi F, Duffy CE (April 1986). "Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (Kawasaki disease): delayed aortic and mitral insufficiency secondary to active valvulitis". Journal of the American College of Cardiology7 (4): 894–7. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(86)80354-0. PMID3958349.
^Fukunaga S, Egashira A, Arinaga K et al. (March 1996). "Aortic valve replacement for aortic regurgitation due to Kawasaki disease. Report of two cases". The Journal of Heart Valve Disease5 (2): 231–4. PMID8665019.
^Fuyama Y, Hamada R, Uehara R et al. (June 1996). "Long-term follow up of abdominal aortic aneurysm complicating Kawasaki disease: comparison of the effectiveness of different imaging methods". Acta Paediatrica Japonica; Overseas Edition38 (3): 252–5. doi:10.1111/j.1442-200X.1996.tb03480.x. PMID8741316.
^Miyake T, Yokoyama T, Shinohara T, Seto S, Oiki M (August 1995). "Transient dilatation of the abdominal aorta in an infant with Kawasaki disease associated with thrombocytopenia". Acta Paediatrica Japonica; Overseas Edition37 (4): 521–5. doi:10.1111/j.1442-200X.1995.tb03368.x. PMID7572158.
^ abcdeAlves NR, Magalhães CM, Almeida Rde F, Santos RC, Gandolfi L, Pratesi R (June 2011). "Prospective study of Kawasaki disease complications: review of 115 cases". Revista Da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992)57 (3): 295–300. doi:10.1016/s2255-4823(11)70062-5. PMID21691693.
^Yang G, Thompson D, Warren A (February 2009). "Late-appearing brachiocephalic aneurysm: an atypical vascular sequella of Kawasaki disease". Pediatric Cardiology30 (2): 197–9. doi:10.1007/s00246-008-9296-y. PMID18704549.
^Beiler HA, Schmidt KG, von Herbay A, Löffler W, Daum R (April 2001). "Ischemic small bowel strictures in a case of incomplete Kawasaki disease". Journal of Pediatric Surgery36 (4): 648–50. doi:10.1053/jpsu.2001.22311. PMID11283899.
^Burke MJ, Rennebohm RM (1981). "Eye involvement in Kawasaki disease". Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus18 (5): 7–11. PMID7299613.
^Anand S, Yang YC (2004). "Optic disc changes in Kawasaki disease". Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus41 (3): 177–9. PMID15206604.
^Farvardin M, Kashef S, Aleyasin S, Nabavizadeh SH, Sajjadi M, Safari M (2007). "Sudden unilateral blindness in a girl with Kawasaki disease". Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus44 (5): 303–4. PMID17913174.
^Tomita S, Chung K, Mas M, Gidding S, Shulman ST (January 1992). "Peripheral gangrene associated with Kawasaki disease". Clinical Infectious Diseases14 (1): 121–6. doi:10.1093/clinids/14.1.121. PMID1571415.
^Tabarki B, Mahdhaoui A, Selmi H, Yacoub M, Essoussi AS (September 2001). "Kawasaki disease with predominant central nervous system involvement". Pediatric Neurology25 (3): 239–41. doi:10.1016/S0887-8994(01)00290-9. PMID11587880.
^Takagi K, Umezawa T, Saji T, Morooka K, Matsuo N (September 1990). "[Meningoencephalitis in Kawasaki disease]". No to Hattatsu. Brain and Development (in Japanese) 22 (5): 429–35. PMID2223179.
^Bailie NM, Hensey OJ, Ryan S, Allcut D, King MD (2001). "Bilateral subdural collections--an unusual feature of possible Kawasaki disease". European Journal of Paediatric Neurology5 (2): 79–81. doi:10.1053/ejpn.2001.0469. PMID11589317.
^ abIchiyama T, Nishikawa M, Hayashi T, Koga M, Tashiro N, Furukawa S (July 1998). "Cerebral hypoperfusion during acute Kawasaki disease". Stroke29 (7): 1320–1. doi:10.1161/01.STR.29.7.1320. PMID9660380.
^Knott PD, Orloff LA, Harris JP, Novak RE, Burns JC (2001). "Sensorineural hearing loss and Kawasaki disease: a prospective study". American Journal of Otolaryngology22 (5): 343–8. doi:10.1053/ajot.2001.26495. PMID11562886.
^Nakamura Y, Yashiro M, Uehara R, Oki I, Watanabe M, Yanagawa H (2008). "Monthly observation of the number of patients with Kawasaki disease and its incidence rates in Japan: chronological and geographical observation from nationwide surveys". J Epidemiol18 (6): 273–9. doi:10.2188/jea.JE2008030. PMID19075496.
^Oates-Whitehead RM, Baumer JH, Haines L et al. (2003). Intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of Kawasaki disease in children. In Baumer, J Harry. "Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD004000. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004000. PMID14584002.
^Fujiwara T, Fujiwara H, Hamashima Y (1987). "Size of coronary aneurysm as a determinant factor of the prognosis in Kawasaki disease: clinicopathologic study of coronary aneurysms". Progress in Clinical and Biological Research250: 519–20. PMID3423060.
^Tatara K, Kusakawa S (November 1987). "Long-term prognosis of giant coronary aneurysm in Kawasaki disease: an angiographic study". The Journal of Pediatrics111 (5): 705–10. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(87)80246-9. PMID3668739.
^Akagi T, Ogawa S, Ino T, et al. (August 2000). "Catheter interventional treatment in Kawasaki disease: A report from the Japanese Pediatric Interventional Cardiology Investigation group". The Journal of Pediatrics137 (2): 181–6. doi:10.1067/mpd.2000.107164. PMID10931409.
^Kawasaki T (March 1967). "[Acute febrile mucocutaneous syndrome with lymphoid involvement with specific desquamation of the fingers and toes in children]". [[Arerugī = [Allergy]]] (in Japanese) 16 (3): 178–222. PMID6062087.
^Yamamoto T, Oya T, Watanabe A, et al. Clinical features of Kawasaki disease [in Japanese] Shonika Rinsho (Jpn J Pediatr) 1968;21:291–297.
^Kawasaki T, Kosaki F, Okawa S, Shigematsu I, Yanagawa H (September 1974). "A new infantile acute febrile mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (MLNS) prevailing in Japan". Pediatrics54 (3): 271–6. PMID4153258.
^Gee S J. Cases of morbid anatomy. St Bartholomew's Hosp Rep. 1871;7:141–148.
^Taubert K A, Rowley A H, Shulman S T. A 10 year (1984–1993) United States hospital survey of Kawasaki disease. In: Kato H, editor. Kawasaki disease. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science B. V.; 1995. pp. 34–38.