Mu (letter)

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Mu uc lc.svg
Greek alphabet
ΑαAlphaΝνNu
ΒβBetaΞξXi
ΓγGammaΟοOmicron
ΔδDeltaΠπPi
ΕεEpsilonΡρRho
ΖζZetaΣσςSigma
ΗηEtaΤτTau
ΘθThetaΥυUpsilon
ΙιIotaΦφPhi
ΚκKappaΧχChi
ΛλLambdaΨψPsi
ΜμMuΩωOmega
History
Archaic local variants
  • Digamma
  • Heta
  • San
  • Koppa
  • Sampi
  • Tsan
Numerals
ϛ (6)
ϟ (90)
ϡ (900)
In other languages
Scientific symbols

 
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Mu uc lc.svg
Greek alphabet
ΑαAlphaΝνNu
ΒβBetaΞξXi
ΓγGammaΟοOmicron
ΔδDeltaΠπPi
ΕεEpsilonΡρRho
ΖζZetaΣσςSigma
ΗηEtaΤτTau
ΘθThetaΥυUpsilon
ΙιIotaΦφPhi
ΚκKappaΧχChi
ΛλLambdaΨψPsi
ΜμMuΩωOmega
History
Archaic local variants
  • Digamma
  • Heta
  • San
  • Koppa
  • Sampi
  • Tsan
Numerals
ϛ (6)
ϟ (90)
ϡ (900)
In other languages
Scientific symbols

Mu (uppercase Μ, lowercase μ; Ancient Greek μῦ [mŷː], Modern Greek μι or μυ [mi]) is the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 40. Mu was derived from the Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol for water (𓈖), which had been simplified by the Phoenicians and named after their word for water, to becomePhoenician mem.svg(mem). Letters that arose from mu include the Roman M and the Cyrillic М.

Names[edit]

Ancient Greek[edit]

In Ancient Greek, the name of the letter was written μῦ and pronounced [mŷː].

Modern Greek[edit]

In Modern Greek, the letter is spelled μι and pronounced [mi]. In monotonic orthography, the ancient version is written with an acute accent instead of a circumflex: μύ.

Use as symbol[edit]

The lowercase letter mu (μ) is used as a special symbol in many academic fields. The uppercase mu is not used, since it is normally identical to Latin M.

Measurement[edit]

Mathematics[edit]

This is not exhaustive, since any Greek letter may be used freely as a variable name.

Physics and engineering[edit]

In classical physics and engineering:

In particle physics:

In thermodynamics:

Computer Science[edit]

in Evolutionary Algorithm:

Chemistry[edit]

In chemistry:

Meat Science[edit]

unit to express ionic strength, the total of all anions and cations in muscle tissue, or added through salts and phosphates

Pharmacology[edit]

In pharmacology:

Orbital mechanics[edit]

In orbital mechanics:

Music[edit]

Software[edit]

In application names:

Cameras[edit]

The Olympus Corporation manufactures a series of digital cameras called Olympus µ[mju:][3] (known as Olympus Stylus in North America)

Linguistics[edit]

In phonology, it often stands for mora. In syntax, μP (mu phrase) can be used as the name for a functional projection.[4]

Character Encodings[edit]

CharacterΜμµ
Unicode nameGREEK CAPITAL LETTER MUGREEK SMALL LETTER MUMICRO SIGNCOPTIC CAPITAL LETTER MICOPTIC SMALL LETTER MI
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode924U+039C956U+03BC181U+00B511416U+2C9811417U+2C99
UTF-8206 156CE 9C206 188CE BC194 181C2 B5226 178 152E2 B2 98226 178 153E2 B2 99
Numeric character referenceΜΜμμµµⲘⲘⲙⲙ
Named character referenceΜμµ
DOS Greek1398B163A3
DOS Greek-2183B7230E6
Windows 1253204CC236EC
TeX\mu

[5]

Character𝚳𝛍𝛭𝜇𝜧𝝁
Unicode nameMATHEMATICAL BOLD
CAPITAL MU
MATHEMATICAL BOLD
SMALL MU
MATHEMATICAL ITALIC
CAPITAL MU
MATHEMATICAL ITALIC
SMALL MU
MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC
CAPITAL MU
MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC
SMALL MU
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode120499U+1D6B3120525U+1D6CD120557U+1D6ED120583U+1D707120615U+1D727120641U+1D741
UTF-8240 157 154 179F0 9D 9A B3240 157 155 141F0 9D 9B 8D240 157 155 173F0 9D 9B AD240 157 156 135F0 9D 9C 87240 157 156 167F0 9D 9C A7240 157 157 129F0 9D 9D 81
UTF-1655349 57011D835 DEB355349 57037D835 DECD55349 57069D835 DEED55349 57095D835 DF0755349 57127D835 DF2755349 57153D835 DF41
Numeric character reference𝚳𝚳𝛍𝛍𝛭𝛭𝜇𝜇𝜧𝜧𝝁𝝁
Character𝝡𝝻𝞛𝞵
Unicode nameMATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD CAPITAL MU
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD SMALL MU
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD ITALIC CAPITAL MU
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD ITALIC SMALL MU
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode120673U+1D761120699U+1D77B120731U+1D79B120757U+1D7B5
UTF-8240 157 157 161F0 9D 9D A1240 157 157 187F0 9D 9D BB240 157 158 155F0 9D 9E 9B240 157 158 181F0 9D 9E B5
UTF-1655349 57185D835 DF6155349 57211D835 DF7B55349 57243D835 DF9B55349 57269D835 DFB5
Numeric character reference𝝡𝝡𝝻𝝻𝞛𝞛𝞵𝞵

These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style.

In Popular Culture[edit]

Gaming[edit]

In the online game RuneScape, entering this character once caused a bug that would force other nearby players to log out, which was abused to great effect by those in pvp areas. It has since been patched, and, like all bug abuse, is against the runescape terms of service.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ballou, Glen (1987). Handbook for Sound Engineers: The New Audio Cyclopedia (1 ed.). Howard W. Sams Co. p. 250. ISBN 0-672-21983-2. "Amplification factor or voltage gain is the amount the signal at the control grid is increased in amplitude after passing through the tube, which is also referred to as the Greek letter μ (mu) or voltage gain (Vg) of the tube." 
  2. ^ Oliver, Michael. "A parametric analysis of the start-up procedure and flight characteristiscs of a gliding autogyro" page 43. MIT Aero, February 2005. Accessed: December 2013.
  3. ^ Olympus History : µ[mju:] (Stylus) Series
  4. ^ Johnson, Kyle (1991). "Object Positions". Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 9 (4): 577–636. doi:10.1007/BF00134751. 
  5. ^ Unicode Code Charts: Greek and Coptic (Range: 0370-03FF)
  6. ^ μ glitch:Template:Http://youtu.be/F265zjwaE2E?t=9m49s