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The Mosaic Covenant (named after Moses), also known as the Sinaitic Covenant (named after the biblical Mount Sinai), refers to a biblical covenant between God and the biblical Israelites, including their proselytes. The establishment and stipulations of the Mosaic Covenant are recorded in the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, which are traditionally attributed to Mosaic authorship and collectively called the Torah, and this covenant is sometimes also referred to as the Law of Moses or Mosaic Law or the 613 Mitzvot.
The Mosaic Covenant played a role in defining the Israelite kingdom (c.1220-c.930 BCE), and subsequently the southern Kingdom of Judah (c.930-c.587 BCE) and northern Kingdom of Israel (c.930-c.720 BCE), and Yehud Medinata (c.539-c.333 BCE), and the Hasmonean Kingdom (140-37 BCE), and the Bar Kokhba revolt (132-136 CE), and Rabbinic Judaism c.2nd century to the present.
Rabbinic Judaism asserts that the Mosaic covenant was presented to the Jewish people and converts to Judaism (which includes the biblical proselytes) and does not apply to Gentiles, with the notable exception of the Seven Laws of Noah which apply to all people.
The Mosaic Covenant, which Christians generally call the "Old Covenant", in contrast to the New Covenant, has played an important role in the shaping of Christianity and been the source of serious dispute and controversy since its inception, such as Jesus' expounding of the Law during his Sermon on the Mount, the circumcision controversy in early Christianity, and the Incident at Antioch which has led scholars to dispute the relationship between Paul of Tarsus and Judaism. The Book of Acts recorded that after the ascension of Jesus, that as the first Christian martyr Stephen was killed in a controversy over which he was accused of speaking against the Jerusalem Temple and the Mosaic Law, Act 6:8-14. Later, in Acts 15:1-21, the Council of Jerusalem addressed the circumcision controversy in early Christianity.